Neoneura

Phantom crane fly Ptychoptera quadrifasciata, copyright John F. Carr.


Belongs within: Diptera.
Contains: Bibionomorpha, Brachycera, Psychodomorpha, Culicomorpha.

The Neoneura is a clade containing the majority of flies except for the basal tipulomorphs. It is characterised by having vein 1A distally reduced and not reaching the margin of the wing, and the arolium replaced by an empodium (Blagoderov et al. 2002). Basal lineages in the Neoneura include the Ptychopteridae, phantom crane flies, a group of long-legged flies with aquatic larvae found mostly in cooler regions.

<==Neoneura
    |--Neodiptera [Axymyiiformia, Perissommatoidea] GE05
    |    |--+--Bibionomorpha WT11
    |    |  `--Brachycera WT11
    |    `--+--Boholdoyidae BLM02
    |       `--Perissommatidae WT11
    |            |--Palaeoperissomma BLM02
    |            `--Perissomma mcalpinei WT11
    `--+--+--Psychodomorpha WT11
       |  `--Culicomorpha GE05
       `--+--+--Rhaetania Krzemiński & Krzemińska 2002 KK02 [Rhaetaniidae GE05]
          |  |    `--*R. dianae Krzemiński & Krzemińska 2002 KK02
          |  `--Tillyardiptera KK02 [Tillyardipteridae GE05]
          |       `--T. prima KK02
          `--+--Eoptychopteridae [Architendipedidae] GE05
             |    |--Bolboia mira S02
             |    |--Crenoptychoptera S02
             |    `--Leptychoptera GE05
             `--Ptychopteridae [Ptychopteroidea, Ptychopteromorpha] WT11
                  |  i. s.: Zhiganka S02
                  |         Eolimnobia geinitzi A81
                  |--Ptychoptera [Ptychopterinae] A81
                  |    |--P. deleta A81
                  |    |--P. lenis A81
                  |    `--P. quadrifasciata M90
                  `--Bittacomorphinae A81
                       |--Bittacomorpha clavipes M90
                       `--Bittacomorphella A81
                            |--B. jonesi A81
                            `--B. miocenica A81

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A81] Alexander, C. P. 1981. Ptychopteridae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1, pp. 325-328. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[BLM02] Blagoderov, V. A., E. D. Lukashevich & M. B. Mostovski. 2002. Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The true flies (=Muscida Laicharting, 1781). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 227-240. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[KK02] Krzemiński, W., & E. Krzemińska. 2002. Rhaetaniidae, a new family of the Diptera from the Upper Triassic of Great Britain (Diptera: Nematocera). Annales Zoologici 52 (2): 211-213.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211-1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Ecological history of the aquatic insects. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 388-426. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690-5695.

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