Drosophila (Drosophila)

Drosophila virilis, photographed by Darren J. Obbard.

Belongs within: Drosophilidae.

Drosophila subgenus Drosophila is one of the major recognised subdivisions of the large genus Drosophila. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that some taxa recognised as separate genera are nested within this subgenus (Robe et al. 2005).

Characters (from Singh et al. 2004): Gena often broad; second oral bristle large; prescutellar acrostichals not, or barely, enlarged; propleural bristle absent; apical bands on anterior abdominal tergites, when present, usually interrupted in midline; usually rather large species.

<==Drosophila (Drosophila)
    |--+--+--D. (D.) nannoptera RV05
    |  |  `--D. (D.) pallidipennis RV05
    |  |       |--D. p. pallidipennis D51
    |  |       `--D. p. centralis D51
    |  `--+--+--D. (D.) robusta RV05
    |     |  `--D. (D.) virilis RV05
    |     `--+--+--+--D. (D.) annulimana RV05
    |        |  |  `--D. (D.) aracatacas RV05
    |        |  `--+--D. (D.) cestri RV05
    |        |     |--D. (D.) flavopilosa RV05
    |        |     `--D. (D.) incompta RV05
    |        `--+--D. (D.) canalinea RV05
    |           `--+--+--D. (D.) camargoi RV05
    |              |  `--D. (D.) dreyfusi RV05
    |              `--+--+--D. (D.) mercatorum RV05
    |                 |  `--+--+--D. (D.) eohydei RV05
    |                 |     |  `--D. (D.) hydei RV05
    |                 |     `--+--D. (D.) buzzati RV05
    |                 |        `--+--D. (D.) borborema RV05
    |                 |           `--D. (D.) serido RV05
    |                 `--+--D. (D.) viracochi RV05
    |                    `--+--+--D. (D.) gaucha RV05
    |                       |  `--D. (D.) pavani RV05
    |                       `--+--D. (D.) mesophragmatica RV05
    |                          `--+--D. (D.) brncici RV05
    |                             `--D. (D.) gasici RV05
    `--+--+--Liodrosophila aerea RV05
       |  `--Zaprionus RV05
       |       |--Z. indianus RV05
       |       `--Z. tuberculatus RV05
       `--+--+--Samoaia leonensis RV05
          |  `--Hirtodrosophila Duda 1923 RV05, SDF04 [=Dasydrosophila Duda 1925 SDF04]
          |       |--*H. latifrontata (Fronta-Pessoa 1945) (see below for synonymy) SDF04
          |       `--H. pictiventris RV05
          `--+--D. (D.) immigrans Sturtevant 1921 RV05, SDF04
             `--+--+--D. (D.) phalerata RV05
                |  `--D. (D.) quinaria RV05
                `--+--+--*D. (D.) funebris (Fabricius 1787) SDF04, RV05, SDF04 [=Musca funebris SDF04]
                   |  `--+--D. (D.) putrida RV05
                   |     `--D. (D.) testacea RV05
                   `--+--D. (D.) nappae [incl. D. angustibucca] RV05
                      `--+--+--D. (D.) polymorpha RV05
                         |  `--+--D. (D.) cardini RV05
                         |     `--+--D. (D.) cardinoides RV05
                         |        `--D. (D.) neocardini RV05
                         `--+--+--D. (D.) tripunctata RV05
                            |  `--+--D. (D.) bandeirantorum RV05
                            |     `--D. (D.) mediopunctata RV05
                            `--+--+--D. (D.) calloptera RV05
                               |  `--+--D. (D.) paramediostriata RV05
                               |     `--+--D. (D.) griseolineata RV05
                               |        `--D. (D.) maculifrons RV05
                               `--+--D. (D.) mediostriata [incl. D. crocina] RV05
                                  `--+--D. (D.) ornatifrons RV05
                                     `--+--D. (D.) guaru RV05
                                        `--D. (D.) subbadia RV05

Drosophila (Drosophila) incertae sedis:
  D. (D.) aldrichi CE79
  D. (D.) americana CE79
    |--D. a. americana CE79
    `--D. a. texana CE79
  D. (D.) analspina Singh & Negi 1995 SDF04
  D. (D.) arizonensis CE79
  D. (D.) bageshwarensis Singh, Dash & Fartyal 2004 SDF04
  D. (D.) bifurca CE79
  D. (D.) bishti Singh & Negi 1995 SDF04
  D. (D.) elongata Singh, Dash & Fartyal 2004 SDF04
  D. (D.) ezoana CE79
  D. (D.) flavomontana CE79
  D. (D.) fulvimacula CE79
  D. (D.) guaramunu RV05
  D. (D.) guarani RV05
  D. (D.) hexaspina Singh, Dash & Fartyal 2004 SDF04
  D. (D.) khansuensis Singh, Dash & Fartyal 2004 SDF04
  D. (D.) kunzei CE79
  D. (D.) lacertosa Okada 1956 SDF04
  D. (D.) lacicola CE79
  D. (D.) littoralis CE79
  D. (D.) lummei CE79
  D. (D.) medioimpressa RV05
  D. (D.) melanopalpa CE79
  D. (D.) meridiana CE79
  D. (D.) micromelanica CE79
  D. (D.) mohavensis CE79
  D. (D.) montana CE79
    |--D. m. montana CE79
    `--D. m. ovivororum CE79
  D. (D.) mulleri CE79
  D. (D.) nainitalensis Singh & Bhatt 1988 SDF04
  D. (D.) nasuta Lamb 1914 SDF04
  D. (D.) navajoa CE79
  D. (D.) neohydei CE79
  D. (D.) nigrohydei RV05
  D. (D.) novamexicana CE79
  D. (D.) pachea CE79
  D. (D.) paharpaniensis Singh, Dash & Fartyal 2004 SDF04
  D. (D.) painii Singh & Negi 1995 SDF04
  D. (D.) paramarginata Singh, Dash & Fartyal 2004 SDF04
  D. (D.) paranaensis CE79
  D. (D.) paunai Singh & Negi 1989 SDF04
  D. (D.) repleta Wollaston 1858 SDF04
  D. (D.) serrata Singh, Dash & Fartyal 2004 SDF04
  D. (D.) sulfurigaster Duda 1923 SDF04
  D. (D.) surangensis Singh, Dash & Fartyal 2004 SDF04
  D. (D.) trisetosa Okada 1966 SDF04
  D. (D.) trizonata Okada 1966 SDF04
  0--D. (D.) mediopicta RV05
  `--+--+--D. (D.) cuaso RV05
     |  `--D. (D.) metzii RV05
     `--+--D. (D.) mediosignata RV05
        `--D. (D.) paraguayensis RV05

*Hirtodrosophila latifrontata (Fronta-Pessoa 1945) [=Drosophila carinata Duda 1923 non Grimshaw 1901, D. (*Hirtodrosophila) latifrontata] SDF04

*Type species of generic name indicated


[CE79] Coyne, J. A., W. F. Eanes, J. A. M. Ramshaw & R. K. Koehn. 1979. Electrophoretic heterogeneity of α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase among many species of Drosophila. Systematic Zoology 28 (2): 164-175.

[D51] Dobzhansky, T. 1951. Genetics and the Origin of Species, 3rd ed. Columbia University Press: New York.

[RV05] Robe, L. J., V. L. S. Valente, M. Budnik & E. L. S. Loreto. 2005. Molecular phylogeny of the subgenus Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae) with an emphasis on Neotropical species and groups: a nuclear versus mitochondrial gene approach. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 623-640.

[SDF04] Singh, B. K., S. Dash & R. S. Fartyal. 2004. Revision of the species of the subgenus Drosophila (Drosophila) of the Kumaon region, India, with the description of eight new species. Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 163-176.

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