Scaptodrosophila sp., photographed by S. E. Thorpe.

Belongs within: Ephydroidea.
Contains: Drosophila.

The Drosophilidae are a family of generally small flies, often feeding on fungi as larvae. Larvae of the genus Scaptomyza are leaf miners, and those of many Steganinae are predators on Sternorrhyncha. Most drosophilids have plumes on both sides of the antennal arista, and three pairs of fronto-orbital bristles with the anterior pair proclinate and the remainder reclinate (Grimaldi 2010). They have been divided between two subfamilies, with the Steganinae possessing a pair of large prescutellar setae and two large katepisternal setae whereas Drosophilinae have no prescutellar setae and one large and one small katepisternal seta (Grimaldi 2010). The great majority of species of Drosophilinae are currently included in the (probably non-monophyletic) genus Drosophila.

Characters (from Grimaldi 2010, Colless & McAlpine 1991): Antennal arisa usually plumose, sometimes with just ventral branches absent, occasionally with all branches of arista absent; antennal segment 2 cap-like. Frons with three pairs of fronto-orbital setae, anterior-most pair proclinate, rear two pairs reclinate; anterior reclinates often small, sometimes reduced or lost; postverticals more or less convergent. Costa broken beyond hm as well as Sc; Sc obsolete apically, free from R1. Mesopleural bristle absent.

    |--Steganinae G10
    |    |  i. s.: Stegana coleoptrata G10, W87
    |    |         Amiota (Sinophthalmus) picta G10, W87
    |    |         Rhinoleucophenga G10
    |    |           |--R. bivisualis [=Gitona bivisualis] G10
    |    |           `--R. obesa W87
    |    |         Pseudocacoxenus lineatifrons G10
    |    |         Hyalistata G10
    |    |--Pseudiastata L88
    |    `--+--Mayagueza L88
    |       `--Acletoxenus L88
    `--Drosophilinae G10
         |--Drosophila G10
         |--Microdrosophila quadrata G10, W87
         |--Zapriothrica G10
         |--Palmophila G10
         |--Apacrochaeta G10
         |--Paramycodrosophila G10
         |--Mycodrosophila claytonae G10, W87
         |--Paraliodrosophila G10
         |--Neotanygastrella wheeleri Grimaldi 1987 G10, P92
         |--Diathoneura G10
         |--Scaptomyza fuscitarsus G10, M83
         |--Laccodrosophila G10
         |    |--L. flavescens G10
         |    `--L. nudiseta G10
         |--Chymomyza G10
         |    |--C. aldrichii T81
         |    |--C. amoena W87
         |    `--C. primaeva Grimaldi 1987 P92
         |--Zygothrica [incl. Neorhinoleucophenga] G10
         |    |--Z. bilineata L88
         |    |--Z. dispar G10
         |    `--Z. samoaensis L88
         |--Scaptodrosophila Duda 1923 G10, SDF04
         |    |--*S. scaptomyzoidea Duda 1923 SDF04
         |    |--S. brooksae G10
         |    `--S. latifasciaeformis G10
         `--Cladochaeta G10
              |--C. albifrons GE05
              |--C. mexinversa GE05
              |--C. psychotria G10
              |--C. trauma GE05
              `--C. venebula GE05

Drosophilidae incertae sedis:
  Titanochaeta GE05
  Paraleucophenga Hendel 1914 FS04
    |--*P. invicta (Walker 1857) [=Leucophenga invicta] FS04
    |--P. emeiensis (Sidorenko 1998) FS04
    |--P. javana (Okada 1988) FS04
    |--P. neojavanai Singh & Negi 1992 FS04
    |--P. semiplunata (Duda 1939) FS04
    |--P. shanyinensis (Chen & Toda 1994) FS04
    |--P. shimai (Okada 1988) FS04
    `--P. todai Fartyal & Singh 2004 FS04
  Palmomyia G10
  Leucophenga W87
    |--L. albofasciata CM91
    `--L. niveifasciata CM70
  Paracacoxenus guttatus W87
  *Gitona distigma W87
  Electrophortica succini Hennig 1965 P92
  Dettopsomyia nigrovittata W87
  Trachyleucophenga W87
  Lissocephala O98
  Miomyia Grimaldi 1987 P92
  Protochymomyza Grimaldi 1987 P92
    `--P. miocena P92

*Type species of generic name indicated


[CM70] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1970. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 656–740. Melbourne University Press.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[FS04] Fartyal, R. S., & B. K. Singh. 2004. A new species of the genus Paraleucophenga from the Kumaon region, India (Insecta, Diptera, Drosophilidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 177–180.

[G10] Grimaldi, D. 2010. Drosophilidae (small fruit flies, pomace flies, vinegar flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1197–1206. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[L88] Liebherr, J. K. 1988. General patterns in West Indian insects, and graphical biogeographic analysis of some circum-Caribbean Platynus beetles (Carabidae). Systematic Zoology 37 (4): 385–409.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[SDF04] Singh, B. K., S. Dash & R. S. Fartyal. 2004. Revision of the species of the subgenus Drosophila (Drosophila) of the Kumaon region, India, with the description of eight new species. Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 163–176.

[T81] Teskey, H. J. 1981. Key to families—larvae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 125–147. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[W87] Wheeler, M. R. 1987. Drosophilidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1011–1018. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

Last updated: 11 July 2021.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="http://www.fieldofscience.com/">FoS</a> = FoS