Drosophilidae

Drosophila busckii, photographed by Kim van de Linde.


Belongs within: Ephydroidea.
Contains: Drosophila (Drosophila), Drosophila (Sophophora).

The Drosophilidae is a family of generally small flies, often feeding on fungi as larvae. The great majority of species are currently included in the (probably non-monophyletic) genus Drosophila.

Characters (from Colless & McAlpine 1991): Antennal segment 2 cap-like. Proclinate fronto-orbital bristles generally present; postverticals more or less convergent. Costa broken beyond hm as well as Sc; Sc obsolete apically, free from R1. Mesopleural bristle absent.

Drosophilidae
    |--Scaptomyza fuscitarsus M83
    |--Titanochaeta GE05
    |--Microdrosophila quadrata M90
    |--Chymomyza amoena M90
    |--Scaptodrosophila Duda 1923 RV05, SDF04
    |    |--*S. scaptomyzoidea Duda 1923 SDF04
    |    `--S. latifasciaeformis RV05
    |--Zygothrica GE05
    |    |--Z. bilineata L88
    |    |--Z. dispar GE05
    |    `--Z. samoaensis L88
    |--+--Pseudiastata L88
    |  `--+--Mayagueza L88
    |     `--Acletoxenus L88
    |--Cladochaeta GE05
    |    |--C. albifrons GE05
    |    |--C. mexinversa GE05
    |    |--C. trauma GE05
    |    `--C. venebula GE05
    |--Paraleucophenga Hendel 1914 FS04
    |    |--*P. invicta (Walker 1857) [=Leucophenga invicta] FS04
    |    |--P. emeiensis (Sidorenko 1998) FS04
    |    |--P. javana (Okada 1988) FS04
    |    |--P. neojavanai Singh & Negi 1992 FS04
    |    |--P. semiplunata (Duda 1939) FS04
    |    |--P. shanyinensis (Chen & Toda 1994) FS04
    |    |--P. shimai (Okada 1988) FS04
    |    `--P. todai Fartyal & Singh 2004 FS04
    `--Drosophila Fallén 1823 (see below for synonymy) SDF04
         |  i. s.: D. artificialis D37
         |         D. colorata M90
         |         D. earlei D37
         |         D. grimshawi WT11
         |         D. guttifera M47
         |         D. heteroneura C96
         |         *Tanygastrella’ hypopygialis Duda 1924 SDF04
         |         D. (Phalodoris) lebanonensis CE79
         |         D. macrospina D51
         |           |--D. m. macrospina D51
         |           |--D. m. limpiensis D51
         |           `--D. m. ohioensis D51
         |         *Adrosophila’ minuta Séguy 1938 SDF04
         |         *Spuriostyloptera’ multipunctata Duda 1923 SDF04
         |         D. nasutoides LG91
         |         D. neorepleta D51
         |         D. nigrospiracula S85
         |         D. orientacea GJR97
         |         D. planitibia G91
         |         D. prosaltans D51
         |         D. quadrilineata de Meijere 1911 [=*Chaetodrosophilella quadrilineata] SDF04
         |         D. saltans LG91
         |         D. silvestris VD94
         |         D. sturtevanti D51
         |         D. subarctica CE79
         |         D. sulcata D37
         |         D. transversa D37
         |         D. uvarum B88
         |         D. vibrissina D37
         |         D. victoria JS71
         |         D. (Paradrosophila Duda 1923) SDF04
         |           `--D. (*P.) pictipennis Kertész 1901 SDF04
         |         D. (Spinulophila Duda 1923) SDF04
         |           `--D. (*S.) signata (Duda 1923) [=*Spinulophila signata] SDF04
         |--D. (Dorsilopha) busckii RV05
         `--+--D. (Drosophila) RV05
            `--D. (Sophophora) RV05

Drosophila Fallén 1823 [incl. Adrosophila Séguy 1938, Chaetodrosophilella Duda 1923, Chaetodrosophila (l. c.), Spuriostyloptera Duda 1923, Tanygastrella Duda 1924; Drosophilinae] SDF04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[C96] Campbell, N. A. 1996. Biology (4th ed.) The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc.: Menlo Park (California).

Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia, pp. 717-786. Melbourne University Press.

[CE79] Coyne, J. A., W. F. Eanes, J. A. M. Ramshaw & R. K. Koehn. 1979. Electrophoretic heterogeneity of α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase among many species of Drosophila. Systematic Zoology 28 (2): 164-175.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[D51] Dobzhansky, T. 1951. Genetics and the Origin of Species, 3rd ed. Columbia University Press: New York.

[FS04] Fartyal, R. S., & B. K. Singh. 2004. A new species of the genus Paraleucophenga from the Kumaon region, India (Insecta, Diptera, Drosophilidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 177-180.

[GJR97] Giordano, R., J. J. Jackson & H. M. Robertson. 1997. The role of Wolbachia bacteria in reproductive incompatibilities and hybrid zones of Diabrotica beetles and Gryllus crickets. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 94: 11439-11444.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[G91] Groves, C. P. 1991. A Theory of Human and Primate Evolution, revised ed. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[JS71] Johnson, W. E. & R. K. Selander. 1971. Protein variation and systematics in kangaroo rats (genus Dipodomys). Systematic Zoology 20 (4): 377-405.

[LG91] Li, W.-H., & D. Graur. 1991. Fundamentals of Molecular Evolution. Sinauer: Sunderland (MA).

[L88] Liebherr, J. K. 1988. General patterns in West Indian insects, and graphical biogeographic analysis of some circum-Caribbean Platynus beetles (Carabidae). Systematic Zoology 37 (4): 385-409.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: An annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1-98.

[M47] Mayr, E. 1947. Ecological factors in speciation. Evolution 1: 263-288.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211-1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[RV05] Robe, L. J., V. L. S. Valente, M. Budnik & E. L. S. Loreto. 2005. Molecular phylogeny of the subgenus Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae) with an emphasis on Neotropical species and groups: a nuclear versus mitochondrial gene approach. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 623-640.

[SDF04] Singh, B. K., S. Dash & R. S. Fartyal. 2004. Revision of the species of the subgenus Drosophila (Drosophila) of the Kumaon region, India, with the description of eight new species. Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 163-176.

[S85] Slatkin, M. 1985. Gene flow in natural populations. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 16: 393-430.

[VD94] Vogler, A. P., & R. Desalle. 1994. Diagnosing units of conservation management. Conservation Biology 8 (2): 354-363.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690-5695.

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