Sapromyza sp., copyright frogprince.

Belongs within: Lauxanioidea.
Contains: Trigonometopini.

The Lauxaniidae are a family of flies whose larvae mostly live in fallen leaves and other rotting vegetation. Several genera include nidicolous species, feeding on decaying matter in bird nests. Adults graze on fungi growing on fallen leaves (Gaimari & Silva 2010).

The internal classification of the family is somewhat poorly established. The Eurychoromyiinae have previously been recognised as a separate family due to a reduction in setation but examination at high magnification has found that a number of 'lost' setae are present but greatly reduced. The Homoneurinae are characterised by wings with costal setulae reaching the apex of vein R4+5 whereas in Lauxaniinae they end shortly past vein R2+3; however, it seems likely that the 'Lauxaniinae' are paraphyletic to the Homoneurinae. Similarly, certain near-cosmopolitan genera such as Sapromyza and Homoneura may prove to comprise multiple distinct lineages when further revised (Gaimari & Silva 2010).

Characters (from Colless & McAlpine 1991): One or two fronto-orbital bristles; costa unbroken; Sc complete; Cu+1A discontinued well before margine; vein 2A generally visible beyond alula; anepisternite with one or two mesopleural bristles; tibiae with preapical dorsal bristles; sternite 1 well developed, sclerotised.

<==Lauxaniidae [Sapromyzidae]
    |--Lauxaniinae GS10
    |    |  i. s.: Lauxania GS10
    |    |           |--L. aenea RD77
    |    |           `--L. cylindricornis [=Micropeza (Lauxania) cylindricornis] G20
    |    `--Trigonometopini P07
    |--Sapromyza GS10 [Sapromyzinae K01]
    |    |--S. flavimana CM91
    |    |--S. frontalis GS10
    |    |--S. lupulina K01
    |    |--S. nigrans GS10
    |    |--S. picticornis GS10
    |    |--S. rotundicornis S87
    |    |--S. slossonae GS10
    |    |--S. sororia GS10
    |    `--S. vinnula GS10
    |--Homoneurinae GS10
    |    |--Trypetisoma GS10
    |    |    |--T. sticticum GS10
    |    |    `--T. zacatecasense GS10
    |    `--Homoneura GS10
    |         |  i. s.: H. bispina GS10
    |         |         H. proximella CM91
    |         |--H. (Homoneura) philadelphica GS10
    |         `--H. (Tarsohomoneura) GS10
    |              |--H. (T.) americana GS10
    |              `--H. (T.) ornatipes GS10
    `--Eurychoromyiinae [Eurychoromyiidae] GS10
         |--Eurychoromyia GS10
         |--Tauridion shewelli GS10
         |--Choryeuromyia senisma GS10
         |--Eurystratiomyia GS10
         |--Roryeuchomyia GS10
         |--Euryhendelimyia GS10
         `--Physegeniopsis GS10
              |--P. albeto GS10
              |--P. ankhoidea GS10
              `--P. hadrocara GS10

Lauxaniidae incertae sedis:
  Noonamyia O98 [Noonamyiini P07]
  Paranomina Hendel 1907 P07
  Lyciella S87
    |--L. decipiens WT11
    `--L. discolor S87
  Cerastocara ZS10
  Cephaloconus ZS10
  Poecilohetarus ZS10
  Neogriphoneura GS10
    |--N. laevifrons GS10
    |--N. sordida GS10
    |--N. striatifrons GS10
    |--N. striga GS10
    |--N. tertia GS10
    `--N. timida GS10
  Siphonophysa albipes GS10
  Neodeceia GS10
    |--N. cineracea GS10
    `--N. exul GS10
  Hypagoga GS10
  Oncodometopus umbrosus GS10
  Tricholauxania GS10
  Pseudocalliope GS10
    |--P. eucephala GS10
    |--P. flaviceps GS10
    `--P. longicornis S87
  Poecilominettia macula GS10
  Meiosimyza GS10
  Calliopum quadrisetosum GS10
  Pseudogriphoneura GS10
  Camptoprosopella borealis GS10
  Poecilolycia serrata GS10
  Melanomyza GS10
    |--M. (Melanomyza) GS10
    |    |--M. (M.) gracilipes GS10
    |    `--M. (M.) proana GS10
    `--M. (Lauxaniella) GS10
         |--‘Lauxaniella’ femoralis M81
         `--M. (L.) manuleata GS10
  Trivialia GS10
    |--T. celeste GS10
    |--T. fuscocapitata GS10
    |--T. nigroapicata GS10
    `--T. puella GS10
  Xenochaetina GS10
    |--X. flavipennis GS10
    |--X. muscaria GS10
    `--X. pallida GS10
  Physoclypeus GS10
    |--P. coquilletti GS10
    |--P. farinosus GS10
    |--P. hendeli GS10
    |--P. unimaculatus GS10
    `--P. zebrinus GS10
  Xeniconeura costalis GS10
  Trisapromyza vittigera GS10
  Allominettia GS10
    |--A. approximata GS10
    |--A. assimilis GS10
    `--A. geniseta GS10
  Mallochomyza citreifrons GS10
  Steganolauxania latipennis GS10
  Cephalella fumipennis GS10
  Triconopsis GS10
  Asilostoma GS10
    |--A. atriceps GS10
    |--A. flavifacies GS10
    |--A. pallipes GS10
    `--A. palpalis GS10
  Pachyopella GS10
    |--P. flavida GS10
    `--P. ornata GS10
  Stenolauxania GS10
    |--S. nubecula GS10
    `--S. striata GS10
  Minettia [Minettiinae] GS10
    |--M. aibonito GS10
    |--M. flaveola GS10
    |--M. hubbardii GS10
    `--M. lupulina GS10
  Xenopterella GS10
    |--X. beameri GS10
    `--X. obliqua GS10
  Baliopteridion GS10
  Hirtodeceia GS10
  Paracestrotus GS10
  Deutominettia GS10
    |--D. bimaculata GS10
    `--D. geniseta S87
  Scutominettia GS10
    |--S. innuba GS10
    `--S. mallochi GS10
  Griphoneura GS10
  Chaetominettia GS10
    |--C. corollae GS10
    `--C. spinitibia GS10
  Dryomyzothea GS10
  Setulina GS10
    |--S. geminata GS10
    |--S. interjecta GS10
    |--S. prima GS10
    `--S. stata GS10
  Chaetocoelia GS10
    |--C. caloptera GS10
    |--C. distinctissima GS10
    `--C. pallans GS10
  Dryosapromyza GS10
  Sciosapromyza GS10
    |--S. coronata GS10
    |--S. ficulnea GS10
    `--S. tinctinervis GS10
  Pseudominettia platypeza GS10
  Agriphoneura GS10
  Eriurgus GS10
  Ocellominettia GS10
  Celypholauxania GS10
  Procrita pectinata GS10
  Blepharolauxania GS10
  Platygraphium penicillatum GS10
  Freyia nigrita GS10
  Physegenua GS10
  Neoxangelina ornata GS10
  Minilauxania bulbifacies GS10
  Ritaemyia GS10
  Scutolauxania GS10
  Neopachycerina GS10
  Gibbolauxania GS10
    |--G. aliena GS10
    `--G. lateralis GS10
  Deceia GS10
  Marmarodeceia marmorata GS10
  Neominettia contigua GS10
  Depressa striatipennis CM91
  ‘Lonchaea’ senescens S87
  Eolausanites Hong 2002 H02
    `--*E. ellipticus (Hong 1981) [=Trypaneoides ellipticus] H02
  Chamaelauxania P92
  Hemilauxania P92

*Type species of generic name indicated


[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[GS10] Gaimari, S. D., & V. C. Silva. 2010. Lauxaniidae (lauxaniid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 971–995. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[H02] Hong Y. 2002. Amber Insect of China. Beijing Scientific and Technological Publishing House.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[M81] McAlpine, J. F. 1981. Morphology and terminology—adults. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 9–63. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[P07] Papp, L. 2007. A review of the Old World Trigonometopini Becker (Diptera: Lauxaniidae). Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 99: 129–169.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[S87] Shewell, G. E. 1987. Lauxaniidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 951–964. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

Last updated: 9 January 2021.

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