Tachinidae

Gymnosoma nudifrons, copyright Aleksandrs Balodis.


Belongs within: Oestroidea.
Contains: Dexiinae, Tachininae, Exoristinae, Axiniidae, Oestridae.

The Tachinidae are a group of flies with larvae that are endoparasitic on other arthropods. Members of the Tachinidae can generally be recognised by the presence of an enlarged subscutellum at the back of the thorax. The majority of species parasitise Coleoptera or Lepidoptera, but a wide range of hosts are known including Heteroptera, Hymenoptera, earwigs or even centipedes. Female tachinids do not have a piercing ovipositor; instead, larvae are usually laid on the host or amongst host habitat, and the larva burrows through the host cuticle or hatches from the egg after the host swallows it (Askew 1971).

Subfamilies within the Tachinidae are poorly defined with divisions often based on ecology rather than morphology. Species assigned to the Phasiinae are mostly parasites of Heteroptera; the subfamily otherwise lacks shared morphological characters (Wood 1987).

Characters (from Wood & Zumbado 2010): Small to large flies (body length 3-25 mm), extremely varied in shape and proportions. Frons of male either narrower than that of female and usually lacking proclinate orbital bristles, or about as wide as that of female and usually also with proclinate orbital bristles; first flagellomere of latter type usually much longer in male than in female, in some species bifurcate, trifurcate or multibranched. Arista usually bare, or short to long plumose. Eye usually with ommatrichia; ommatrichia usually longer in male than in female and often longer dorsally than ventrally. Ocelli and ocellar bristles usually present, the latter sometimes directed laterally (lateroclinate) or posteriorly (reclinate). Upper orbital bristles usually present, anterior one(s) reclinate, posteriormost sometimes lateroclinate. Occipital setae usually long and fine, delineated laterally by evenly spaced vertical row of stouter postoccipital bristles, either extending ventrally to meet lower cranial margin or curving forward on genal dilation, that may also have one or more large bristles. Vibrissa usually well developed, usually accompanied by one or more smaller bristles both below and above it. Face concave or convex, often protruding between and/or below vibrissae. Facial ridge, especially in species with long antennae, usually with row of erect bristles. Proboscis usually short and straight, with padlike labella, but may be long and curved, with small labella. Postpronotum with two or usually three major bristles in transverse row, sometimes preceded by fourth smaller bristle or with middle bristle displaced anteriorly. Postsutural supra-alar bristles typically three. Scutellum with one to four paires of bristles, lateral bristles sometimes duplicated. Subscutellum well developed, evenly rounded in profile. Posterior thoracic spiracle small, confined to region behind uppermost meral bristles, and well behind katepisternum, separated from latter by regular katepimeron. Meral bristles present. Vein M with distinct bend.

<==Tachinidae [Larvaevoridae, Phasiinae]
    |--+--Tachininae KP10
    |  `--+--Exoristinae WT11
    |     `--+--Phania funesta (Meigen 1824) WT11, KP10
    |        `--Axiniidae WT11
    `--+--Oestridae KP10
       `--Gymnosoma KP10
            |--G. amplifrons [=Cistogaster amplifrons] W87
            |--G. canadensis WZ10
            |--G. fuliginosum WZ10
            |--G. nitens Meigen 1824 KP10
            |--G. nudifrons Herting 1966 KP10
            `--G. ruficornis WZ10

Tachinidae incertae sedis:
  Protohystricia PPE03
  Plagiomyia longicornis M83
  Eucarcelia rutilla A71
  Trichopareia A71
  Rondanioestrus apivorus A71
  Chaetophleps setosa [incl. Neocelatoria ferox] A71
  Thrixion A71
  Centeter A71
    |--C. cinerea A71
    `--C. unicolor A71
  Eupeleteria magnicornis A71
  Thereseia A71
  Diplostichus janitrix A71
  Bigonicheta setipennis A71
  Trichopoda H91
    |--T. pennipes C81
    `--T. pilipes H91
  Diatraeophaga striatalis B88
  Koralliomyia portentosa B88
  Myiothiria fergusoni B88
  Rossimyiopsis whiteheadi Mesnil 1953 R00
  Perumyia embiaphaga Arnaud 1963 R00
  Dexiinae A71
  Senostoma ZS10
  Prodiaphania ZS10
  Froggattimyia G84
  Paropsivora G84
  Nearini C94
    |--Scomma gobica C94
    `--Neaera WZ10
         |--N. leucoptera WZ10
         `--N. mirabilis [=Acronarista mirabilis] W87
  Lophosia fasciata C94
  Macropodexia C94
  Ceromasia hybreas W87
  Phyrxe BM76
  Lydina BM76
  Masistylum W87
    |--M. arcuatum M81
    `--M. stenommatum W87
  Cleonice bigelowi W87
  Blepharomyia tibialis W87
  Uramya [Uramyiini] W87
    |--U. aldrichi W87
    `--U. halisidotae T81
  Oestrophasia WZ10
    |--O. clausa WZ10
    `--O. signifera WZ10
  Actinodoria argentea WZ10
  Trafoia arctica WZ10 [=Tenuirostra arctica W87]
  Clausicella politura WZ10
  Ginglymia acrirostris WZ10
  Dichocera CW09
    |--D. orientalis CW09
    |--D. robusta W87
    `--D. tridens M81
  Microphthalma disjuncta W87
  Billaea WZ10
    |--B. claripalpis P09
    `--B. satisfacta WZ10
  Ichneumonops mirabilis WZ10 [=Cylindromyia mirabilis W87]
  Smidtia fumiferanae BW09 [=Omotoma fumiferanae W87, Timavia fumiferanae W87, Winthemia fumiferanae BW09]
  Scotiptera BW09
  Cholomyia BW09
    |--C. inaequipes WZ10
    `--C. luteipennis WZ10
  Cordyligaster WZ10
    |--C. petiolata WZ10
    `--C. septentrionalis W87
  Alophora A71
  Phasia WZ10
    |--P. aldrichi W87
    |--P. diversa WZ10
    |--P. ecitonis BMW09
    `--P. fenestrata WZ10
  Paradidyma affinis WZ10
  *Borgmeiermyia brasiliana WZ10
  Athrycia cinerea WZ10
  Cyrtophleba WZ10
    |--C. coquilletti WZ10
    `--C. horrida WZ10
  Metaplagia WZ10
  Muscopteryx WZ10
    |--M. costalis [=Websteriana costalis] W87
    `--M. evexus [=Tarassophorus evexus] W87
  Penthosia satanica WZ10
  Gnadochaeta clistoides WZ10
  Pyrrhodexia WZ10
  Acronacantha nubilipennis WZ10
  Thelairodes WZ10
  Strongygaster WZ10
    |--S. globula WZ10
    `--S. triangulifera WZ10
  Leskia similis WZ10
  Beskia aelops WZ10
  Crocinosoma cornuale WZ10
  Neobrachelia [Parerigonini] WZ10
  Hemyda aurata WZ10
  Myiomima sarcophagina WZ10
  Gymnoclytia immaculata WZ10
  Campylocheta semiothisae WZ10
  Prosenoides flavipes WZ10
  Plagiomima similis WZ10
  Erythromelana WZ10
  Xanthomelanodes arcuatus WZ10
  Ischyrophaga WZ10
    |--I. ischyri WZ10
    `--I. polita [=Pseudochaetona polita] WZ10
  Minthoplagia setifrons WZ10
  Neomintho [Neominthoini] WZ10
    `--N. celeris WZ10
  Telothyria thecata [=Leskiopsis thecata] WZ10
  Leucostomatini WZ10
    |--Clairvillia WZ10
    |--Cinochira mitis WZ10, W87
    `--Leucostoma WZ10
         |--L. dapsilis [=Calyptrosomus dapsilis] W87
         `--L. simplex WZ10
  Thelairaporia WZ10
  Xanthodexia WZ10
  Phytomyptera tarsalis WZ10
  Chaetodoria WZ10
  Thelairodoriopsis WZ10
  Leptostylum WZ10
    |--*L. pulchellum WZ10
    `--L. leuconotum WZ10
  Italaspidea WZ10
  Micronychiops WZ10
  Chaetonopsis spinosa WZ10
  Polygaster egregia WZ10
  Spathidexia WZ10
    |--S. clemonsi WZ10
    `--S. elegans [=Minthodexiopsis elegans, Gymnopalpus elegans] W87
  Neosolieria sila W87
  Lixadmontia WZ10
  Pseudoviviania WZ10
  Thelyoxynops WZ10
  Lydinolydella rasilis WZ10
  Ophirion tersum WZ10
  Dolichocodia pretiosa [=Prorhynchops pretiosa] WZ10
  Mochlosoma WZ10
  Bibiomima handlirschi WZ10
  Euantha litturata WZ10
  Catharosia lustrans WZ10
  Euscopoliopteryx externa WZ10
  Oberonomyia palpalis WZ10
  Tropidopsiomorpha tropica WZ10
  Eudexia dreisbachi WZ10
  Trichodura WZ10
  Neosophia WZ10
  Meleterus WZ10
  Actinochaeta columbiae WZ10
  Megaprosopus regalis W87
  Stenodexia WZ10
  Phasiophyto fumifera WZ10
  Homogenia WZ10
  Trochiloleskia loriola WZ10
  Acaulona costata WZ10
  Xanthomelanopsis WZ10
  Polistiopsis mima WZ10
  Vanderwulpia atrophopodoides W87
  Itaplectops antennalis WZ10
  Icelia triquetra WZ10
  *Argyromima mirabilis WZ10
  Genea W87
    |--G. pavonacea W87
    |--G. robertsonii W87
    `--G. tenera W87
  Euclytia flava WZ10
  Arrhinactia WZ10
  Istochaeta aldrichi WZ10
  Euthelyconychia WZ10
  Clastoneura WZ10
  Embiomyia WZ10
  Chaetophthalmus CM91
  Chrysopasta elegans CM91
  Opesia atrata W87
  Tarassus W87
  Chaetoplagia atripennis W87
  Imitomyia sugens W87
  Freraea montana W87
  Rondania dimidiata W87
  Androeuryops W87
  Allophorocera W87
  Phasiops flavus W87
  Litophasia W87
  Chaetocrania antennalis W87
  Eucnephalia gonoides W87
  Onychogonia magna W87
  Euexorista futilis W87
  Erynnia condecens W87
  Eleodiphaga pollinosa W87
  Torosomyia parallela W87
  Oraphasmophaga pictipennis W87
  Asseclamyia sphenofrons W87
  Atactopsis reinhardi W87
  Diotrephes atriventris W87
  Chesippus notialis W87
  Orasturmia W87
    |--‘Angustiopsis’ saginata W87
    `--O. vallicola W87
  Eumasicera W87
    |--E. coccidella W87
    `--E. setinervis W87
  Phebellia W87
    |--P. cerurae [=Aplomya cerurae] W87
    |--P. curriei [=Thelymyia curriei] W87
    |--P. epicydes [=Aplomya epicydes] W87
    |--P. erecta [=Thelymyia erecta] W87
    |--P. helvina [=Aplomya helvina] W87
    |--P. imitator [=Aplomya imitator] W87
    |--P. pheosiae [=Aplomya pheosiae] W87
    `--P. trichiosomae [=Aplomya trichiosomae] W87
  Clemelis triseta W87
  Chaetoglossa picticornis W87
  Myatelemus trossulus W87
  Gymnophryxe claripennis W87
  Eucoronimyia hastata W87
  Tsugaea nox W87
  Nilea W87
    |--N. dimmocki W87
    |--N. halisidotae W87
    |--N. hortulata P93
    |--N. lobeliae W87
    |--N. sternalis W87
    |--N. valens W87
    `--N. victoriae W87
  Tryphera W87
  Hubneria estigmenensis W87
  Gymnocarcelia languida [incl. Elassomyia defecta, G. ricinorum] W87
  Hesperomyia erythrocera W87
  Paraphasmophaga W87
  Cloacina filialis W87
  Heliodorus W87
  Eufrontina W87
  Eribelia exilis W87
  Nicephorus floridensis W87
  Euceromasia spinosa W87
  Townsendiellomyia nidicola W87
  Estheria cinerea W87
  Hypovoria cauta W87
  Uclesia zonalis W87
  Gueriniopsis setipes W87
  Tachinomyia W87
  Graphogaster [Graphogastrini] W87
    |--G. brunnea W87
    `--G. dorsalis W87
  Clastoneuriopsis meralis W87
  Menetus macropogon W87
  Chaetovoria seriata W87
  Cockerelliana capitata W87
  Euptilopareia erucicola W87
  Euscopolia dakotensis W87
  Paradmontia brevis W87
  Eumegaparia flaveola W87
  Arctophyto marginalis W87
  Hypertrophocera W87
    |--H. parvipes W87
    `--‘Euthyprosopa’ petiolata W87
  Ursophyto nigriceps W87
  Goniocera io W87
  Meledonus W87
    |--M. californicus W87
    `--M. latipennis W87
  Metopomuscopteryx tibialis W87
  Mactomyia fracida W87
  Melanophrys W87
    |--M. flavipennis W87
    `--M. insolita [=Atropharista insolita] W87
  Ostracophyto aristalis W87
  Spilochaetosoma californicum W87
  Campylochaeta W87
    |--C. inepta P93
    `--C. semiothisae W87
  Trochilodes skinneri W87
  Epigrimyia polita W87
  Eriothrix penitalis W87
  Evidomyia infida W87
  Psilopleura arida W87
  Aphriini W87
    |--Aphria ocypterata W87
    `--Solieria boreotis [=Solieriopsis boreotis] W87
  Impeccantia claterna W87
  Germaria W87
  Hypertrophomma opaca W87
  Anthomyiopsis cypseloides W87
  Megapariopsis opaca W87
  Baeomyia W87
  Ceranthia W87
    |--C. arizonica W87
    |--C. brevirostris W87
    |--C. conata W87
    `--C. plusiae W87
  Phantasiomyia W87
  Miamimyia cincta W87
  Goniocheta plagioides W87
  Chiricahuia cavicola W87
  Pararchytas W87
  Rhachoepalpus olivaceus W87
  Euchaetogyne roederi W87
  Phalacrophyto sarcophagina W87
  Opsotheresia W87
  Nimioglossa W87
  Megaparia venosa W87
  Orestilla primoris W87
  Trixodes obesus W87
  Ochrocera vaginalis W87
  Orthosimyia W87
  Pseudopachystylum debile W87
  Besseria brevipennis W87
  Coloradomyia eucosmaphaga W87
  Hineomyia setigera W87
  Ervia triquetra W87
  Pseudapinops W87
  Drepanoglossa tenuirostris [=Philocalia tenuirostris] W87
  Formosia speciosa C91
  Myothyria fergusoni R91
  Masicera P93
    |--M. pavoniae P93
    `--M. sphingivora P93
  Huebneria affinis P93
  Euvespivora decipiens R78
  Anacamptomyia nigriventris R78
  Anagonia CM74
  Bactromyiella ficta CM74
  Hyalomyia CM70
  Proseninae CM70
    |--Rhynchodexia CM70
    `--Prosena Le Peletier & Serville 1828 F92
         `--*P. siberita (Fabricius 1775) (see below for synonymy) F92
  Latigena longicornis F92

*Prosena siberita (Fabricius 1775) [=Stomoxys siberita, P. sybarita Rondani 1861; incl. P. epicurea Rondani 1861, P. luculliana Rondani 1861] F92

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

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[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

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[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

Last updated: 13 June 2018.

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