Anopheles

Anopheles gambiae, photographed by Simon Fellous.


Belongs within: Culicomorpha.

Anopheles is a genus of mosquitoes, distinguishable from others by their elongate palps. Many species in the genus are significant disease vectors, most notably of the malaria causative organism Plasmodium, and of various filarial nematodes. Females of Anopheles generally lay their eggs in permanent bodies of water; the elongate eggs are laid singly, and have membranous folds on either side that act as floats (Liehne 1991).

Characters (from Liehne 1991): Clypeus longer than broad, rounded anteriorly. Palps of female as long as proboscis. Scutellum evenly rounded, without distinct lobes. Abdomen usually without scales or with a few loosely applied scales. Larva with head longer than broad, rotating freely; seta 2-C close to apical margin of head; setae 5-C to 7-C pinnate and aligned in distinct row across middle of head; mentum generally long and narrow; abdomen with dorsal palmate tufts on all segments; siphon absent; pecten on posterior margin of distinct triangular chitinous plate; setae 2-X and 4-X irregularly branched.

<==Anopheles [Anophelinae]
    |--A. (Anopheles) S81
    |    |--A. (A.) earlei S81
    |    |--A. (A.) maculipennis DW84
    |    |    |--A. m. maculipennis A71
    |    |    `--A. m. atroparvus A71
    |    `--A. (A.) punctipennis S81
    |--A. (Cellia) NNK72
    |    |--ser. Neocellia NNK72
    |    |    |--A. (C.) maculatus NNK72
    |    |    |--A. (C.) pulcherrimus NNK72
    |    |    `--A. (C.) stephensi NNK72
    |    |--A. (C.) (ser. Neomyzomyia) tessellatus NNK72
    |    `--ser. Pyretophorus NNK72
    |         |--A. (C.) gambiae NNK72 [incl. A. costalis A71]
    |         `--A. (C.) subpictus NNK72 [incl. A. rossi A71]
    `--A. (Nyssorhynchus) albimanus S81

Anopheles incertae sedis:
  A. annulipes RK04
  A. claviger KK91
  A. clowi RK04
  A. crucians D91
  A. culicifacies D51
  A. farauti RK04
  A. hilli C94
  A. hinesorum RK04
  A. labranchiae D51
  A. messeae D51
  A. plumbeus KK91
  A. punctulatus RK04
  A. quadrimaculatus HF01
  A. sacharovi D51
  A. sanctielii Senevet & Abonnenc 1938 S69
  A. subalpinus D51
  A. torresiensis RK04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[C94] Colless, D. H. 1994. A new family of muscoid Diptera from Australasia, with sixteen new species in four new genera (Diptera: Axiniidae). Invertebrate Taxonomy 8: 471-534.

[DW84] Dahl, C., S. Wold, L. T. Nielsen & C. Nilsson. 1984. A SIMCA pattern recognition study in taxonomy: claw shape in mosquitoes (Culicidae, Insecta). Systematic Zoology 33 (4): 355-369.

[D91] Davids, C. 1991. Water mites: the impact of larvae and adults on their host and prey populations. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 497-501. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[D51] Dobzhansky, T. 1951. Genetics and the Origin of Species, 3rd ed. Columbia University Press: New York.

[HF01] Hwang, U. W., M. Friedrich, D. Tautz, C. J. Park & W. Kim. 2001. Mitochondrial protein phylogeny joins myriapods with chelicerates. Nature 413: 154-157.

[KK91] Kamarinchev, B., T. Kovacheva, T. Christova, G. Georgieva & V. Zlatanova. 1991. Studies on mosquitoes and ticks as carriers of alpha-, flavi- and bunyaviruses. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 89-92. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

Liehne, P. F. S. 1991. An Atlas of the Mosquitoes of Western Australia. Health Department of Western Australia.

[NNK72] Narang, N., S. Narang & J. B. Kitzmiller. 1972. Lack of gene flow among three species of anopheline mosquitoes. Systematic Zoology 21 (1): 1-6.

[RK04] Russell, R. C., & B. H. Kay. 2004. Medical entomology: changes in the spectrum of mosquito-borne disease in Australia and other vector threats and risks, 1972-2004. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 271-282.

[S69] Steyskal, G. C. 1969. The mistreatment of the Latin genitive case in forming names of parasites. Systematic Zoology 18 (3): 339-342.

[S81] Stone, A. 1981. Culicidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1, pp. 341-350. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

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