Simulium


Female Simulium feeding, photographed by maz_nat.


Belongs within: Simuliidae.

Simulium is a major genus of black flies. A number of species are significant disease vectors; for instance, the African species S. damnosum and S. neavei transmit the river blindness-causing nematode Onchocerca volvulus (Askew 1971).

See also: More in the bloodsucking vein (Taxon of the Week: Simulium).

Characters (from Peterson 1981): Length of basal section of R much less than one-third distance from base of Rs to apex of wing; R with or without setae dorsally; R1 joining C well beyond middle of wing; false vein (m-cu fold) distinctly forked apically; cell bm absent or greatly reduced. Calcipala usually well developed, sometimes reduced; pedisulcus present, usually deep and distinct, rarely a shallow depression. Mesepimeral tuft present.

<==Simulium Latreille 1802 L1802
    |--S. (Simulium) P81
    |    |--*S. (S.) columbaschense [=Rhagio colombaschensis] L1802
    |    |--S. (S.) decorum P81
    |    `--S. (S.) tuberosum P81
    |--S. (Aspathia) AC09
    |    |--S. (A.) iriartei AC09
    |    |--S. (A.) metallicum AC09
    |    |--S. (A.) piperi AC09
    |    `--S. (A.) puigi AC09
    |--S. (Byssodon) meridionale P81
    |--S. (Eusimulium) P81
    |    |--S. (E.) aureum P81
    |    |--S. (E.) donovani AC09
    |    `--S. (E.) vernum P81
    |--S. (Hemicnetha) AC09
    |    |--S. (H.) canadense AC09 [=S. (Hearlea) canadense P81]
    |    |--S. (H.) freemani AC09
    |    |--S. (H.) paynei AC09
    |    |--S. (H.) tarsatum AC09
    |    `--S. (H.) virgatum P81
    |--S. (Inaequalium) inaequale AC09
    |--S. (Meilloniellum) adersi P81
    |--S. (Nevermannia) carbunculum AC09
    |--S. (Parabyssodon) transiens P81
    |--S. (Phosterodoros) jenningsi P81
    |--S. (Psaroniocompsa) AC09
    |    |--S. (P.) fuliginis AC09
    |    |--S. (P.) ganalesense AC09
    |    |--S. (P.) incrustatum AC09
    |    `--S. (P.) sanguineum AC09
    |--S. (Psilopelmia) AC09
    |    |--S. (P.) bivittatum P81
    |    |--S. (P.) haematopotum AC09
    |    |--S. (P.) ochraceum AC09
    |    `--S. (P.) quadrivittatum AC09
    |--S. (Psilozia) vittatum P81
    `--S. (Shewellomyia) pictipes P81

Simulium incertae sedis:
  S. arcticum P81
  S. bipunctatus HSS13
  S. buissoni FD95
  S. callidum P81
  S. clathrinum PH10
  S. confusum BMA03
  S. damnosum P81
  S. dixiense BMA03
  S. equinum A71
  S. fibrinflatum BMA03
  S. jonesii TB03
  S. maculata K01
  S. neavei A71
  S. notiale BMA03
  S. nyssa BMA03
  S. ornatipes CM91
  S. ornatum L2002
  S. oviceps P81
  S. podostemi BMA03
  S. venustum P81
  S. verecundum BMA03
  S. wellmanni A71

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AC09] Adler, P. H., & D. C. Currie. 2009. Simuliidae (black flies, bocones). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 389–406. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BMA03] Beard, C. E., J. W. McCreadie & P. H. Adler. 2003. Prevalence of the trichomycete fungus Harpella melusinae (Harpellales, Harpellaceae) in larval black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) across a heterogeneous environment. Mycologia 95 (4): 577–583.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[FD95] Fossati, O., & H. Danigo. 1995. A new sampling method for freshwater shrimps. Mésogée 54: 43–48.

[HSS13] Hirschfeld, E., A. Swash & R. Still. 2013. The World’s Rarest Birds. Princeton University Press: Princeton (New Jersey).

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[L1802] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L2002] Lee, D. L. 2002. Cuticle, moulting and exsheathment. In: Lee, D. L. (ed.) The Biology of Nematodes pp. 171–209. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[P81] Peterson, B. V. 1981. Simuliidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 355–391. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[PH10] Pinder, A. M., S. A. Halse, R. J. Shiel & J. M. McRae. 2010. An arid zone awash with diversity: patterns in the distribution of aquatic invertebrates in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 78 (1): 205–246.

[TB03] Tartar, A., D. G. Boucias, J. J. Becnel & B. J. Adams. 2003. Comparison of plastid 16S rRNA (rrn16) genes from Helicosporidium spp.: evidence supporting the reclassification of Helicosporidia as green algae (Chlorophyta). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 1719–1723.

Last updated: 11 June 2017.

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