Calyptratae

Lesser house fly Fannia canicularis, copyright Rui Andrade.


Belongs within: Schizophora.
Contains: Hippoboscidae, Muscidae, Anthomyiidae, Oestroidea.

The Calyptratae are a major clade of flies, most of which possess an enlarged lower calypter on the wing, that include many of the most family fly species. Phylogenetic analyses indicate a basal division between two major lineages, one containing the Hippoboscoidea and the other usually classified as the superfamilies Muscoidea and Oestroidea though the former may be paraphyletic to the latter. The Hippoboscoidea are a group of blood-sucking flies in which the female's vagina is enlarged to form a uterus in which larvae are retained until they can be 'laid' after reaching the pupal stage.

Characters (from Kutty et al. 2010): Pedicel bearing dorsolateral cleft or seam; lower fronto-orbital bristles present; proboscis with hyoid sclerite and labellar pseudotracheae forming prestomal teeth; thorax with complete transverse line; costa with subcostal break and two rows of alternating slender and robust setae; lower calypter often enlarged; abdominal spiracles 2–5 positioned in tergites.

<==Calyptratae [Calypterae, Calyptrata, Pupipara, Schizometopa]
    |  i. s.: Crosskeya gigas F92
    |         Dejeania bombylans (Fabr. 1798) (see below for synonymy) R01
    |         Paraphania diabolus [=Tachina diabolus] R01
    |         Orectocera R01
    |         Stenopteryx hirundinis R13
    |--Hippoboscoidea KP10
    |    |--Hippoboscidae KP10
    |    `--Glossina [Glossinidae, Glossinoidea] KP10
    |         |  i. s.: G. fusca A71
    |         |         G. fuscipleuris A71
    |         |         G. longipalpis A71
    |         |         G. longipennis A71
    |         |         G. medicorum A71
    |         |         G. oligocena GE05
    |         |         G. osborni GE05
    |         |         G. tabaniformis A71
    |         |         G. tachinoides A71
    |         |--G. brevipalpis KP10
    |         `--+--+--G. fuscipes KP10
    |            |  `--G. palpalis KP10
    |            `--+--+--G. austeni KP10
    |               |  `--G. pallidipes KP10
    |               `--+--G. morsitans KP10
    |                  |    |--G. m. morsitans A71
    |                  |    `--G. m. submorsitans A71
    |                  `--G. swynnertoni KP10
    `--Muscoidea KP10
         |  i. s.: Mormotomyia GE05 [Mormotomyiidae CM91]
         |           `--M. hirsuta GE05
         |--+--Muscidae KP10
         |  `--+--Anthomyiidae KP10
         |     `--Oestroidea KP10
         `--Fanniidae [Fanniinae] KP10
              |--Australofannia S10
              |--Piezura Rondani 1866 F92 [incl. Platycoenosia Strobl 1894 S10, F92]
              |--Euryomma Stein 1899 F92
              |    `--E. peregrinum S10
              `--Fannia Robineau-Desvoidy 1830 F92 [incl. Coelomyia Haliday 1845 S10, F92, Homalomyia S10]
                   |  i. s.: *F. scalaris (Fabricius 1794) [=Musca scalaris] F92
                   |         F. albitarsis CM91
                   |         F. anthracina S10
                   |         F. australis O98
                   |         F. barbata (Stein 1892) F92
                   |         F. benjamini S10
                   |         F. bisetosa Ringdahl 1926 F92
                   |         F. ciliata (Stein 1895) [=Homalomyia ciliata] F92
                   |         ‘Coelomyia’ ctenophora Fan 1974 F92
                   |         F. difficilis (Stein 1895) [=Homalomyia difficilis] F92
                   |         F. fuscula (Fallén 1825) [=Musca fuscula] F92
                   |         F. glaucescens (Zetterstedt 1845) [=Aricia glaucescens] F92
                   |         F. incisurata (Zetterstedt 1838) [=Anthomyza incisurata] F92
                   |         F. ipinensis Chillcott 1961 F92
                   |         F. kikowensis Ôuchi 1938 F92
                   |         F. kowarzi (Verrall 1892) [=Homalomyia kowarzi] F92
                   |         F. leucosticta (Meigen 1826) [=Anthomyia leucosticta] F92
                   |         F. minutipalpis (Stein 1895) [=Homalomyia minutipalpis] F92
                   |         *Coelomyia’ mollissima Haliday 1840 F92
                   |         F. nodulosa Ringdahl 1926 F92
                   |         F. prisca Stein 1918 F92
                   |         F. ringdahlana Collin 1939 F92
                   |         ‘Homalomyia’ serena K01
                   |         F. similis (Stein 1895) [=Homalomyia similis] F92
                   |         F. sociella (Zetterstedt 1845) [=Aricia sociella] F92
                   |         F. submonilis Ma 1981 F92
                   |         F. subpellucens (Zetterstedt 1845) HV87, F92 (see below for synonymy)
                   |         F. subscalaris Zimin 1945 F92
                   |--F. manicata (Meigen 1826) KP10, F92 [=Anthomyia manicata F92]
                   `--+--F. armata KP10
                      `--F. canicularis (Linnaeus 1761) KP10, F92 [=Musca canicularis F92]

Dejeania bombylans (Fabr. 1798) [=Stomoxys bombylans, Tachina bombylans; incl. D. capensis Rob. Desv. 1830, D. variabilis] R01

Fannia subpellucens (Zetterstedt 1845) HV87, F92 [=Aricia subpellucens F92, Coelomyia subpellucens F92]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HV87] Huckett, H. C., & J. R. Vockeroth. 1987. Muscidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1115–1131. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[KP10] Kutty, S. N., T. Pape, B. M. Wiegmann & R. Meier. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of the Calyptratae (Diptera: Cyclorrhapha) with an emphasis on the superfamily Oestroidea and the position of Mystacinobiidae and McAlpine's fly. Systematic Entomology 35: 614–635.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[R01] Ricardo, G. 1901. Notes on Diptera from South Africa (concluded). Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 89–110.

[S10] Savage, J. 2010. Fanniidae (fanniid flies, latrine flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1277–1280. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="http://www.fieldofscience.com/">FoS</a> = FoS