Chironomidae

Nilothauma sp., copyright Chao Song.


Belongs within: Culicomorpha.
Contains: Pentaneurini, Procladiini, Orthocladiini, Tanytarsini, Fushunitendipini, Lacusitendipini, Chironomus, Polypedilum.

The Chironomidae, commonly known as non-biting midges, are a morphologically diverse family of mostly small, delicate, superficially mosquito-like flies. Larvae of chironomids are most commonly aquatic and the adults are also often found around water. Larvae commonly inhabit silk-lined burrows or tube-like silken shelters that may be fixed to the substrate; some Orthocladiinae and Chironominae construct transportable cases (Spies et al. 2009). Some species are marine, being found in the intertidal zone. Adults of most species have reduced mouthparts, but the relict Southern Hemisphere genus Archaeochlus retains biting mandibles (Colless & McAlpine 1991). Many members of the subfamilies Aphroteniinae, Podonominae and Diamesinae are adapted for living in fast-flowing waters (Oliver 1981).

Characters (from Colless & McAlpine 1991): Ocelli absent; antennae usually plumose in male; mouthparts usually non-piercing. Wing veins clothed with abundant hair or scales, discal cell absent, M1+2 unbranched, radial veins usually longer, R4+5 usually ending near apex of wing, M3+4 forking from CuA at about centre of wing. Larvae usually with pair of prolegs on prothoracic and anal segments, and pair of papillae (each with a tuft of hairs) on anal segment.

<==Chironomidae [Dixamimidae, Protobibionidae, Rhaetomyiidae, Rhaetomyidae, Tendipedidae]
    |--Ulaia [Ulaiinae] BLM02
    |--Usambaromyiinae SA09
    |--Aenne GE05 [Aenneinae BLM02]
    |    `--A. triassica GE05
    |--Buchonomyia [Buchonomyiinae] SA09
    |    |--B. brundini SA09
    |    `--B. thienemanni Z02
    |--Aphroteniinae O81
    |    |--Aphrotenia GE05
    |    `--+--Aphroteniella GE05
    |       `--Paraphrotenia GE05
    |--Telmatogetoninae SA09
    |    |--Thalassomyia bureni SA09, O81
    |    |--Paraclunio alaskensis O81
    |    `--Telmatogeton SA09
    |         |--T. alaskensis SA09
    |         `--T. latipennis SA09
    |--Diamesinae [Prodiamesinae] SA09
    |    |  i. s.: Lobodiamesa campbelli B87
    |    |         Protanypus caudatus O81
    |    |         Boreoheptagyia lurida O81
    |    |         Pseudodiamesa arctica O81
    |    |         Pagastia partica O81
    |    |         Hesperodiamesa sequax O81
    |    |         Potthastia O81
    |    |         Sympotthastia fulva O81
    |    |         Odontomesa lutosopra O81
    |    |         Prodiamesa olivacea O81
    |    |         Monodiamesa O81
    |    |--Diamesa O81 [Diamesae B72]
    |    `--Heptagyini B72
    |         |--Maoridiamesia harrisi B72, B87
    |         |--Paraheptagyia tonnoiri B72
    |         `--Heptagyia tasmaniae CM91
    |--Podonominae SA09
    |    |  i. s.: Oryctochlus vulvanus Kalugina in Kalugina & Kovalev 1985 BLM02, RJ93
    |    |         Protobibio jurassicus O81
    |    |--Boreochlini O81
    |    |    |--+--Lasiodiamesa brusti GE05, O81
    |    |    |  `--Trichotanypus posticalis GE05, O81
    |    |    `--+--+--Boreochlus GE05
    |    |       |  `--Paraboreochlus GE05
    |    |       `--+--Archaeochlus GE05
    |    |          `--Afrochlus GE05
    |    `--Podonomini O81
    |         |--+--Podochlus GE05
    |         |  `--+--Rheochlus GE05
    |         |     `--Podonomopsis GE05
    |         `--+--Zelandochlus GE05
    |            `--+--Podonomus GE05
    |               `--Parochlus GE05
    |                    |--P. araucanus SA09
    |                    `--P. kiefferi SA09
    |--Tanypodinae SA09
    |    |--Pentaneurini SA09
    |    |--Natarsia O81 [Natarsiini SA09]
    |    |--Procladiini SA09
    |    |--Tanypus SA09 [incl. Pelopia (nom. rej.) O81; Tanypodini SA09]
    |    |    |--T. grodhausi Sublette 1964 SA09
    |    |    |--T. neopunctipennis Sublette 1964 SA09
    |    |    `--T. varius [=Chironomus (Tanypus) varius] G20
    |    |--Coelotanypodini SA09
    |    |    |--Clinotanypus SA09
    |    |    |--Coelotanypus SA09
    |    |    `--Naelotanypus viridis SA09
    |    `--Macropelopiini SA09
    |         |--Parapelopia serta O81
    |         |--Alotanypus venustus SA09
    |         |--Derotanypus sibirica O81, R86
    |         |--Psectrotanypus dyari O81
    |         |--Fittkauimyia SA09
    |         |--Guassutanypus SA09
    |         `--Macropelopia SA09
    |              |--M. decedens O81
    |              `--M. roblesi Vargas 1946 SA09
    |--Orthocladiinae [Clunioninae, Hydrobaeninae] SA09
    |    |  i. s.: Naonella Boothroyd 1994 B04
    |    |           |--N. forsythi B04
    |    |           `--N. kimihia Boothroyd 2004 B04
    |    |         Cricotopus SA09
    |    |           |--C. cingulatus B87
    |    |           |--C. laricomalis SA09
    |    |           |--C. trifasciatus R86
    |    |           `--C. zealandicus B87
    |    |         Heleniella SA09
    |    |           |--H. curtistila O81
    |    |           `--H. ornaticollis G09
    |    |         Paratrichocladius skirwithensis SA09, G09
    |    |         Oreadomyia albertae O81
    |    |         Hydrobaenus O81
    |    |           |--H. johannseni O81
    |    |           |--H. lugubris O81
    |    |           `--H. spinnatis O81
    |    |         Thalassosmittia O81
    |    |         Clunio SA09
    |    |           |--C. adriaticus R13
    |    |           |--C. marinus WP99
    |    |           |--C. marshalli O81
    |    |           `--C. takahashii RD77
    |    |         Eretmoptera O81
    |    |           |--E. browni O81
    |    |           `--E. murphyi P94
    |    |         Tethymyia aptena O81
    |    |         Corynoneura SA09
    |    |           |--C. celeripes RD77
    |    |           |--C. ferelobata SA09
    |    |           `--C. hirvenojai SA09
    |    |         Thienemanniella SA09
    |    |         Symbiocladius equitans SA09, O81
    |    |         Acricotopus nitidellus O81
    |    |         Diplocladius cultriger SA09
    |    |         Smittia SA09
    |    |           |--S. foliacea R86
    |    |           `--S. verna M83
    |    |         Mesocricotopus thienemanni O81
    |    |         Nanocladius (Plectopteracoluthus) SA09
    |    |           |--N. (P.) bubrachiatus SA09
    |    |           `--‘Plecopteracoluthus’ downsi O81
    |    |         Paracricotopus O81
    |    |         Paracladius O81
    |    |         Halocladius variabilis O81
    |    |         Eurycnemus annuliventris O81
    |    |         Paraphaenocladius SA09
    |    |           |--P. exagitans SA09
    |    |           |    |--P. e. exagitans SA09
    |    |           |    `--P. e. longipes SA09
    |    |           `--P. pseudirritus R86
    |    |         Heterotrissocladius O81
    |    |         Pseudorthocladius O81
    |    |           |--P. dumicaudus O81
    |    |           `--P. filiformis R86
    |    |         Heterotanytarsus O81
    |    |         Gymnometriocnemus O81
    |    |         Cardiocladius obscurus SA09
    |    |         Abiskomyia virgo O81
    |    |         Psectrocladius simulans O81
    |    |         Limnophyes SA09
    |    |           |--L. borealis O81
    |    |           |--L. brachytomus SA09
    |    |           `--L. guatemalensis SA09
    |    |         Parachaetocladius O81
    |    |         Synorthocladius semivirens SA09, O81
    |    |         Tokunagaia O81
    |    |         Clinocladius subparallelus O81
    |    |         Chaetocladius O81
    |    |           |--C. piger R86
    |    |           `--C. stamfordi O81
    |    |         Platycladius pleuralis O81
    |    |         Baeoctenus bicolor O81
    |    |         Psilometriocnemus triannulatus O81
    |    |         Oliveria tricornis O81
    |    |         Zalutschia O81
    |    |         Bryophaenocladius SA09
    |    |           |--B. carus SA09
    |    |           |--B. flavoscutellatus SA09
    |    |           `--B. (Odontocladius) nigrus R86
    |    |         Chasmatonotus unimaculatus O81
    |    |         Krenosmittia O81
    |    |         Pseudosmittia SA09
    |    |           |--P. forcipata SA09
    |    |           `--P. setavena O81
    |    |         Phycoidella dentolatens O81
    |    |         Parakiefferiella SA09
    |    |         Epoicocladius flavens O81
    |    |         Mariocladius subaterrimus O81
    |    |         Tempisquitoneura merrillorum SA09
    |    |         Onconeura semifimbriata SA09
    |    |         Stictocladius SA09
    |    |         Oliveiriella SA09
    |    |         Lopescladius (Lopescladius) verruculosus SA09
    |    |         Irisobrillia longicosta Oliver 1985 SA09
    |    |         Compterosmittia SA09
    |    |           |--C. aberrans SA09
    |    |           `--C. nerius SA09
    |    |         Paralimnophyes SA09
    |    |         Antillocladius pluspilalus SA09
    |    |         Mesosmittia tora SA09
    |    |         Lipurometriocnemus glabalus SA09
    |    |         Diplosmittia SA09
    |    |           |--D. beluina SA09
    |    |           |--D. carinata SA09
    |    |           `--D. forficata SA09
    |    |         Belgica antarctica RD77, N91
    |    |         Halirytus RD77
    |    |--Orthocladiini G09
    |    `--Metriocnemini G09
    |         |--Metriocnemus SA09
    |         `--Parametriocnemus G09
    |              |--P. lundbeckii SA09
    |              `--P. stylatus G09
    `--Chironominae SA09
         |--Tanytarsini SA09
         |--Fushunitendipini H02
         |--Lacusitendipini H02
         |--Asiatendipes Hong 2002 [Asiatendipini] H02
         |    `--*A. labrosus (Hong 1981) [=Microtendipes labrosus, Eocenitendipes labrosus] H02
         |--Pseudochironomini SA09
         |    |--Pseudochironomus richardsoni SA09
         |    |--Aedokritus SA09
         |    `--Manoa SA09
         |--Longicopulini H02
         |    |--Longicopula Hong 2002 H02
         |    |    `--*L. xilutianensis Hong 2002 H02
         |    `--‘Longipedia’ Hong 2002 non Claus 1863 H02
         |         `--*L. longa Hong 2002 H02
         |--Frutexitendipini H02
         |    |--Frutexitendipes Hong 2002 H02
         |    |    `--*F. dongzhouheensis Hong 2002 H02
         |    |--Noditendipes Hong 2002 H02
         |    |    `--*N. guchengziensis Hong 2002 H02
         |    `--Dongbeitendipes Hong 2002 H02
         |         `--*D. foliolatus Hong 2002 H02
         |--Hamicaudini H02
         |    |--Hamicaudus Hong 2002 H02
         |    |    `--*H. osteneus Hong 2002 H02
         |    |--Succinaspinus Hong 2002 H02
         |    |    `--*S. orientales (Hong 1981) [=Aspinus orientales, Amberaspinus orientales] H02
         |    |--Yangitendipes Hong 2002 H02
         |    |    `--*Y. longivalvatus Hong 2002 H02
         |    `--Sinaspinus Hong 2002 H02
         |         |--*S. amblopteres (Hong 1981) [=Aspinus amblopteres, Amberaspinus amblopteres] H02
         |         `--S. stenopteres (Hong 1981) [=Aspinus stenopteres, Amberaspinus stenopteres] H02
         `--Chironomini SA09
              |--Chironomus SA09
              |--Harnischia curtilamellata SA09
              |--Cyphomella SA09
              |--Acalcarella O81
              |--Beckidia SA09
              |--Chernovskiia SA09
              |--Robackia SA09
              |--Demicryptochironomus cuneatus SA09
              |--Cryptotendipes casuarius SA09
              |--Paracladopelma undine SA09
              |--Saetheria SA09
              |--Kiefferulus dux SA09, O81
              |--Paralauterborniella nigrohalteris SA09
              |--Omisus pica SA09
              |--Stenochironomus SA09
              |--Endochironomus subtendens SA09
              |--Graceus O81
              |--Phaenopsectra coracina SA09, O81
              |--Stictochironomus histrio SA09, WP99
              |--Pagastiella ostansa SA09, O81
              |--Tribelos SA09
              |--Pedionomus beckae O81
              |--Demeijerea SA09
              |--Kloosia SA09
              |--Pelomus SA09
              |--Lipiniella SA09
              |--Fissimentum SA09
              |--Beardius SA09
              |--Oukuriella SA09
              |--Paranilothauma strebulosum [=P. strebulosa] SA09
              |--Neelamia SA09
              |--Zavreliella longiseta SA09
              |--Stelechomyia SA09
              |--Lauterborniella agrayloides SA09
              |--Xestochironomus SA09
              |--Endotribelos SA09
              |--Hyporhygma SA09
              |--Townsia subaberrans SA09
              |--Polypedilum SA09
              |--Microtendipes Kieffer 1915 SA09, H02
              |    `--M. pedellus SA09
              |--Paratendipes [Paratendipedidae] SA09
              |    |--P. albimanus SA09
              |    `--P. laiyangensis Hong & Wang 1990 RJ93
              |--Dicrotendipes SA09
              |    |--D. modestus SA09
              |    `--D. pelochloris O98
              |--Glyptotendipes SA09
              |    |--G. barbipes SA09
              |    `--G. gripekoveni CS77
              |--Parachironomus SA09
              |    |--P. hazelriggi SA09
              |    `--P. monochromus O81
              |--Einfeldia SA09
              |    |--E. atitlanensis Sublette & Sasa 1994 SA09
              |    `--E. pagana SA09
              |--Goeldichironomus SA09
              |    |--G. amazonicus SA09
              |    `--G. holoprasinus SA09
              |--Microchironomus SA09 [incl. Leptochironomus O81]
              |    |--M. deribae SA09
              |    `--M. nigrovittatus SA09
              |--Cladopelma SA09 [incl. Cryptocladopelma O81]
              |    |--C. forcipis SA09
              |    `--C. spectabile SA09
              |--Cryptochironomus SA09
              |    |--C. digitatus SA09
              |    `--C. obreptans R86
              |--Apedilum SA09
              |    |--A. elachistum SA09
              |    `--A. subcinctum SA09
              |--Xenochironomus SA09
              |    |--X. festivus O81
              |    |--X. scopula O81
              |    `--X. xenolabis SA09
              |--Axarus SA09
              |    |--A. festivus SA09
              |    |--A. rogersi SA09
              |    `--A. scopula SA09
              `--Nilothauma SA09
                   |--N. aleta SA09
                   |--N. babiyi SA09
                   |--N. brayi R86
                   `--N. duena SA09

Chironomidae incertae sedis:
  Riethia zeylandica ASD05
  Austrochlus GE05
  Anatopynia R86
    |--A. debilis [=Tanypus debilis] R60
    `--A. plumipes R86
  Euryhapsis subviridis R86
  Potomyia natans WP99
  Stichtotanytarsus WP99
  Eopodonomus O81
  Pachyneuronympha O81
  Nimbocera SA09
  Orthosmittia reyei CM91
  Paraborniella CM91
  Allotrissocladius CM91
  Austrocladius CM91
  Lundstroemia parthenogenetica W70
  Harrisius CM70
  Eocenitendipes Evenhuis 1994 H02
  Dolichopelma H02

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[ASD05] Armstrong, K. N., A. W. Storey & P. M. Davies. 2005. Effects of catchment clearing and sedimentation on macroinvertebrate communities of cobble habitat in freshwater streams of southwestern Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (1): 1–11.

[BLM02] Blagoderov, V. A., E. D. Lukashevich & M. B. Mostovski. 2002. Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The true flies (=Muscida Laicharting, 1781). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P.,  & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 227–240. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[B87] Boothroyd, I. K. G. 1987. Taxonomic composition and life cycles of Chironomidae (Diptera) in a northern New Zealand stream. Entomologica Scandinavica Supplement 29: 15–22.

[B04] Boothroyd, I. K. G. 2004. A new species of Naonella Boothroyd (Chironomidae: Orthocladiinae) from New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 11–15.

[B72] Brundin, L. 1972. Phylogenetics and biogeography. Systematic Zoology 21 (1): 69–79.

[CM70] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1970. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 656–740. Melbourne University Press.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[G09] Gerecke, R. 2009. Revisional studies on the European species of the water mite genus Lebertia Neuman, 1880 (Acari: Hydrachnidia: Lebertiidae). Abhandlungen der Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung 566: 1–144.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H02] Hong Y. 2002. Amber Insect of China. Beijing Scientific and Technological Publishing House.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[N91] Norris, K. R. 1991. General biology. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 68–108. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[O81] Oliver, D. R. 1981. Chironomidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 423–458. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[P94] Pugh, P. J. A. 1994. Non-indigenous Acari of Antarctica and the sub-Antarctic islands. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 110: 207–217.

[R86] Reiss, F. 1986. Erster Nachtrag zur Chironomidenfauna Bayerns (Diptera, Chironomidae). Spixiana 9 (2): 175–178.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[R60] Richards, A. M. 1960. Observations on the New Zealand glow-worm Arachnocampa luminosa (Skuse) 1890. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 559–574.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[SA09] Spies, M., T. Andersen, J. H. Epler & C. N. Watson Jr. 2009. Chironomidae (non-biting midges). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 437–480. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[WP99] Walter, D. E., & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[W70] White, M. J. D. 1970. Cytogenetics. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 72–82. Melbourne University Press.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 331–388. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

Last updated: 28 December 2020.

2 comments:

  1. There are nine subfamilies recognised, yet I see only six on your list. Where do you get your classification from?

    ReplyDelete
  2. The sources for each are indicated alongside the names. So far, I've just gotten most of them from more general references on insects; presumably, I haven't yet gone through references that would give me the other three. Hence, also, the taxa listed as just general Chironomidae at the end, which presumably would be placed more specifically once I've found and taken info from an appropriate source.

    ReplyDelete

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