Apioceridae

Unidentified Apiocera, photographed by Jean and Fred Hort.

Belongs within: Brachycera.

The Apioceridae are a family of flower-feeding flies with a preference for sandy habitats.

Characters (from Norris 1936): Generally dull-coloured flies, medium to large in size, varying in degree of vestiture from almost bare to hairy. Eyes large, bare, widely separate to closely approximate at vertex; often more widely separated in female. Ocelli very well developed. Antennae inserted close together very near to epistome, three-segmented, the second segment being short and globular. Terminal style usually present, mostly short and pointed. Proboscis projecting forwards horizontally, varying in length from one to four times the length of the head. Labella fleshy, proboscis non-piercing. Palpi large and two-segmented or small and composed of a single segment. Maxillae correspondingly long or short.
Thorax generally stoutly built. Prothorax often with circlet of spines above. Thoracic macrochaetae well developed, weak or absent. Bristles, when present, confined to lateral edges of thorax (humeral, notopleural, supra-alar, post-alar, scutellar). Pleura devoid of bristles. Legs long and bristly. Empodium absent, pulvilli well developed.
Wings with R4, R5 and M1 curving forwards and ending before apex of wing. Subcosta distinct, extending beyond halfway along wing. R1 extending to near apex. R2+3 terminating on R1 and sometimes also R4 and R5. M1 ending before apex, M2 before or after apex. M3 fusing with M4 to form a closed cell behind median cell; from this a compound vein M3+4 may arise and run direct to wing margin. Cu1 strongly developed, usually meeting 1A at wing margin or a short distance before it. Cu2 present, very weakly developed.

<==Apioceridae
    |--Apomidas N36
    |--Rhaphiomidas N36
    |--Neorhaphiomidas Norris 1936 N36
    |    |--*N. hardyi Norris 1936 N36
    |    `--N. pinguis Norris 1936 N36
    `--Apiocera Westwood 1835 N36
         |--*A. deforma Norris 1936 N36
         |--A. haruspex WT11
         |--A. maritima N36
         |--A. minor Norris 1936 N36
         |--A. newmani Norris 1936 N36
         |--A. pallida Norris 1936 N36
         |--A. pica Norris 1936 N36
         `--A. tonnoiri Norris 1936 N36

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[N36] Norris, K. R. 1936. New species of Apioceridae (Diptera) from Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 22: 49-70.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690-5695.

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