Simuliidae

Reconstruction of Archicnephia ornithoraptor from Cretaceous amber, from Grimaldi & Engel (2005).

Belongs within: Culicomorpha.
Contains: Simulium.

The Simuliidae, black flies, are small stout flies whose larvae are found in water. Females of several species feed on blood.

Characters (from Colless & McAlpine 1991): Small, stout. Ocelli absent. Wings very broad, with large anal lobe; discal cell absent; M3+4 arising at extreme base of wing.

<==Simuliidae
    |--Prosimuliini GE05
    |    |--Prosimulium magnum BMA03
    |    `--Kovalevimyia lacrimosa GE05
    `--Simuliini GE05
         |--Simulium GE05
         `--Archicnephia ornithoraptor GE05

Simuliidae incertae sedis:
  Austrosimulium PC66
    |--A. australense O81
    `--A. ungulatum O81
  Cnephia BMA03
    |--C. dacotensis BMA03
    |--C. ornithophila BMA03
    `--C. tonnoiri ASD05
  Simulimima grandis GE05
  Baisomyia incognita GE05
  Parasimulium crosskeyi WT11

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[ASD05] Armstrong, K. N., A. W. Storey & P. M. Davies. 2005. Effects of catchment clearing and sedimentation on macroinvertebrate communities of cobble habitat in freshwater streams of southwestern Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (1): 1-11.

[BMA03] Beard, C. E., J. W. McCreadie & P. H. Adler. 2003. Prevalence of the trichomycete fungus Harpella melusinae (Harpellales, Harpellaceae) in larval black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) across a heterogeneous environment. Mycologia 95 (4): 577-583.

Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia, 2nd ed., vol. 2, pp. 717-786. Melbourne University Press.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[O81] O'Brien, C. O. 1981. A. A. Book of New Zealand Wildlife: A guide to the native and introduced animals of New Zealand. Lansdowne Press: Auckland.

[PC66] Pendergrast, J. G., & D. R. Cowley. 1966. An Introduction to New Zealand Freshwater Insects. Collins: Auckland.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690-5695.

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