Reconstruction of Archicnephia ornithoraptor from Cretaceous amber, from Grimaldi & Engel (2005).

Belongs within: Culicomorpha.
Contains: Simulium.

The Simuliidae, black flies, are small stout flies whose larvae are found in water. Females of several species feed on blood. The family is divided between two subfamilies by features of the wing venation; Parasimulium species have longer dorsal and ventral setae on veins C, Sc and R with vein R1 joining C only slightly beyond the middle of the wing, whereas Simuliinae have shorter setae (if any) on said veins and have R1 joining C well beyond the middle of the wing (Peterson 1981).

Characters (from Peterson 1981): Small stout flies, 1.2-5.5 mm long, usually black or dark brown in color, but sometimes reddish brown, gray, orange, or yellow. Antenna short, rather stout, erect, with seven to nine flagellomeres; all segments bead-like; pedicel usually largest of segments. Legs short. Fore tibia with one apical spur; mid and hind tibiae with two apical spurs. Wing broad; anterior veins strong; posterior veins weak.

<==Simuliidae [Melusinidae]
    |  i. s.: Austrosimulium P81
    |           |--A. australense O81
    |           |--A. bancrofti CM91
    |           |--A. pestilens C94
    |           `--A. ungulatum O81
    |         Simulimima grandis GE05
    |         Baisomyia incognita GE05
    |         Crozetia crozetensis P81
    |--Parasimulium [Parasimuliinae] P81
    |    |  i. s.: P. crosskeyi WT11
    |    |--P. (Parasimulium) P81
    |    |    |--P. (P.) furcatum P81
    |    |    `--P. (P.) stonei P81
    |    `--P. (Astoneomyia) melanderi P81
    `--Simuliinae P81
         |  i. s.: Gymnopais holopticus P81
         |         Twinnia tibblesi P81
         |         Greniera P81
         |           |--G. abdita P81
         |           `--G. denaria P81
         |         Stegopterna mutata P81
         |         Metacnephia P81
         |           |--M. jeanae P81
         |           `--M. saileri P81
         |         Ectemnia P81
         |           |--E. invenusta P81
         |           `--E. taeniatifrons P81
         |         Cnephia P81
         |           |--C. dacotensis P81
         |           |--C. ornithophila BMA03
         |           `--C. tonnoiri ASD05
         |                |--C. t. tonnoiri HM70
         |                `--C. t. fuscoflava HM70
         |--Simuliini GE05
         |    |--Simulium P81
         |    |--Archicnephia ornithoraptor GE05
         |    |--Gigantodax wrighti AC09
         |    `--Tlalocomyia [incl. Mayacnephia] AC09
         |         `--T. salasi AC09
         `--Prosimuliini GE05
              |--Kovalevimyia lacrimosa GE05
              `--Prosimulium P81
                   |--P. (Parahelodon) decertimaculum P81
                   |--P. magnum BMA03
                   |--P. (Prosimulium) mixtum P81
                   |--P. neomacropyga P81
                   |--P. (Helodon) onychodactylum P81
                   |--P. (Distosimulium) pleurale P81
                   `--P. ursinum P81

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AC09] Adler, P. H., & D. C. Currie. 2009. Simuliidae (black flies, bocones). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 389–406. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[ASD05] Armstrong, K. N., A. W. Storey & P. M. Davies. 2005. Effects of catchment clearing and sedimentation on macroinvertebrate communities of cobble habitat in freshwater streams of southwestern Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (1): 1–11.

[BMA03] Beard, C. E., J. W. McCreadie & P. H. Adler. 2003. Prevalence of the trichomycete fungus Harpella melusinae (Harpellales, Harpellaceae) in larval black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) across a heterogeneous environment. Mycologia 95 (4): 577–583.

[C94] Colless, D. H. 1994. A new family of muscoid Diptera from Australasia, with sixteen new species in four new genera (Diptera: Axiniidae). Invertebrate Taxonomy 8: 471–534.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HM70] Hinton, H. E., & I. M. Mackerras. 1970. Reproduction and metamorphosis. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 83–106. Melbourne University Press.

[O81] O’Brien, C. O. 1981. A. A. Book of New Zealand Wildlife: A guide to the native and introduced animals of New Zealand. Lansdowne Press: Auckland.

[P81] Peterson, B. V. 1981. Simuliidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 355–391. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Last updated: 2 May 2018.

1 comment:

  1. regards

    What measures did Archicnephia ornithoraptor have? I do not find them in the registers.

    Thank you very much


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