Images of Campyloderes cf. vanhoeffeni from Neuhaus & Sørensen (2012). Original caption: "SEM (A–C, F–H) and DIC images (D, E, J, K) of male (C, J) and female (A, B, D–H, K) Campyloderes cf. vanhoeffeni from the Galápagos area (A, E), Antarctica (B, H) and the Faroe Islands (C, D, F, G, J, K). (A, B) Habitus from left side (A) and ventral side (B). Arrow heads mark sensory spots. (C) Mouth cone in surface view, individual outer oral styles absent. (D, E) Optical section of mouth cone of specimens ZMUC KIN-87 (D) and ZMB 5967i (E). Inner oral styles recognizable in specimen from Galápagos area (E) but not in Faroe specimen (D). Pharynx with alternating circular and radial muscle cells in (E). (F, G). Tip of mouth cone (F) and detail of fused outer oral styles (G). (H) Frontal view of placids. (J, K) Head and placids of specimens ZMUC KIN-95 (J) and KIN-94 (K) in ventral (J) and dorsal view (K). Scale bar in A and B 200 μm, in C and H 20 μm, in D 30 μm (valid for D, E), in F 5 μm, in G 2 μm, in J 30 μm (valid for J, K)."

Belongs within: Ecdysozoa.
Contains: Echinoderes.

The Cyclorhagida is the larger of the two major groups of kinorhynchs, small worm-like animals found mostly in marine sediments.

Characters (from Higgins 1986): 14-16 neck plates; generally round to oval-triangular; usually with numerous lateral middorsal and occasionally midterminal spines.

    |--Cateria Gerlach 1956 [Cateriidae, Cryptorhagae] H86
    |    |--C. gerlachi Higgins 1968 H86
    |    |--C. styx Gerlach 1956 H86
    |    `--C. submersa Gerlach 1969 H86
    |--Semnoderidae [Conchorhagae] H86
    |    |--Sphenoderes Higgins 1969 H86
    |    |    `--S. indicus Higgins 1969 H86
    |    `--Semnoderes Zelinka 1907 H86
    |         |--S. armiger Zelinka 1928 H86
    |         |--S. pacificus Higgins 1967 H86
    |         `--S. ponticus Băcescu & Băcescu 1956 H86
    `--Cyclorhagae H86
         |--Echinoderes H86
         |--Condyloderes Higgins 1969 [Condyloderidae] H86
         |    |--C. multispinosus (McIntyre 1962) H86
         |    `--C. paradoxus Higgins 1969 H86
         `--Centroderidae H86
              |--Centroderes Zelinka 1896 H86
              |    |--C. eisigii Zelinka 1928 H86
              |    `--C. spinosus (Reinhard 1881) H86
              `--Campyloderes Zelinka 1913 H86
                   |--C. adherens Nyholm 1947 H86
                   |--C. macquariae Johnston 1938 H86
                   `--C. vanhoeffeni Zelinka 1913 H86

*Type species of generic name indicated


[H86] Higgins, R. P. 1986. Kinorhyncha. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 110-118. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

Neuhaus, B., & M. V. Sørensen. In press, 2012. Populations of Campyloderes sp. (Kinorhyncha, Cyclorhagida): one global species with significant morphological variation? Zoologischer Anzeiger.

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