Schizophora

Syringogaster sp., from here.


Belongs within: Cyclorrhapha.
Synapomorphies: Ephydroidea, Calyptratae, Odiniidae, Periscelididae, Carnidae, Agromyzidae, Sphaeroceridae, Tephritoidea, Chyromyidae, Opomyzidae, Sepsidae, Chloropidae, Milichiidae, Diopsidae, Canacidae, Nerioidea, Aulacigastridae, Heleomyzidae, Sciomyzoidea, Lauxanioidea, Ropalomeridae, Asteiidae, Psilidae, Clusiidae, Pallopteridae.

The Schizophora is a major clade of flies distinguished by the presence of the ptilinum, an eversible membrane in the head that is filled with fluid to break the adult fly out of the pupal case. Schizophorans have often been divided for convenience between the Calyptratae and Acalyptratae though 'Acalyptratae' have long been recognised as an artificial group. The relationships of many 'acalyptrate' families have only recently begun to be resolved and many families are difficult to distinguish without close examination.

Examples of smaller families not covered on separate pages are the Megamerinidae, a group of slender, elongate flies known from Eurasia. The Chyromyidae are small, mostly pale yellow flies with convergent postocellar bristles and lacking true vibrissae (though they may have vibrissa-like subvibrissal bristles) (McAlpine 1981). Acartophthalmus is a European genus of small grey or black flies with a pubescent arista. The Neminidae, nobody flies, are minute flies found in the Old World tropics, with a proclinate fronto-orbital bristle present and parallel or divergent postocellar bristles. Inbiomyia is a recently described genus of Neotropical flies characterised by a shortened head with a remarkably long arista on the antenna. Somatia, another Neotropical endemic, includes mostly black and yellow flies with an anteromedially produced frons, neck-like pronotum and broadened abdomen. Margo is an African genus of small, shining flies with porrect antennae and relatively long legs. The Nannodastiidae are very small, dull-coloured flies that are mostly found along beaches in warmer regions of the world. Strongylophthalmyia is a genus of slender flies superficially resembling members of the family Psilidae but distinguished by the presence of an outstanding episternal bristle. The Tanypezidae are smaller, slender flies with a large head and long legs found in the Holarctic and Neotropical regions (Apigian & Thompson 2010). The Teratomyzidae are narrow-winged flies of the Oriental, Australian and Neotropical regions that are mostly found on ferns in cool forests (Colless & McAlpine 1991). The mostly Australian genus Fergusonina has larvae that live in galls on Myrtaceae in association with the nematode genus Fergusobia (Colless & McAlpine 1991).

Characters (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Ptilinum present, adult emerging from puparium via circular sclerite; adult with specialised structure (cardia) between fore- and mid gut.

<==Schizophora (see below for synonymy)
    |--+--+--Ephydroidea WT11
    |  |  `--Calyptratae WT11
    |  `--+--Odiniidae WT11
    |     `--+--+--Periscelididae WT11
    |        |  `--Carnidae WT11
    |        `--+--Agromyzidae WT11
    |           `--Sphaeroceridae WT11
    `--+--Megamerinidae WT11
       |    |--Texara O98
       |    |--Megamerina dolium O98
       |    `--Palaeotanypeza spinosa RJ93
       `--+--+--Tephritoidea WT11
          |  `--+--Chyromyidae WT11
          |     `--+--Opomyzidae WT11
          |        `--+--Sepsidae WT11
          |           `--Acartophthalmidae WT11
          |                |--Acartophthalmites tertiaria RJ93
          |                `--Acartophthalmus WT11
          |                     |--A. bicolor Oldenberg 1910 C-T92
          |                     `--A. nigrinus (Zetterstedt 1848) C-T92
          `--+--+--+--+--+--Chloropidae WT11
             |  |  |  |  `--Milichiidae WT11
             |  |  |  `--Somatia LM10 [Somatiidae WT11]
             |  |  |       |--S. aestiva LM10
             |  |  |       |--S. schildi LM10
             |  |  |       `--S. sophiston LM10
             |  |  `--+--Diopsidae WT11
             |  |     `--+--Margo [Marginidae] WT11
             |  |        `--+--Canacidae WT11
             |  |           `--Nannodastiidae [Nannodastiinae] WT11
             |  |                |--Azorastia mediterranea M10
             |  |                `--Nannodastia M10
             |  |                     |--N. atlantica M10
             |  |                     `--N. horni M10
             |  `--+--+--Nerioidea WT11
             |     |  `--Aulacigastridae WT11
             |     `--+--Inbiomyia B10 [Inbiomyiidae WT11]
             |        |    |--I. anemosyris B10
             |        |    |--I. exul B10
             |        |    |--I. mcalpineorum B10
             |        |    |--I. scoliostylus B10
             |        |    `--I. zeugodonta B10
             |        `--Neminidae WT11
             |             |--Ningulus RM10
             |             |--Nemula Freidberg 1994 RM10
             |             |    `--N. longarista WT11
             |             `--Nemo RM10
             |                  |--N. arbelos O98
             |                  |--N. centriseta CM91
             |                  `--N. corticeus O98
             `--+--+--Strongylophthalmyiidae WT11
                |  |    |--Nartshukia O98
                |  |    `--Strongylophthalmyia WT11
                |  |         |--S. angustipennis M90
                |  |         |--S. fascipes O98
                |  |         |--S. pengellyi WT11
                |  |         `--S. ustulata S87
                |  `--Tanypezidae [Tanypezinae] WT11
                |       |--Tanypeza longimana AT10, M90
                |       |--Scipopeza grandis AT10
                |       `--Neotanypeza AT10
                |            |--N. apicalis AT10
                |            |--N. elegans AT10
                |            |--N. flavicalx AT10
                |            `--N. ornatipes AT10
                `--+--+--+--Heleomyzidae WT11
                   |  |  `--Teratomyzidae WT11
                   |  |       |--Teratomyza WT11
                   |  |       |--Camur willii BW09
                   |  |       `--Teratoptera CM91
                   |  `--+--+--Sciomyzoidea WT11
                   |     |  `--Lauxanioidea WT11
                   |     `--Heteromyza WT11 [incl. Thelida GP87; Heteromyzidae]
                   |          |--H. atricornis WT11
                   |          |--‘Heteromyiella’ miocenica [=Thelida miocenica] GP87
                   |          `--H. oculata GP87
                   `--+--+--Ropalomeridae WT11
                      |  `--+--+--Australimyza [Australimyzidae, Australimyzinae] WT11
                      |     |  `--Xenasteiidae [Tunisimyiidae] WT11
                      |     |       |--Xenasteia shalam WT11
                      |     |       `--Tunisimyia O98
                      |     `--+--Asteiidae WT11
                      |        `--Fergusonina [Fergusoninidae] WT11
                      |             |--F. carteri S00
                      |             |--F. nicholsoni N70
                      |             |--F. syzygii S00
                      |             `--F. turneri WT11
                      `--+--+--Psilidae WT11
                         |  `--Syringogaster MB10 [Syringogastridae WT11]
                         |       |--S. brunnea MB10
                         |       |--S. brunneina MB10
                         |       |--S. figurata MB10
                         |       |--S. rufa MB10
                         |       `--S. subnearctica MB10
                         `--+--Clusiidae WT11
                            `--+--Pallopteridae WT11
                               `--Neurochaetidae WT11
                                    |--Nothoasteia CM91
                                    |--Anthoclusia gephyrea RJ93
                                    `--Neurochaeta O98
                                         |--N. inversa CM91
                                         `--N. parviceps O98

Schizophora incertae sedis:
  Nothybus [Nothybidae] O98
    `--N. biguttatus O98
  Paraleucopidae W10
    |--Mallochianamyia W10
    |--Schizostomyia W10
    `--Paraleucopis W10
         |--P. corvina W10
         `--P. mexicana W10
  Gobrya CM91 [Gobryidae O98]
  Bromophila caffra Macq. 1846 [=Dichromyia caffra; incl. Scatophaga zamid Walker 1849] R01

Schizophora [Acalypterae, Acalyptrata, Agromyzoinea, Asteioidea, Asteioinea, Carnoidea, Chloropoidea, Clusioinea, Conopsariae, Diopsoidea, Heleomyzoidea, Holometopa, Muscaria, Nothyboidea, Opomyzoidea, Opomyzoidea, Pallopteroidea, Sphaeroceroidea] WT11

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AT10] Apigian, K., & F. C. Thompson. 2010. Tanypezidae (tanypezid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 827–831. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[B10] Buck, M. 2010. Inbiomyiidae (inbiomyiid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1105–1108. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[BW09] Buck, M., N. E. Woodley, A. Borkent, D. M. Wood, T. Pape, J. R. Vockeroth, V. Michelsen & S. A. Marshall. 2009. Key to Diptera families—adults. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 95–156. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[C-T92] Carles-Tolr√°, M. 1992. New and interesting records of Diptera Acalyptrata from Spain. Part I: Acartophthalmidae, Opomyzidae, Anthomyzidae, Asteiidae, Carnidae, Tethinidae, Milichiidae and Cryptochetidae. Bull. Annls Soc. R. Belge Ent. 128: 343–353.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[GP87] Gill, G. D., & B. V. Peterson. 1987. Heleomyzidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 973–980. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[LM10] Lonsdale, O., & D. K. McAlpine. 2010. Somatiidae (somatiid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 833–835. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[MB10] Marshall, S. A., & M. Buck. 2010. Syringogastridae (syringogastrid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 843–846. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[M10] Mathis, W. N. 2010. Nannodastiidae (nannodastiid beach flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1235–1239. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211–1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[N70] Norris, K. R. 1970. General biology. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 107–140. Melbourne University Press.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[R01] Ricardo, G. 1901. Notes on Diptera from South Africa (concluded). Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 89–110.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[RM10] Rung, A., & W. N. Mathis. 2010. Aulacigastridae (aulacigastrid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1083–1085. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[S00] Siddiqi, M. R. 2000. Tylenchida: Parasites of plants and insects 2nd ed. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[S87] Steyskal, G. C. 1987. Strongylophthalmyiidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 777–779. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[W10] Wheeler, T. A. 2010. Paraleucopidae (paraleucopid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1009–1011. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Last updated: 6 December 2019.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="http://www.fieldofscience.com/">FoS</a> = FoS