Schizophora

Syringogaster sp., from here.


Belongs within: Cyclorrhapha.
Synapomorphies: Ephydroidea, Calyptratae, Odiniidae, Agromyzidae, Sphaeroceridae, Periscelididae, Carnidae, Tephritoidea, Sepsidae, Opomyzidae, Nerioidea, Aulacigastridae, Chloropidae, Milichiidae, Diopsidae, Canacidae, Heleomyzidae, Sciomyzoidea, Lauxanioidea, Ropalomeridae, Asteiidae, Clusiidae, Pallopteridae, Psilidae.

The Schizophora is a major clade of flies distinguished by the presence of the ptilinum, an eversible membrane in the head that is filled with fluid to break the adult fly out of the pupal case. Schizophorans have often been divided for convenience between the Calyptrata and Acalyptrata (defined primarily by the presence or absence of an enlarged calypter at the base of the wing), though 'Acalyptrata' have long been recognised as an artificial group. However, the relationships of many 'acalyptrate' families have only recently begun to be resolved.

Many families of acalyptrate flies are difficult to distinguish without close examination. The Chyromyidae are small, mostly pale yellow flies with convergent postocellar bristles and lacking true vibrissae (though they may have vibrissa-like subvibrissal bristles) (McAlpine 1981). Acartophthalmus is a European genus of small grey or black flies with a pubescent arista. The Neminidae, nobody flies, are minute flies found in the Old World tropics, with a proclinate fronto-orbital bristle present and parallel or divergent postocellar bristles.

Characters (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Ptilinum present, adult emerging from puparium via circular sclerite; adult with specialised structure (cardia) between fore- and mid gut.

<==Schizophora (see below for synonymy)
    |  i. s.: Gobrya [Nothybidae] CM91
    |         Paraleucopidae BW09
    |           |--Mallochianamyia BW09
    |           |--Schizostomyia W10a
    |           `--Paraleucopis W10a
    |                |--P. corvina BW09
    |                `--P. mexicana W10a
    |         Anthoclusia CM74
    |--+--+--Ephydroidea WT11
    |  |  `--Calyptratae WT11
    |  `--+--Odiniidae WT11
    |     `--+--+--Agromyzidae WT11
    |        |  `--Sphaeroceridae WT11
    |        `--+--Periscelididae WT11
    |           `--Carnidae WT11
    `--+--Megamerinidae WT11
       `--+--+--Tephritoidea WT11
          |  `--+--Chyromyidae [Chiromyiidae, Chyromyinae] WT11
          |     |    |--Gymnochiromyia concolor WT11, M81
          |     |    |--Gephromyiella electrica M87
          |     |    |--Chyromya [incl. Somatiosoma Frey 1958] M87
          |     |    |    |--C. flava M81
          |     |    |    `--C. nitescens [=C. (*Somatiosoma) nitescens] M87
          |     |    `--Aphaniosoma M81
          |     |         |--A. aldrichi W10b
          |     |         |--A. quadrivittatum W10b
          |     |         `--A. rabida W10b
          |     `--+--+--Sepsidae WT11
          |        |  `--Acartophthalmus [Acartophthalmidae] WT11
          |        |       |--A. bicolor Oldenberg 1910 C-T92
          |        |       `--A. nigrinus (Zetterstedt 1848) C-T92
          |        `--Opomyzidae WT11
          `--+--+--+--+--Nerioidea WT11
             |  |  |  `--Aulacigastridae WT11
             |  |  `--+--Neminidae WT11
             |  |     |    |--Ningulus RM10
             |  |     |    |--Nemo centriseta RM10, CM91
             |  |     |    `--Nemula Freidberg 1994 RM10
             |  |     |         `--N. longarista WT11
             |  |     `--Inbiomyia [Inbiomyiidae] WT11
             |  |          |--I. anemosyris B10
             |  |          |--I. exul B10
             |  |          |--I. mcalpineorum WT11
             |  |          |--I. scoliostylus B10
             |  |          `--I. zeugodonta B10
             |  `--+--+--+--Chloropidae WT11
             |     |  |  `--Milichiidae WT11
             |     |  `--Somatia [Somatiidae] WT11
             |     |       |--S. aestiva WT11
             |     |       |--S. schildi LM10
             |     |       `--S. sophiston LM10
             |     `--+--Diopsidae WT11
             |        `--+--Margo [Marginidae] WT11
             |           `--+--Canacidae WT11
             |              `--Nannodastiidae [Nannodastiinae] WT11
             |                   |--Azorastia mediterranea WT11
             |                   `--Nannodastia M10
             |                        |--N. atlantica M10
             |                        `--N. horni BW09
             `--+--+--Strongylophthalmyia [Strongylophthalmyiidae] WT11
                |  |    |--S. angustipennis M90
                |  |    |--S. pengellyi WT11
                |  |    `--S. ustulata S87
                |  `--Tanypezidae [Tanypezinae] WT11
                |       |--Tanypeza longimana M90
                |       |--Scipopeza grandis AT10
                |       `--Neotanypeza AT10
                |            |--N. apicalis AT10
                |            |--N. elegans BW09
                |            |--N. flavicalx AT10
                |            `--N. ornatipes AT10
                `--+--+--+--Heleomyzidae WT11
                   |  |  `--Teratomyzidae WT11
                   |  |       |--Teratomyza WT11
                   |  |       |--Camur willii BW09
                   |  |       `--Teratoptera CM91
                   |  `--+--+--Sciomyzoidea WT11
                   |     |  `--Lauxanioidea WT11
                   |     `--Heteromyza WT11 [incl. Thelida GP87; Heteromyzidae]
                   |          |--H. atricornis WT11
                   |          |--‘Heteromyiella’ miocenica [=Thelida miocenica] GP87
                   |          `--H. oculata GP87
                   `--+--+--Ropalomeridae WT11
                      |  `--+--+--Australimyza [Australimyzidae, Australimyzinae] WT11
                      |     |  `--Xenasteia [Tunisimyiidae, Xenasteiidae] WT11
                      |     |       `--X. shalam WT11
                      |     `--+--Asteiidae WT11
                      |        `--Fergusonina [Fergusoninidae] WT11
                      |             |--F. nicholsoni N70
                      |             `--F. turneri WT11
                      `--+--+--Clusiidae WT11
                         |  `--+--Pallopteridae WT11
                         |     `--Neurochaetidae WT11
                         |          |--Neurochaeta inversa CM91
                         |          `--Nothoasteia CM91
                         `--+--Psilidae WT11
                            `--Syringogaster [Syringogastridae] WT11
                                 |--S. brunnea BW09
                                 |--S. brunneina MB10
                                 |--S. figurata MB10
                                 |--S. rufa BW09
                                 `--S. subnearctica MB10

Schizophora [Acalypterae, Acalyptrata, Agromyzoinea, Asteioidea, Asteioinea, Carnoidea, Chloropoidea, Clusioinea, Conopsariae, Diopsoidea, Heleomyzoidea, Holometopa, Muscaria, Nothyboidea, Opomyzoidea, Opomyzoidea, Pallopteroidea, Sphaeroceroidea] WT11

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AT10] Apigian, K., & F. C. Thompson. 2010. Tanypezidae (tanypezid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 827–831. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[B10] Buck, M. 2010. Inbiomyiidae (inbiomyiid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1105–1108. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[BW09] Buck, M., N. E. Woodley, A. Borkent, D. M. Wood, T. Pape, J. R. Vockeroth, V. Michelsen & S. A. Marshall. 2009. Key to Diptera families—adults. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 95–156. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[C-T92] Carles-Tolr√°, M. 1992. New and interesting records of Diptera Acalyptrata from Spain. Part I: Acartophthalmidae, Opomyzidae, Anthomyzidae, Asteiidae, Carnidae, Tethinidae, Milichiidae and Cryptochetidae. Bull. Annls Soc. R. Belge Ent. 128: 343–353.

[CM74] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1974. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 91–96. Melbourne University Press.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[GP87] Gill, G. D., & B. V. Peterson. 1987. Heleomyzidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 973–980. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[LM20] Lonsdale, O., & D. K. McAlpine. 2010. Somatiidae (somatiid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 833–835. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[MB10] Marshall, S. A., & M. Buck. 2010. Syringogastridae (syringogastrid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 843–846. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[M10] Mathis, W. N. 2010. Nannodastiidae (nannodastiid beach flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1235–1239. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[M81] McAlpine, J. F. 1981. Key to families—adults. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 89–124. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[M87] McAlpine, J. F. 1987. Chyromyidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 985–988. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211–1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[N70] Norris, K. R. 1970. General biology. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 107–140. Melbourne University Press.

[RM10] Rung, A., & W. N. Mathis. 2010. Aulacigastridae (aulacigastrid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1083–1085. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[S87] Steyskal, G. C. 1987. Strongylophthalmyiidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 777–779. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[W10a] Wheeler, T. A. 2010a. Paraleucopidae (paraleucopid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1009–1011. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[W10b] Wheeler, T. A. 2010b. Chyromyidae (chyromyid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1155–1157. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Last updated: 12 August 2017.

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