Syrphoidea

Paragus haemorrhous, copyright Aleksandrs Balodis.


Belongs within: Cyclorrhapha.
Contains: Microdon, Eristalini, Cerioidini, Syrphus, Pipunculinae.

The Syrphoidea are a group of flies including two distinctive families, the Syrphidae and Pipunculidae, that lack a ptilinal fissure and possess wings with a very long cell CuP (Colless & McAlpine 1991). The Syrphidae, hover flies, are often strikingly coloured flies, a number of which mimic bees or wasps in their appearance. Most visit flowers as adults and many are important pollinators (Thompson et al. 2010). The larvae of Syrphidae are predatory or detritivores; larvae of the Eristalinae are the 'rat-tailed maggots' that live in anoxic mud. Adults of Microdon and Eristalinae have the postpronota exposed behind the head and bearing at least a few suberect or appressed hairs whereas Syrphinae have the postpronota bare and hidden by the rear of the posteriorly concave, closely appressed head (Vockeroth & Thompson 1987). The Pipunculidae, big-headed flies, are small flies with large compound eyes occupying most of the globose to semiglobose head (Rafael & Skevington 2010).

<==Syrphoidea RS10
    |--Syrphidae [Syrphiae] RS10
    |    |  i. s.: Helophilina Becker 1922 KS05
    |    |         Episyrphus balteatus WT11
    |    |         Syritta TRZ10
    |    |           |--S. flaviventris TRZ10
    |    |           `--S. pipiens T90
    |    |         Eristalinus TRZ10
    |    |           |--E. aenus TRZ10
    |    |           `--E. punctulatus ZS10
    |    |         Metasyrphus nitens RD77
    |    |         Neocnemodon G84
    |    |         Eumerus TRZ10
    |    |           |--E. quadrimaculatus G89
    |    |           |--E. sabulonum K01
    |    |           `--E. strigatus TRZ10
    |    |         Volucella T81
    |    |           |--V. bombylans T81
    |    |           |--V. inanis (Linnaeus 1758) RD77, L58 [=Musca inanis L02, Syrphus (Volucella) inanis G20]
    |    |           |--V. obesa BM76
    |    |           |--V. pellucens WJ18
    |    |           `--V. zonaria RD77
    |    |         Chrysogaster VT87
    |    |           |--C. antitheus VT87
    |    |           `--C. chalybeata K01
    |    |         Brachyopa VT87
    |    |           |--B. (Brachyopa) notata VT87
    |    |           `--B. (Hammerschmidtia) ferruginea VT87
    |    |         Ascia dispar K01
    |    |         Melithreptus K01
    |    |           |--M. scriptus K01
    |    |           `--M. strigatus K01
    |    |         Pipizella K01
    |    |           |--P. maculata K01
    |    |           `--P. virens K01
    |    |         Pipiza VT87
    |    |           |--P. noctiluca K01
    |    |           `--P. quadrimaculata VT87
    |    |         Lycastrirhyncha TRZ10
    |    |           |--L. nitens TRZ10
    |    |           `--L. willistoni TRZ10
    |    |         Cheilosia TRZ10
    |    |           |--C. antiqua K01
    |    |           |--C. capillata TRZ10
    |    |           |--C. sialia VT87
    |    |           |--C. velutina K01
    |    |           |--C. viduata K01
    |    |           `--C. zetterstedti K01
    |    |         Cepa alex [=Xela alex] TRZ10
    |    |         Nothomicrodon aztecarum Wheeler 1924 TRZ10
    |    |         Rhopalosyrphus TRZ10
    |    |           |--R. carolae VT87
    |    |           `--R. guentherii TRZ10
    |    |         Paramicrodon TRZ10
    |    |         Argentinomyia rugosonasus TRZ10
    |    |         Aristosyrphus TRZ10
    |    |         Mixogaster TRZ10
    |    |           |--M. conopsoides TRZ10
    |    |           |--M. delongi TRZ10
    |    |           |--M. mexicana TRZ10
    |    |           `--M. orpheus TRZ10
    |    |         Paragodon paragoides TRZ10
    |    |         Cacoceria cressoni TRZ10
    |    |         Mutillimyia auricaudata TRZ10
    |    |         Allobaccha CM91
    |    |         Simosyrphus CM91
    |    |         Temnostoma VT87
    |    |         Neoascia VT87
    |    |           |--N. distincta VT87
    |    |           `--N. metallica VT87
    |    |         Palumbia inflata VT87
    |    |         Hiatomyia VT87
    |    |         Hadromyia (Hadromyia) grandis VT87
    |    |         Psilota VT87
    |    |           |--P. rubra CM70
    |    |           `--P. thatuna VT87
    |    |         Pelecocera pergandei VT87
    |    |         Chamaesyrphus willistonii VT87
    |    |         Sphegina VT87
    |    |           |--S. (Sphegina) keeniana VT87
    |    |           `--S. (Asiosphegina) petiolata VT87
    |    |         Cynorhinella VT87
    |    |           |--C. bella VT87
    |    |           `--C. longinasus VT87
    |    |         Tropidia quadrata VT87
    |    |         Merapioidus villosus VT87
    |    |         Brachypalpus VT87
    |    |           |--B. (Brachypalpus) oarus VT87
    |    |           `--B. (Crioprora) femoratus VT87
    |    |         Somula decora VT87
    |    |         Pyritis kincaidii VT87
    |    |         Heringia [incl. Cnemodon] VT87
    |    |         Ferdinandea VT87
    |    |         Lejota VT87
    |    |         Blera badia VT87
    |    |         Sphecomyia VT87
    |    |         Pocota bomboides VT87
    |    |         Pterallastes thoracicus VT87
    |    |         Paramixogaster icariiformis R78
    |    |         Mesogramma polita RD77
    |    |         Henops leucomelas G20
    |    |         Astomella marginata G20
    |    |         Graptomyza GC99
    |    |--Microdon TRZ10
    |    |--Eristalinae TRZ10
    |    |    |  i. s.: Alipumilio TRZ10
    |    |    |           |--A. femoratus TRZ10
    |    |    |           `--A. nigrocoeruleus TRZ10
    |    |    |         Orthonevra pulchella TRZ10, VT87
    |    |    |         Myolepta varipes TRZ10, VT87
    |    |    |         Quichuana angustiventris TRZ10
    |    |    |         Chalcosyrphus TRZ10
    |    |    |           |--C. (Chalcosyrphus) depressus VT87
    |    |    |           `--C. (Neplas) TRZ10
    |    |    |                |--C. (N.) pauxillus VT87
    |    |    |                `--C. (N.) schildi TRZ10
    |    |    |         Criorhina TRZ10
    |    |    |         Nausigaster TRZ10
    |    |    |           |--N. meridionalis TRZ10
    |    |    |           `--N. punctulata TRZ10
    |    |    |         Callicera TRZ10
    |    |    |           |--C. aenea [=Syrphus (Callicera) aenea] G20
    |    |    |           |--C. erratica TRZ10
    |    |    |           `--C. poultoni TRZ10
    |    |    |         Milesia TRZ10
    |    |    |           |--M. (Aphritis) apiaria G20
    |    |    |           |--M. nigra TRZ10
    |    |    |           |--M. (Milesia) pipiens G20
    |    |    |           |--M. pulchra TRZ10
    |    |    |           `--M. virginiensis VT87
    |    |    |         Spilomyia TRZ10
    |    |    |         Ornidia TRZ10
    |    |    |           |--O. major TRZ10
    |    |    |           `--O. obesa TRZ10
    |    |    |         Copestylum TRZ10
    |    |    |         Sterphus (Sterphus) stimulans TRZ10
    |    |    |         Xylota barbata TRZ10, VT87
    |    |    |         Lepidomyia micheneri TRZ10
    |    |    |         Palpada TRZ10
    |    |    |           |--P. mexicana TRZ10
    |    |    |           `--P. scutellaris TRZ10
    |    |    |         Habromyia coeruleithorax TRZ10
    |    |    |         Meromacrus loewi TRZ10
    |    |    |         Lycopale TRZ10
    |    |    |           |--L. chrysotaenia TRZ10
    |    |    |           `--L. wygodzinskyi TRZ10
    |    |    |         Teuchocnemis lituratus VT87
    |    |    |--Eristalini KS05
    |    |    |--Cerioidini TRZ10
    |    |    |--Merodon [Merodontini] TRZ10
    |    |    |    |--M. clavipes [=Milesia (Merodon) clavipes] G20
    |    |    |    |--M. equestris VT87
    |    |    |    `--M. pumilus Macquart 1849 E12
    |    |    |--Rhingia [Rhingiini] TRZ10
    |    |    |    |--R. nasica WT11
    |    |    |    |--R. nigra TRZ10
    |    |    |    `--R. rostrata L02
    |    |    `--Sericomyia TRZ10 [Sericomyiina, Sericomyini KS05]
    |    |         |--S. (Sericomyia) lapponum [=Syrphus (S.) lapponum] G20
    |    |         `--S. (Arctophila) TRZ10
    |    |              |--S. (A.) fairmanorum TRZ10
    |    |              `--S. (A.) meyersi TRZ10
    |    `--Syrphinae TRZ10
    |         |--Syrphus TRZ10
    |         |--Trichopsomyia TRZ10
    |         |--Dasysyrphus tricinctus TRZ10, RD77
    |         |--Xanthandrus mexicanus VT87
    |         |--Pseudodoros clavatus TRZ10
    |         |--Ischiodon VT87
    |         |--Parasyrphus tarsatus VT87
    |         |--Meliscaeva cinctella VT87
    |         |--Leucopodella marmorata VT87
    |         |--Doros aequalis VT87
    |         |--Xanthogramma flavipes VT87
    |         |--Sphaerophoria contigua VT87, TRZ10
    |         |--Leucozona (Leucozona) lucorum VT87
    |         |--Scaeva pyrastri VT87
    |         |--Eriozona (Megasyrphus) erraticus VT87
    |         |--Toxomerus [Toxomerini] TRZ10
    |         |    |--T. geminatus TRZ10
    |         |    `--T. politus TRZ10
    |         |--Baccha VT87
    |         |    |--B. elongata VT87
    |         |    `--B. norina MM96
    |         |--Didea VT87
    |         |    |--D. alneti K01
    |         |    `--D. fuscipes VT87
    |         |--Epistrophe VT87
    |         |    |--E. (Epistrophe) grossulariae VT87
    |         |    `--E. (Epistrophella) emarginata VT87
    |         |--Melangyna VT87
    |         |    |--M. (Melangyna) lasiophthalma VT87
    |         |    `--M. (Austrosyrphus) novaezealandiae M83
    |         |--Dideomima VT87
    |         |    |--D. coquilletti VT87
    |         |    `--D. vockerothi TRZ10
    |         |--Melanostoma VT87
    |         |    |--M. bellum TRZ10
    |         |    |--M. fasciatum BWT03
    |         |    `--M. mellinum TRZ10
    |         |--Allograpta TRZ10
    |         |    |--A. (Allograpta) armillata TRZ10
    |         |    |--A. exotica TRZ10
    |         |    |--A. neotropica TRZ10
    |         |    `--A. obliqua TRZ10
    |         |--Eupeodes TRZ10
    |         |    |--E. (Eupeodes) VT87
    |         |    |    |--E. (E.) americanus VT87
    |         |    |    `--E. (E.) volucris VT87
    |         |    `--E. (Lapposyrphus) lapponicus VT87
    |         |--Ocyptamus TRZ10
    |         |    |  i. s.: O. wulpianus BR09
    |         |    `--O. (Mimocalla) TRZ10
    |         |         |--O. (M.) bonariensis TRZ10
    |         |         `--O. (M.) tristani TRZ10
    |         |--Chrysotoxum TRZ10
    |         |    |--C. bicinctum K01 [=Mulio bicinctus L02, Syrphus (Chrysotoxum) bicinctus G20]
    |         |    |--C. derivatum TRZ10
    |         |    |--C. festivum K01
    |         |    |--C. integre VT87
    |         |    `--C. sibiricum K01
    |         |--Platycheirus TRZ10
    |         |    |--P. brunnifrons Nielsen 2004 F05
    |         |    |--P. caesius Nielsen & Stuke 2004 F05
    |         |    |--P. clypeatus K01
    |         |    |--P. quadratus TRZ10
    |         |    `--P. stegnus VT87
    |         |--Salpingogaster VT87
    |         |    |--S. (Salpingogaster) TRZ10
    |         |    |    |--S. (S.) nigra TRZ10
    |         |    |    `--S. (S.) punctifrons TRZ10
    |         |    `--S. (Eosalpingogaster) TRZ10
    |         |         |--S. (E.) cochenillivorus TRZ10
    |         |         `--S. (E.) nepenthe VT87
    |         `--Paragus TRZ10
    |              |--P. algirus Macquart 1847 E12
    |              |--P. (Pandasyophthalmus) haemorrhous TRZ10
    |              |--P. lacerus K01
    |              |--P. numida Macquart 1847 E12
    |              |--P. serratus TRZ10
    |              |--P. (Paragus) thymastri [=Syrphus (P.) thymastri] G20
    |              `--P. tibialis K01
    `--Pipunculidae [Dorilaidae] RS10
         |  i. s.: Alloneura A71
         |         Collinias RS10
         |         Beckerias CM91
         |--Nephrocerinae [Nephrocerini] RS10
         |    |--Protonephrocerus collini RS10, H87
         |    `--Nephrocerus RS10
         |         |--N. daeckei H87
         |         `--N. slossonae RS10
         |--Chalarinae RS10
         |    |--Chalarus spurius H87
         |    |--Jassidophaga RS10
         |    `--Verrallia RS10
         |         |--V. aucta A71
         |         `--V. virginica RS10
         `--Pipunculinae RS10

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[BR09] Borkent, A., & G. Rotheray. 2009. Key to Diptera families—larvae. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 157–191. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[BWT03] Bowie, M., S. Wratten & J. Tylianakis. 2003. An introduction to entomological research on Kowhai Farm—the Heinz Wattie’s Organic Farm at Lincoln University. Weta 25: 18–23.

[CM70] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1970. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 656–740. Melbourne University Press.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

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[G84] Gauld, I. D. 1984. An Introduction to the Ichneumonidae of Australia. British Museum (Natural History).

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso “Esploratore” dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 5–72.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GC99] Grimaldi, D., & J. Cumming. 1999. Brachyceran Diptera in Cretaceous ambers and Mesozoic diversification of the Eremoneura. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 239: 1–124.

[H87] Hardy, D. E. 1987. Pipunculidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 745–748. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[KS05] Kotthoff, U., & U. Schmid. 2005. A new fossil hoverfly (Insecta, Diptera: Syrphidae) from the Randeck Maar (Early Miocene, south-west Germany). Palaeontology 48 (5): 1091–1096.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1–487.

[RS10] Rafael, J. A., & J. H. Skevington. 2010. Pipunculidae (big-headed flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 793–803. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[R78] Richards, O. W. 1978. The Australian social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 61: 1–132.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[T81] Teskey, H. J. 1981. Key to families—larvae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 125–147. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[T90] Teskey, H. J. 1990. Insecta: Diptera larvae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1253–1276. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[TRZ10] Thompson, E. C., G. E. Rotheray & M. A. Zumbado. 2010. Syrphidae (flower flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 763–792. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[VT87] Vockeroth, J. R., & F. C. Thompson. 1987. Syrphidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 713–743. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[WJ18] Wahlberg, E., & K. A. Johanson. 2018. Molecular phylogenetics reveals novel relationships within Empidoidea (Diptera). Systematic Entomology 43: 619–636.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

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