Sarcophaga

Sarcophaga crassipalpis, copyright Lazaro A. Diaz.


Belongs within: Sarcophaginae.
Contains: Sarcophaga (Sarcorohdendorfia).

Sarcophaga is a genus of generally large flies whose larvae are carrion-feeders or predatory. Circumscription of this genus relative to others in the Sarcophagidae has been subject to some change, and remains uncertain. Most species feed as larvae on dead flesh, but some may facultatively attack living vertebrates (entering through necrotic wounds, for instance) and some have been reared from live invertebrate hosts (Askew 1971). One such North American species S. aldrichi, a parasitoid of the forest tent caterpillar Malacosoma disstria, is known as the 'friendly fly' due to its habit of settling on people and moving only reluctantly, though they do not bite.

Characters (from Pape & Dahlem 2010): Male without proclinate orbital bristles. Prosternum not greatly widened anteriorly. Vein R1 without setae dorsally; postalar wall setose on middle. Midtibia with one or more anterodorsal bristles; apical posteroventral bristle of hind tibia well differentiated, subequal in size to apical anteroventral bristle. Male midfemur without apical posteroventral ctenidium, stout bristles sometimes present but usually pointed and not so closely set; cerci with posterior profile in lateral view straight or nearly so on basal two-thirds, curved evenly forward distally, and spinelike setae, if present, directed dorsally, anterodorsally or anteriorly (cerci vertical); tergite 6 of female almost invariably incised or divided on midline, entire in species with longitudinal clear streak without microtrichia in cell cu1, or in some species with ventral setulae on costal sector 3 (between tips of Sc and R1); sternites 7-8 not fused, if so, sternite 8 divided, latter commonly in form of narrow transverse strip, sometimes membranous.

Sarcophaga
    |--+--S. arizonica KP10
    |  `--S. triplasia Wulp 1896 KP10
    `--+--+--S. (Australopierretia) australis (Johnston & Tiegs 1921) MD13, KP10 (see below for synonymy)
       |  `--+--S. marshalli Parker 1923 KP10
       |     `--+--S. fertoni Villeneuve 1911 KP10
       |        `--S. (Sarcorohdendorfia) KP10
       `--+--+--S. forma Blackith & Pape 1999 KP10
          |  `--S. setinervis Rondani 1860 KP10
          `--S. (Liopygia) MD13 [incl. Jantia Rohdendorf 1937 S87, Thomsonea Rohdendorf 1937 S87]
               |--‘Parasarcophaga (Thomsonea) argyrostoma L59
               |--S. (L.) crassipalpis Macquart 1839 KP10, S87, KP10 (see below for synonymy)
               `--S. (L.) ruficornis (Fabricius 1794) [=Musca ruficornis] MD13

Sarcophaga incertae sedis:
  S. agnata A71
  S. aldrichi [=Arachnidomyia aldrichi] BW09
  S. barbata A71
  S. bullata WT11
  S. caridei Brèthes 1906 B06
  S. carnaria K01
  S. clathrata A71
  S. depressa (Desvoidy 1830) [=Myophora depressa] L59
  S. destructor A71
  S. filia A71
  S. flavifemorata Macquart 1850 L59
  S. flavifrons BM76
  S. guerula T90
  S. haematodes K01
  S. inscisilobata A71
  S. johnsoni [=Wohlfartiopsis johnsoni] PD10
  S. kellyi A71
  ‘Parasarcophaga’ knabi CM74
  S. lambens B06
  S. melanura A71
  S. polistensis PD10
  S. scoparia A71
  S. socrus K01
  S. setipennis A71
  S. tuberosa A71
  S. uncata B06
  S. (Baranovisca) MD13
    |--S. (B.) arachnivora (Lopes 1985) [=Baranovisca arachnivora] MD13
    |--S. (B.) cyrtophorae (Cantrell 1986) [=Parasarcophaga cyrtophorae] MD13
    `--S. (B.) reposita (Lopes 1959) MD13 [=Parasarcophaga reposita MD13, P. (Rosellea) reposita L59]
  S. (Bercaea) MD13
    |--S. (B.) africa (Wiedemann 1824) [=Musca africa] MD13
    `--S. (B.) haemorrhoidalis A71, S87
  S. (Boettcherisca Rohdendorf 1937) MD13, L59
    `--S. (*B.) peregrina (Robineau-Desvoidy 1830) MD13, L59, MD13 [=Myophora peregrina L59]
  S. (Fergusonimyia Lopes 1958) MD13, L59
    `--S. (*F.) bancroftorum (Johnston & Tiegs 1921) MD13, L59 (see below for synonymy)
  S. (Hardyella Lopes 1959) MD13, L59
    `--S. (*H.) littoralis Johnston & Tiegs 1922 MD13, L59 (see below for synonymy)
  S. (Johnstonimyia Lopes 1959) MD13, L59
    |--S. (*J.) kappa Johnston & Tiegs 1921 [incl. S. illingworthi Parker 1922] L59
    |--‘Johnstonimyia’ imitatrix Lopes 1959 L59
    `--S. (J.) lincta Lopes 1959 MD13
  S. (Heteronychia Brauer & Bergenstamm 1889) MD13, L59 (see below for synonymy)
    |--S. dissimilis Meigen 1826 [incl. *Heteronychia chaetoneura Brauer & Bergenstamm 1889] L59
    |--S. haemorrhoa [=Mulsantia haemorrhoa, Pierretia haemorrhoa] L59
    `--S. (H.) villeneuveana MD13
  S. (Lioproctia) MD13
    |--S. (L.) alcicornis Hardy 1932 MD13
    |--S. (L.) imita Pape 1996 [=Johnstonimyia imitatrix Lopes 1959 (preoc.)] MD13
    |--S. (L.) multicolor Johnston & Tiegs 1922 MD13, L59 [=Johnstonimyia multicolor L59]
    |--S. (L.) spinifera Hardy 1932 MD13, L59 [=Johnstonimyia spinifera L59]
    `--S. (L.) torvida (Lopes 1959) MD13, L59 [=Johnstonimyia torvida L59]
  S. (Liosarcophaga Enderlein 1928) MD13, L59
    |--‘Liosarcophaga’ (*L.) madeirensis (Schiner 1868) (see below for synonymy) L59
    |--S. (L.) dux Thomson 1869 MD13
    |--S. (L.) eta Johnston & Tiegs 1921 [=Parasarcophaga (L.) eta] L59
    |--S. (L.) kohla Johnston & Tiegs 1921 MD13 [=Parasarcophaga (L.) kohla L59]
    |--S. (L.) sigma Johnston & Tiegs 1921 MD13, L59
    `--‘Liosarcophaga’ (L.) tuberosa [=Parasarcophaga (L.) tuberosa] L59
  S. (Parasarcophaga Johnston & Tiegs 1921) MD13, L59
    |--S. (P.) taenionota (Wiedemann 1819) MD13 (see below for synonymy)
    |--S. (P.) albiceps Meigen 1826 MD13
    |--S. (P.) misera Walker 1849 MD13, L59 (see below for synonymy)
    |--S. (P.) orchidea Boettcher 1913 [=S. hirtypes orchidea; incl. S. noumea Curran 1929] L59
    `--S. (P.) taenionota MD13
  S. (Poseidonimyia) simplex (Lopes 1967) [=Heteronychia simplex] MD13
  ‘Liosarcophaga’ (Rosellea Rohdendorf 1937) S87, L59
    |--S. (*R.) aratrix (Pandelle 1896) [=Parasarcophaga (*R.) aratrix] L59
    |--‘Parasarcophaga’ (R.) praelibera Lopes 1959 L59
    `--S. (R.) uliginosa (Kramer 1908) [=Parasarcophaga (R.) uliginosa] L59
  S. (Sarcosolomonia) MD13
    |--S. (S.) collessi Meiklejohn, Wallman & Pape 2013 MD13
    |--S. (S.) crinita Parker 1919 MD13 [incl. S. synia Johnston & Tiegs 1923 MD13, Bezziola synia L59]
    |--S. (S.) fabea (Lopes 1959) [=Bezziola fabea] MD13
    |--S. (S.) papuensis (Shimonaga & Kurahashi 1969) [=Sarcosolomonia papuensis] MD13
    |--S. (S.) sumunensis (Lopes 1967) [=Bezziola sumunensis] MD13
    `--S. (S.) versatilis (Lopes 1959) [=Bezziola versatilis] MD13
  S. (Taylorimyia Lopes 1959) MD13, L59
    `--S. (T.) aurifrons Macquart 1846 MD13 (see below for synonymy)

‘Liosarcophaga’ (*Liosarcophaga) madeirensis (Schiner 1868) [=Cynomyia madeirensis, Parasarcophaga (*L.) madeirensis] L59

Sarcophaga (Australopierretia) australis (Johnston & Tiegs 1921) MD13, KP10 [=Helicobia australis L59, Heteronychia australis L59, Pierretia australis L59]

Sarcophaga (*Fergusonimyia) bancroftorum (Johnston & Tiegs 1921) MD13, L59 [=Sarcophaga bancrofti L59; incl. S. horti Blackith & Blackith 1988 MD13]

Sarcophaga (*Hardyella) littoralis Johnston & Tiegs 1922 MD13, L59 [incl. S. agailoyi Salen 1945 L59, S. ogilvyi Salem 1946 MD13]

Sarcophaga (Heteronychia Brauer & Bergenstamm 1889) MD13, L59 [incl. Hartigia Desvoidy 1853 non Schioedte 1838 L59]

Sarcophaga (Liopygia) crassipalpis Macquart 1839 KP10, S87, KP10 [=Parasarcophaga (Jantia) crassipalpis L59; incl. S. dalmatina Schiner 1862 L59, S. securifera Villeneuve in Becker 1908 L59, Bellieria securifera L59, Parasarcophaga (Jantia) securifera L59]

Sarcophaga (Parasarcophaga) misera Walker 1849 MD13, L59 [=Parasarcophaga (Liosarcophaga) misera L59; incl. S. brunneopalpis Johnston & Tiegs 1922 MD13, S. ceylonensis Curran 1929 L59, S. gamma Johnston & Tiegs 1921 MD13, S. subtuberosa Parker 1917 L59]

Sarcophaga (Parasarcophaga) taenionota (Wiedemann 1819) MD13 [=Musca taenionota MD13; incl. S. (*P.) omega Johnston & Tiegs 1921 L59, MD13]

Sarcophaga (Taylorimyia) aurifrons Macquart 1846 MD13 [=Parasarcophaga (Liosarcophaga) aurifrons L59; incl. S. iota Johnston & Tiegs 1921 MD13, S. (*Taylorimyia) iota L59, Myophora musca Desvoidy 1830 (n. d.) L59]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[B06] Brèthes, J. 1906. Sarcophaga caridei, una nueva mosca langosticida. Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires, serie 3, 6: 297–301.

[BW09] Buck, M., N. E. Woodley, A. Borkent, D. M. Wood, T. Pape, J. R. Vockeroth, V. Michelsen & S. A. Marshall. 2009. Key to Diptera families—adults. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 95–156. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[CM74] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1974. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 91–96. Melbourne University Press.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[KP10] Kutty, S. N., T. Pape, B. M. Wiegmann & R. Meier. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of the Calyptratae (Diptera: Cyclorrhapha) with an emphasis on the superfamily Oestroidea and the position of Mystacinobiidae and McAlpine's fly. Systematic Entomology 35: 614–635.

[L59] Lopes, H. de S. 1959. A revision of Australian Sarcophagidae (Diptera). Studia Ent. 2 (1–4): 33–67.

[MD13] Meiklejohn, K. A., M. Dowton, T. Pape & J. F. Wallman. 2013. A key to the Australian Sarcophagidae (Diptera) with special emphasis on Sarcophaga (sensu lato). Zootaxa 3680 (1): 148–189.

[PD10] Pape, T., & G. A. Dahlem. 2010. Sarcophagidae (flesh flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1313–1335. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[S87] Shewell, G. E. 1987. Sarcophagidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1159–1186. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[T90] Teskey, H. J. 1990. Insecta: Diptera larvae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1253–1276. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Last updated: 11 August 2017.

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