Tephritidae

Blepharoneura sp., copyright John Smit.


Belongs within: Tephritoidea.
Contains: Acanthonevrini, Urophora, Bactrocera, Rhagoletis, Aciurina.

The Tephritidae include the fruit flies, a number of species of which are significant agricultural pests. The greater number of species are fruit- or seed-feeders as larvae; a number of Phytalmyiinae are saprophages in habitats such as fallen wood or damaged bamboo, and some Tephritinae feed within induced galls in plant tissue (Norrbom 2010). Many tephritids are strikingly patterned, particularly on the wings. These patterned wings may be rotated in a paddle-like movement in courtship displays. Within the family, members of the subfamily Dacinae are characterised by the absence of postpronotal, dorsocentral, katepisternal and ocellar bristles. Members of the Tephritinae have the wing cell cup closed by a concavely bent vein, with the posteroapical corner of the cell being drawn into a point (Foote & Steyskal 1987).

Characters (from Colless & McAlpine 1991): Incurved lower fronto-orbital bristles present; ocelli present; Sc usually bent forward distally towards costa almost at a right angle, costa broken at end of Sc, vein R1 setulose above; S1 and S2 separate; abdominal segment 6 of female usually well developed.

<==Tephritidae [Trupaneidae, Trypaneidae, Trypetidae]
    |--Blepharoneura [Blepharoneurinae] N10
    |    |--B. atomaria N10
    |    `--B. femoralis N10
    |--Phytalmyiinae [Phytalmiidae] N10
    |    |  i. s.: Phytalmia GE05
    |    |           |--P. alcicornis GE05
    |    |           |--P. mouldsi CM91
    |    |           `--P. robertsi O98
    |    |         Diplochorda CM74
    |    `--Acanthonevrini DK08
    |--Myopitinae [Euribiinae, Urophorinae] FS87
    |    |--Rhynencina longirostris FS87
    |    |--Euribia Meigen 1800 BR05
    |    `--Urophora FS87
    |--Dacinae N10
    |    |  i. s.: Dacus B88
    |    |           |--D. aequalis Coquillet 1909 C09
    |    |           |--D. (Austrodacus) cucumis CM91
    |    |           |--D. dorsalis A71
    |    |           |--D. (Afrodacus) jarvisi CM91
    |    |           |--D. longicornis C09
    |    |           |--D. neohumeralis VM72
    |    |           `--D. oleae B88
    |    |         Bactrocera N10
    |    |         Ceratitis N10
    |    |           |--C. capitata N10
    |    |           `--C. giffardii B88
    |    |         Toxotrypana curvicauda FS87, N10
    |    `--Gastrozonini DK08
    |         |--Cyrtostola limbata (Hendel 1915) DK08
    |         `--Paraxarnuta anephelobasis Hardy 1973 DK08
    `--Tephritinae [Trypetinae] N10
         |  i. s.: Pliomelaena H03
         |         Stephanotrypeta H03
         |           |--*S. brevicosta H03
         |           `--S. nigrofemorata H03
         |         Tephritis N10
         |           |--T. angustipennis FS87
         |           |--T. arizonaensis HGT96
         |           |--T. irrorata K01
         |           |--T. leontodontis K01
         |           `--T. subpura N10
         |         Eutreta N10
         |           |--E. distincta N10
         |           |--E. frontalis FS87
         |           `--E. xanthochaeta N10
         |         Cecidochares N10
         |           |--C. connexa N10 [=Procecidochares connexa W03]
         |           `--C. fluminensis N10
         |         Myoleja FS87
         |         Anastrepha FS87
         |           |--A. avispa N10
         |           |--A. fraterculus N10
         |           |--A. grandicula N10
         |           |--A. ludens N10
         |           |--A. manihoti N10
         |           |--A. obliqua N10
         |           |--A. suspensa N10
         |           `--A. tripunctata N10
         |         Hexachaeta valida FS87, N10
         |         Paraterellia FS87
         |         Oedicarena FS87
         |           |--O. latifrons R84
         |           |--O. nigra N10
         |           `--O. persuasa N10
         |         Zonosemata FS87
         |           |--Z. electa N10
         |           |--Z. guybushi N10
         |           `--Z. vittigera N10
         |         Callachna gibba FS87
         |         Peronyma sarcinata FS87
         |         Stenopa FS87
         |           |--S. mexicana N10
         |           `--S. vulnerata FS87
         |         Cecidocharella borrichia FS87
         |         Procecidocharoides FS87
         |           |--P. flavissima N10
         |           |--P. penelope N10
         |           `--P. pullatus N10
         |         Procecidochares FS87
         |           |--P. alani N10
         |           |--P. gibba N10
         |           |--P. minuta GT96
         |           `--P. utilis N10
         |         Chaetostomella undosa FS87
         |         Orellia lappae FS87, F92
         |         Neaspilota FS87
         |         Chetostoma californicum FS87, N10
         |         Epochra canadensis FS87
         |         Strauzia longipennis FS87
         |         Ensina FS87
         |           |--E. longiceps N10
         |           `--E. sonchi FS87
         |         Rhagoletis FS87
         |         Acidia speciosa K01
         |         Oxyna K01
         |           |--O. argyrocephala K01
         |           |--O. elongatula K01
         |           |--O. flavipennis K01
         |           `--O. parvula K01
         |         Trypeta FS87
         |           |--T. acuticornis K01
         |           |--T. costaricana N10
         |           |--T. inclinata N10
         |           |--T. lappae K01
         |           `--T. rufata N10
         |         Rhagoletotrypeta FS87
         |           |--R. intermedia N10
         |           |--R. morgantei N10
         |           |--R. parallela N10
         |           `--R. rohweri N10
         |         Euleia FS87
         |         Gymnocarena FS87
         |           |--G. brunnea N10
         |           |--G. diffusa N10
         |           |--G. macalpinei N10
         |           `--G. mexicana N10
         |         Mylogymnocarena FS87
         |         Eurosta comma FS87
         |         Acidogona FS87 [incl. Xenochaeta N10]
         |           |--A. dichromata N10
         |           |--A. melanura N10
         |           `--A. stecki N10
         |         Icterica seriata FS87
         |         Xanthomyia platyptera FS87
         |         Jamesomyia geminata FS87
         |         Xanthaciura FS87
         |           |--X. bipuncta N10
         |           `--X. insecta N10
         |         Trupanea FS87
         |           |--T. actinobola FS87
         |           |--T. bisetosa HGT96
         |           |--T. bullocki N10
         |           |--T. jonesi HGT96
         |           |--T. nigricornis N10
         |           |--T. simulata N10
         |           `--T. vicina N10
         |         Dyseuaresta FS87
         |           |--D. bilineata N10
         |           |--D. mexicana N10
         |           |--D. sobrinata N10
         |           `--D. trinotata N10
         |         Valentibulla californica FS87
         |         Aciurina FS87
         |         Paracantha FS87
         |           |--P. culta FS87
         |           |--P. gentilis N10
         |           |--P. ruficallosa N10
         |           `--P. trinotata N10
         |         Tomoplagia FS87
         |           |--T. obliqua FS87
         |           |--T. propleuralis N10
         |           |--T. quadriseriata N10
         |           `--T. stonei N10
         |         Euaresta FS87
         |           |--E. aequalis N10
         |           |--E. bullans CM91
         |           |--E. reticulata N10
         |           |--E. stigmatica N10
         |           `--E. toba N10
         |         Gonioxyna fuscata FS87
         |         Dioxyna FS87
         |           |--D. peregrina N10
         |           |--D. picciola [=Paroxyna picciola] HGT96
         |           |--D. sororcula HGT96
         |           `--D. thomae HGT96
         |         Campiglossa [incl. Paroxyna] N10
         |           |--C. albiceps HGT96
         |           |--‘Paroxyna’ clathrata FS87
         |           `--C. genalis N10
         |         Acinia picturata FS87
         |         Neotephritis FS87
         |           |--N. cinerea N10
         |           |--N. finalis N10
         |           |--N. rava N10
         |           `--N. semifusca N10
         |         Metatephritis fenestrata FS87
         |         Tetreuaresta FS87
         |           |--T. bartica N10
         |           |--T. heringi N10
         |           `--T. obscuriventris N10
         |         Euarestoides acutangulus FS87, N10
         |         Acrotaenia testudinea FS87
         |         Cryptotreta cislimitensis FS87, N10
         |         Acidoxantha O98
         |--Xyphosiini H03
         |--Noeetini H03
         `--Axiothaumini H03
              |--Axiothauma H03
              |--Cryptophorellia H03
              |--Orthocanthoides H03
              `--Terpnodesma Munro 1956 H03
                   |--*T. taeniaptera (Bezzi 1923) [=Terellia taeniaptera, Stephanotrypeta taeniaptera] H03
                   `--T. vittata (Freidberg 1979) [=Stephanotrypeta vittata] H03

Tephritidae incertae sedis:
  Pseudacidia clotho Z02
  Stemonocera GE05
  Schistopterum moebiusi Becker 1903 DK08
  Austronevra ZS10
  Adrama ZS10
  Trirhithrum coffeae BM76
  Pseudophorellia N10
    |--P. anypsilon N10
    `--P. hansoni N10
  Alujamyia farri N10
  Ceratodacus longicornis N10
  Agallamyia pendula N10
  Pyrgotoides N10
    |--*P. crassipes N10
    `--P. peruvianus N10
  Cryptodacus N10
    |--C. lopezi N10
    |--C. obliquus N10
    |--C. silvai N10
    `--C. tau N10
  Haywardina N10
    |--H. bimaculata N10
    `--H. cuculi N10
  Molynocoelia lutea N10
  Epochrinopsis N10
  Goedenia N10
    |--G. caurina N10
    `--G. grineliae N10
  Parastenopa N10
    |--P. elegans N10
    `--P. limata N10
  Rachiptera luculenta N10
  *Caenoriata pertinax N10
  *Euarestopsis paupera N10
  Neotaracia imox N10
  Polionota kohnae N10
  Neomyopites tresmilius N10
  Euphranta N10
    |--E. canadensis N10
    `--E. mexicana N10
  Carpomya N10
    |--C. tica N10
    `--C. vesuviana O98
  Lamproxyna nitidula N10
  Terellia N10
    |--T. longicauda F92
    |--T. occidentalis N10
    |--T. palposa N10
    `--T. serratulae HW96
  Acrotaeniacantha radiosa N10
  Baryplegma N10
    |--B. apiata N10
    `--B. pertusa N10
  Ostracocoelia mirabilis N10
  Dictyotrypeta N10
    |--*D. syssema N10
    |--D. crenulata N10
    `--D. incisa N10
  Dracontomyia N10
    |--D. borrichia N10
    `--D. riveti N10
  Polymorphomyia N10
    |--P. basilica N10
    |--P. footei N10
    `--P. pilosula N10
  Pseudeutreta anteapicalis N10
  Hetschkomyia maculipennis N10
  Lilloaciura N10
  Rhithrum vittatum N10
  Lamproxynella impluviata N10
  Pseudoedaspis decorata N10
  Plaumannimyia [incl. Trypanaresta] N10
    |--P. eugenia N10
    |--P. flava N10
    `--P. pallens N10
  Homoeothrix lindigi N10
  Lewinsohnia magna N10
  Neorhagoletis latifrons N10
  Neosphaeniscus m-nigrum N10
  Phacelochaeta quinquefasciata N10
  Cipomyia N10
  Eutretopsis N10
  Pseudopolionota radians N10
  Oedaspoides CM91
  Stylia CM70
  Dacopsis O98
  Themara O98
  Alloeomyia flavida O98
  Noeeta pupillata HW96

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[CM70] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1970. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 656–740. Melbourne University Press.

[CM74] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1974. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 91–96. Melbourne University Press.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[C09] Coquillet, D. W. 1909. Description of a new fruit-fly of the genus Dacus from New South Wales. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 794–795.

[DK08] Dohm, P., D. Kovač, A. Freidberg & R. Bin Hashim. 2008. Biology of the Oriental bamboo-inhabiting fly Felderimyia gombakensis and observations on mating trophallaxis in Felderimyia (Insecta, Diptera, Tephritidae, Phytalmiinae, Acanthonevrini). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (2): 311–318.

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[FS87] Foote, R. H., & G. C. Steyskal. 1987. Tephritidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 817–831. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[GT96] Goeden, R. D., & J. A. Teerink. 1996. Life histories and descriptions of adults and immature stages of two cryptic species, Aciurina ferruginea (Doane) and A. michaeli, new species (Diptera: Tephritidae), on Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus (Hooker) Nuttall in southern California. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (3): 415–438.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H03] Hancock, D. L. 2003. The status and relationships of Terpnodesma Munro and establishment of the new tribe Axiothaumini (Diptera: Tephritidae: Tephritinae). African Entomology 11 (1): 143–145.

[HGT96] Headrick, D. H., R. D. Goeden & J. A. Teerink. 1996. Life history and description of immature stages of Dioxyna picciola (Bigot) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Coreopsis spp. (Asteraceae) in southern California. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (2): 332–349.

[HW96] Hoebeke, E. R., & A. G. Wheeler, Jr. 1996. Pteromalus elevatus (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae): North American records of an immigrant parasitoid of the gall fly Urophora jaceana (Diptera: Tephritidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (1): 87–92.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[N10] Norrbom, A. L. 2010. Tephritidae (fruit flies, moscas de frutas). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 909–954. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[R84] Rogers, J. S. 1984. Deriving phylogenetic trees from allele frequencies. Systematic Zoology 33 (1): 52–63.

[VM72] Vogt, W. G., & D. G. McPherson. 1972. The weighted separation index: a multivariate technique for separating members of closely-related species using qualitative differences. Systematic Zoology 21 (2): 187–198.

[W03] Waterhouse, B. M. 2003. Know your enemy: recent records of potentially serious weeds in northern Australia, Papua New Guinea and Papua (Indonesia). Telopea 10 (1): 477–485.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 331–388. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

Last updated: 10 November 2019.

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