Drosophila

Drosophila busckii, from Wikimedia Commons.


Belongs within: Drosophilidae.
Contains: Drosophila (Drosophila), Drosophila (Sophophora).

Drosophila is a diverse, cosmopolitan genus of vinegar flies; the monophyly of the genus as generally recognised is currently under debate.

Characters (from Grimaldi 2010): Arista plumose; facial carina large, often with flat surface; eyes pubescent; acrostichals in six or more rows; two pairs of dorsocentral setae; prescutellar setae absent; two katepisternal setae present of unequal lengths; wing tip rounded; crossveins distant.

<==Drosophila Fallén 1823 (see below for synonymy) SDF04
    |--D. (Dorsilopha) busckii RV05
    `--+--D. (Drosophila) RV05
       `--D. (Sophophora) RV05

Drosophila incertae sedis:
  D. acutilabella S00
  D. artificialis D37
  D. auraria KVV96
  D. berryi W87
  D. colorata M90
  D. earlei D37
  D. grimshawi WT11
  D. guttifera M47
  D. heteroneura C96
  *Tanygastrella’ hypopygialis Duda 1924 SDF04
  D. (Phalodoris) lebanonensis CE79
  D. macrospina D51
    |--D. m. macrospina D51
    |--D. m. limpiensis D51
    `--D. m. ohioensis D51
  D. megagenys W91
  *Adrosophila’ minuta Séguy 1938 SDF04
  *Spuriostyloptera’ multipunctata Duda 1923 SDF04
  D. nasutoides LG91
  D. neorepleta D51
  D. nigrospiracula S85
  D. notha W91
  D. onychophora G10
  D. orientacea GJR97
  D. planitibia G91
  D. prosaltans D51
  D. quadrilineata de Meijere 1911 [=*Chaetodrosophilella quadrilineata] SDF04
  D. recens S00
  D. rubida W70
  D. silvestris VD94
  D. sturtevanti D51
  D. subarctica CE79
  D. suboccidentalis S00
  D. sulcata D37
  D. transversa D37
  D. uvarum B88
  D. vibrissina D37
  D. wheeleri G84
  D. (Paradrosophila Duda 1923) SDF04
    `--D. (*P.) pictipennis Kertész 1901 SDF04
  D. (Pholadoris) T68
    |--D. (P.) lativittata T68
    |--D. (P.) pattersoni T68
    `--D. (P.) victoria T68
  D. (Spinulophila Duda 1923) SDF04
    `--D. (*S.) signata (Duda 1923) [=*Spinulophila signata] SDF04

Drosophila Fallén 1823 [incl. Adrosophila Séguy 1938, Chaetodrosophilella Duda 1923, Chaetodrosophila (l. c.), Spuriostyloptera Duda 1923, Tanygastrella Duda 1924] SDF04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[C96] Campbell, N. A. 1996. Biology 4th ed. The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc.: Menlo Park (California).

[CE79] Coyne, J. A., W. F. Eanes, J. A. M. Ramshaw & R. K. Koehn. 1979. Electrophoretic heterogeneity of α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase among many species of Drosophila. Systematic Zoology 28 (2): 164–175.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[D51] Dobzhansky, T. 1951. Genetics and the Origin of Species 3rd ed. Columbia University Press: New York.

[GJR97] Giordano, R., J. J. Jackson & H. M. Robertson. 1997. The role of Wolbachia bacteria in reproductive incompatibilities and hybrid zones of Diabrotica beetles and Gryllus crickets. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 94: 11439–11444.

[G84] Gosling, E. M. 1984. The systematic status of Mytilus galloprovincialis in western Europe: a review. Malacologia 25 (2): 551–568.

[G10] Grimaldi, D. 2010. Drosophilidae (small fruit flies, pomace flies, vinegar flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1197–1206. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[G91] Groves, C. P. 1991. A Theory of Human and Primate Evolution revised ed. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[KVV96] Kroon, A., R. L. Voenendaal & A. Veerman. 1996. Does the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae) respond to photoperiod in a quantitative manner? In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 5–7. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[LG91] Li, W.-H., & D. Graur. 1991. Fundamentals of Molecular Evolution. Sinauer: Sunderland (MA).

[M47] Mayr, E. 1947. Ecological factors in speciation. Evolution 1: 263–288.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211–1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[RV05] Robe, L. J., V. L. S. Valente, M. Budnik & E. L. S. Loreto. 2005. Molecular phylogeny of the subgenus Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae) with an emphasis on Neotropical species and groups: a nuclear versus mitochondrial gene approach. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 623–640.

[S00] Siddiqi, M. R. 2000. Tylenchida: Parasites of plants and insects 2nd ed. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[SDF04] Singh, B. K., S. Dash & R. S. Fartyal. 2004. Revision of the species of the subgenus Drosophila (Drosophila) of the Kumaon region, India, with the description of eight new species. Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 163–176.

[S85] Slatkin, M. 1985. Gene flow in natural populations. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 16: 393-430.

[T68] Throckmorton, L. H. 1968. Concordance and discordance of taxonomic characters in Drosophila classification. Systematic Zoology 17 (4): 355–387.

[VD94] Vogler, A. P., & R. Desalle. 1994. Diagnosing units of conservation management. Conservation Biology 8 (2): 354–363.

[W87] Wheeler, M. R. 1987. Drosophilidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1011–1018. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[W70] White, M. J. D. 1970. Cytogenetics. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 72–82. Melbourne University Press.

[W91] Whitten, M. J. 1991. Australian insects in scientific research. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 236–251. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

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