Protocalliphora azurea, copyright James K. Lindsey.

Belongs within: Oestroidea.
Contains: Phumosia, Ameniini, Auchmeromyiinae, Chrysomyinae, Calliphorinae, Lucilia.

The Calliphoridae include the blowflies, which are often scavengers of rotting meat and/or vegetation. Several species have larvae that are either facultative or obligatory parasites of vertebrates; a smaller number are parasitic on invertebrates (Askew 1971). The monophyly of the Calliphoridae as usually recognised is uncertain; a number of the several subfamilies recognised may need to be reclassified.

Characters (from Vargas & Wood 2010): Medium-sized to large flies (body length 5-15 mm), usually shiny, metallic green, blue or purple, at least on abdomen. Frons of male narrower, and eye larger, than that of female, and usually lacking proclinate orbital bristles; chaetotaxy otherwise similar in both sexes. Lowest frontal bristle arising at level of base of antenna. Gena with well-developed genal dilation. Vibrissa usually arising above level of lower facial margin. Facial ridge usually bristled more than halfway to base of antenna. Pedicel with single elongate bristle among few shorter setae. First flagellomere similar in length in both sexes, or slightly longer in female. Arista long-plumose dorsally and ventrally. Palpus clavate. Notopleuron with two setae. Postpronotum with three major bristles in transverse row, sometimes preceded by fourth smaller bristle, ocassionally with middle bristle displaced anteriorly or absent. Meron with row of well-developed bristles. Wing with bend in vein M.

    |--Phormiini S87
    |    |--Phormia regina M81
    |    |--Protophormia terranovae S87
    |    |--Boreellus [Boreellini] S87
    |    |    `--B. atriceps S87
    |    `--Protocalliphora [Protocalliphorini] KP10
    |         |--P. azurea (Fallén 1817) KP10
    |         |--P. braueri A71
    |         |--P. chrysorrhoea A71
    |         |--P. falcozi A71
    |         |--P. lindneri A71
    |         |--P. peusi A71
    |         `--P. sialia S87
    `--+--+--Chrysomyinae KP10
       |  `--Bengaliinae [Coganomyiinae] KP10
       |       |--Coganomyia Dear 1977 [Coganomyinae] PG-M04
       |       |    `--*C. ornata Dear 1977 PG-M04
       |       `--Bengalia Robineau-Desvoidy 1830 (see below for synonymy) PG-M04
       |            |--*B. labiata Robineau-Desvoidy 1830 PG-M04
       |            |--B. depressa Walker 1858 [=*Eubengalia depressa] PG-M04
       |            |--‘Musca’ jejuna Fabricius 1787 (see below for synonymy) PG-M04
       |            |--B. peuhi KP10
       |            `--‘Musca’ torosa Wiedemann 1819 (see below for synonymy) PG-M04
       `--+--+--Calliphorinae KP10
          |  `--Toxotarsinae KP10
          |       |--Neta PG-M04
          |       `--Sarconesia KP10
          |            |--S. chlorogaster (Wiedemann 1830) KP10
          |            `--S. versicolor Bigot 1857 KP10
          `--Luciliinae [Luciliini] KP10
               |--Lucilia PG-M04
               |--Hemipyrellia Townsen 1918 PG-M04
               |    |--‘Lucilia’ fernandica Macquart 1855 [incl. *Hemipyrellia curriei Townsend 1918] PG-M04
               |    `--H. fergusoni W01
               |--Blepharicnema Macquart 1843 PG-M04
               |    `--*B. splendens Macquart 1843 PG-M04
               |--Francilia Shannon 1924 [incl. Acrophagella Ringdahl 1942] PG-M04
               |    `--‘Sarcophaga’ fuscipalpis Zetterstedt 1845 (see below for synonymy) PG-M04
               |--Luciliella Malloch 1926 PG-M04
               |    `--*L. fumicosta (Malloch 1926) [=Lucilia (*Luciliella) fumicosta] PG-M04
               |--Sinolucilia Fan 1965 PG-M04
               |    `--*S. appendifera (Fan 1965) [=Lucilia (*Sinolucilia) appendifera] PG-M04
               |--Viridinsula Shannon 1926 PG-M04
               |    `--*V. pionia (Walker 1849) [=Lucilia pionia] PG-M04
               |--Hypopygiopsis Townsend 1916 PG-M04
               |    |--H. fumipennis (Walker 1856) KP10 (see below for synonymy)
               |    `--H. violacea (Macquart 1835) KP10
               |--Dyscritomyia Grimshaw 1901 [incl. Prostethochaeta Grimshaw 1901] PG-M04
               |    |--*D. limbipennis (Thomson 1868) [=Catapicephala limbipennis] PG-M04
               |    `--*Prostethochaeta’ robusta Grimshaw 1901 PG-M04
               `--Bufolucilia Townsend 1919 [incl. Chaetophaenicia Enderlein 1936] PG-M04
                    |--*B. bufonivora (Moniez 1876) [=Lucilia bufonivora] PG-M04
                    `--‘Musca’ silvarum Meigen 1826 [=*Chaetophaenicia silvarum] PG-M04

Calliphoridae incertae sedis:
  Termitolaemus Baranov 1936 PG-M04
    `--*T. marshalli Baranov 1936 PG-M04
  Termitocalliphora Bauristhene in Pont 1980 PG-M04
    `--*T. machadoi Bauristhene 1964 PG-M04
  Cretaphormia McAlpine 1970 PG-M04
    `--*C. fowleri McAlpine 1970 PG-M04
  Gymnostilina Macquart 1855 PG-M04
    `--*G. nitida Macquart 1855 PG-M04
  Pollenoides Matsumura 1916 PG-M04
    `--*P. kuwanianus Matsumura 1916 PG-M04
  Propollenia Müller 1926 PG-M04
    `--*P. setosa Müller 1926 PG-M04
  Aphyssura Hardy 1940 [Aphyssurinae] PG-M04
    `--*A. minuta (Malloch 1928) [=Melinda minuta] PG-M04
  Phumosiinae KP10
    |--Phumosia PG-M04
    `--Euphumosia Malloch 1926 PG-M04
         |--*E. papua (Meneville 1830) [=Musca papua] PG-M04
         |--E. evittata PG-M04
         `--E. maai PG-M04
  Ameniinae PG-M04
    |--Ameniini PG-M04
    `--Parameniini PG-M04
         |--Paramenia Brauer & Bergestamm 1889 [incl. Calliphoropsis Townsend 1915] PG-M04
         |    |--*P. semiauriceps Brauer & Bergestamm 1889 PG-M04
         |    `--‘Musca’ macularis Walker 1859 [=*Calliphoropsis macularis] PG-M04
         `--Catapicephala Macquart 1851 [incl. Trongia Townsend 1916] PG-M04
              |--*C. splendens Macquart 1851 PG-M04
              `--‘Musca’ micans Fabricius 1805 [incl. *Trongia Townsend 1916 (no species name?)] PG-M04
  Auchmeromyiinae PG-M04
  Laneella [Laneelinae] VW10
    `--L. nigripes VW10
  Trypocalliphora VW10
  Souzalopesiella [Souzalopesiellinae] VW10
    `--S. facialis VW10
  Mesembrinella (see below for synonymy) VW10
    |--M. abaca VW10
    |--M. bicolor BW09
    `--M. quadrilineata Fabricius 1805 KP10

Bengalia Robineau-Desvoidy 1830 [incl. Anisomyia Walker 1860, Eubengalia Townsend 1926, Homodexia Bigot 1885, Ochromyia Macquart 1835, Parabengalia Roubaud 1911] PG-M04

Hypopygiopsis fumipennis (Walker 1856) KP10 [=Musca fumipennis PG-M04, *Hypopigiopsis splendens Townsend 1916 PG-M04]

Mesembrinella [incl. Eumesembrinella, Huascaromusca; Mesembrinellidae, Mesembrinellinae, Eumesembrinellini, Mesembrinellini] VW10

‘Musca’ jejuna Fabricius 1787 [=*Ochromyia jejuna; incl. M. favillacea Walker 1860, M. (*Anisomyia) favillacea, *Homodexia obscuripennis Bigot 1885] PG-M04

‘Musca’ torosa Wiedemann 1819 [incl. M. jejuna Roubaud 1911 non Fabricius 1786, Bengalia (*Parabengalia) jejuna] PG-M04

*Parochromyia’ varia Hough 1898 [incl. *Auchmeromyiella angola Townsend 1918, *Tricyclodes pallens Curran 1927] PG-M04

‘Sarcophaga’ fuscipalpis Zetterstedt 1845 [=*Acrophagella fuscipalpis; incl. *Francilia alaskensis Shannon 1924] PG-M04

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BW09] Buck, M., N. E. Woodley, A. Borkent, D. M. Wood, T. Pape, J. R. Vockeroth, V. Michelsen & S. A. Marshall. 2009. Key to Diptera families—adults. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 95–156. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[KP10] Kutty, S. N., T. Pape, B. M. Wiegmann & R. Meier. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of the Calyptratae (Diptera: Cyclorrhapha) with an emphasis on the superfamily Oestroidea and the position of Mystacinobiidae and McAlpine's fly. Systematic Entomology 35: 614–635.

[M81] McAlpine, J. F. 1981. Morphology and terminology—adults. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 9–63. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[PG-M04] Peris, S. V., & D. González-Mora. 2004. Clave de identificación para los géneros de Calliphoridae del mundo. Subfamilias con vena remigium desnuda y creación de una nueva subfamilia. Bol. R. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. (Sec. Biol.) 99 (1–4): 115–144.

[S87] Shewell, G. E. 1987. Calliphoridae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1133–1145. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[VW10] Vargas, J., & D. M. Wood. 2010. Calliphoridae (blow flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1297–1304. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[W01] Wallman, J. F. 2001. A key to the adults of species of blowflies in southern Australia known or suspected to breed in carrion. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 15: 433–437.

Last updated: 12 August 2017.

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