Ceratophysella denticulata, photographed by Scott Justis.

Belongs within: Panhexapoda.
Contains: Sminthuridae, Isotomidae, Entomobryidae.

The Collembola are the springtails, minute hexapods found worldwide. The vernacular name refers to the presence in most Collembola of a forked appendage on the underside of the abdomen that can be flicked backwards to fling the springtail into the air.

Synapomorphies (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Antennae short, typically four-segmented; thoracic sterna divided into lateral basisternites by linea ventralis; legs with tibiae and monomeric tarsi fused to form tibiotarsus; abdomen reduced to six or fewer segments; first abdominal segment bearing a ventral tube (the collophore) with eversible vesicles at apex; gonopore present on fifth abdominal segment; furculum ('spring') present on venter of fourth abdominal segment, reclining into retinaculum ('lock') on third abdominal segment; furculum divided between broad base (manubrium) bearing paired-finger like processes (dentes) that may bear further small apical processes (mucrones).

<==Collembola [Podurida]
    |  i. s.: Permobrya mirabilis CP02
    |         Antennacyrtus CP02
    |         Setocerura CP02
    |         Semicerura CP02
    |         Procerura CP02
    |         Protentomobrya Folsom 1937 [Protentomobryidae] CP02
    |           `--*P. walkeri Folsom 1937 CP02
    |         Oncobrya Christiansen & Pike 2002 [Oncobryidae] CP02
    |           `--*O. decepta Christiansen & Pike 2002 CP02
    |         Oncopodura [Oncopoduridae] CP02
    |         Brachystomellidae CP02
    |           |--Brachystomella parvula M83
    |           `--Bellingeria Christiansen & Pike 2002 CP02
    |                `--*B. cornua Christiansen & Pike 2002 CP02
    |         Gomphiocephalus hodgsoni NS03
    |         Tetrodontophora bielanensis NS03
    |         Anuridella calcarata (Denis 1925) TM86
    |         Holacanthella paucispinosa O81
    |         Absolonia Börner 1901 KM07
    |         Sinella termitum M59
    |--Neopleona GE05
    |    |--Neelidae [Neelipleona] GE05
    |    |    |--Megalothorax minimus M83
    |    |    `--Acanthoneelidus Bretfeld & Griegel 2006 [=Acanthothorax Bretfeld & Griegel 1999 non Gaede 1832] BG06
    |    |         `--*A. pratensis (Bretfeld & Griegel 1999) [=*Acanthothorax pratensis] BG06
    |    `--+--Sminthurididae TM86
    |       |--Sminthuridae GE05
    |       |--Katianna M83 [Katiannidae TM86]
    |       `--Bourletiella M83 [Bourletiellidae TM86]
    |            |--B. arvalis M83
    |            `--B. hortensis H74
    `--Arthropleona GE05
         |  i. s.: Archisotoma GEW01
         |           |--A. interstitialis Delamare 1954 TM86
         |           |--A. pauliani Delamare 1954 TM86
         |           |--A. pulchella (Moniez 1890) TM86
         |           `--A. renaudi Delamare 1956 TM86
         |--Isotomidae TM86
         |--Cyphoderidae TM86
         |--Troglobius CP02 [Paronellidae TM86]
         |--Entomobryidae TM86
         |--Podura GD00 [Poduridae TM86]
         |    `--P. aquatica GD00
         |--Onychiuridae TM86
         |    |--Onychiurus TM86
         |    |    |--O. armatus M83
         |    |    |--O. debilis (Moniez 1890) TM86
         |    |    `--O. handschini V73
         |    |         |--O. h. handschini V73
         |    |         `--O. h. strinatii V73
         |    `--Tullbergia M83
         |         |--T. callipygos M83
         |         `--T. krausbaueri M83
         |--Neanuridae TM86
         |    |--Pseudachorutella asigillata (Börner 1901) SL06
         |    |--Pseudoxenylla Christiansen & Pike 2002 CP02
         |    |    `--*P. fovealis Christiansen & Pike 2002 CP02
         |    `--Friesea Dalla Torre 1895 SS06
         |         |--F. landwehri Christiansen & Bellinger 1980 SS06
         |         |--F. peruensis Smolis & Skarżyński 2006 SS06
         |         `--F. woyciechowskii Weiner 1980 SS06
         `--Hypogastruridae TM86
              |--Schaefferia TM86
              |    |--S. coeca (Cassagnau 1959) TM86
              |    `--S. subterranea V73
              |--Xenylla maritima Tullberg 1869 SL06
              |--Hypogastrura SL06
              |    |--H. denticulata M83
              |    |--H. manubrialis M83
              |    `--H. papillata Gisin 1949 SL06
              `--Ceratophysella Börner 1932 S07
                   |--C. alachuensis Skarżyński 2007 S07
                   |--C. annae Babenko 1994 S07
                   |--C. armata (Nicolet 1841) SL06
                   |--C. caucasica Martynova 1964 S07
                   |--C. denticulata S07
                   |--C. gibbosa Bagnall 1940 S07
                   |--C. kennethi Skarżyński 2007 S07
                   |--C. kutyrevae Babenko 1994 S07
                   |--C. pecki (Christiansen & Bellinger 1980) S07
                   |--C. robustiseta Skarżyński & Smolis 2006 S07
                   |--C. stercoraria Stach 1963 S07
                   `--C. tolteca Yosii 1962 S07

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BG06] Bretfeld, G., & A. Greigel. 2006. Acanthoneelidus nom. n. for the genus Acanthothorax Bredfeld & Griegel 1999 from northwestern Poland (Insecta, Collembola, Neelidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 86 (1): 46.

[CP02] Christiansen, K., & E. Pike. 2002. Cretaceous Collembola (Arthropoda, Hexapoda) from the Upper Cretaceous of Canada. Cretaceous Research 23: 165-188.

[GD00] Giribet, G., D. L. Distel, M. Polz, W. Sterrer & W. C. Wheeler. 2000. Triploblastic relationships with emphasis on the acoelomates and the position of Gnathostomulida, Cycliophora, Plathelminthes, and Chaetognatha: A combined approach of 18S rDNA sequences and morphology. Systematic Biology 49: 539-562.

[GEW01] Giribet, G., G. D. Edgecombe & W. C. Wheeler. 2001. Arthropod phylogeny based on eight molecular loci and morphology. Nature 413: 157-161.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H74] Helson, G. A. H. 1974. Insect Pests: Identification, life history, and control of pests of farms, horticulture, gardens, and public health. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[KM07] Kury, A. B., & A. C. Mendes. 2007. Taxonomic status of the European genera of Travuniidae (Arachnida, Opiliones, Laniatores). Munis Entomology & Zoology 2 (1): 1-14.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: An annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1-98.

[M59] Morgan, F. D. 1959. The ecology and external morphology of Stolotermes ruficeps Brauer (Isoptera: Hodotermitidae). Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 86 (1): 155-195.

[NS03] Nardi, F., G. Spinsanti, J. L. Boore, A. Carapelli, R. Dallai & F. Frati. 2003. Hexapod origins: Monophyletic or paraphyletic? Science 299: 1887-1889.

[O81] O'Brien, C. O. 1981. A. A. Book of New Zealand Wildlife: A guide to the native and introduced animals of New Zealand. Lansdowne Press: Auckland.

[SL06] Schulz, H.-J., & P. Lymberakis. 2006. First contribution to the knowledge of the Collembola fauna of the White Mountains (Lefká Óri) in west Crete (Insecta, Collembola, Isotomidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 86 (2): 229-234.

[S07] Skarżyński, D. 2007. Two new species and a new record of the genus Ceratophysella Börner 1932 from North America (Insecta, Collembola, Hypogastruridae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (2): 137-142.

[SS06] Smolis, A., & D. Skarżyński. 2006. A new species of Friesea Dalla Torre 1895 from Peru (Insecta, Collembola, Neanuridae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 86 (1): 39-45.

[TM86] Thibaud, J.-M., & Z. Massoud. 1986. Insecta: Collembola. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 616-617. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[V73] Vuilleumier, F. 1973. Insular biogeography in continental regions. II. Cave faunas from Tessin, southern Switzerland. Systematic Zoology 22 (1): 64-76.

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