Anas

Pintail Anas acuta, photographed by Tom Davis.


Belongs within: Anatinae.

Anas is the primary genus of the dipping or dabbling ducks. These ducks have short legs and a flat duck bill, and have only a simple claw (no lobe or flap) on the hind toe (Austin 1961). Molecular analyses (e.g. Burleigh et al. 2015) have cast doubt on the monophyly of the genus as commonly recognised, with a clade of South American ducks (Tachyeres and related taxa) placed within Anas in the broad sense. Consequently, a clade including the shovelers and blue-winged ducks is here excluded from the genus Anas. The more restricted genus includes the wigeons, mallards and related taxa. The mallard Anas platyrhynchos is the ancestral species of the domestic duck, and consequently has become widely introduced around the world. It forms a superspecies with other species such as the mottled duck Anas fulvigula of North America, the spot-billed duck A. poecilorhyncha of southern Asia, and the grey duck A. superciliosa of the Pacific region, and commonly interbreeds with those species where their ranges overlap. The wigeons, including the Eurasian wigeon Anas penelope and the American wigeon Anas americana, are characterised by a head with a steep forehead and bulbous rear.

<==Anas Linnaeus 1758 M02 (see below for synonymy)
    |--+--+--A. falcata JT12
    |  |  `--A. strepera Linnaeus 1758 SC99, M02
    |  `--+--A. penelope Linnaeus 1758 JT12, M02 [=Mareca penelope CC10; incl. *M. fistularis CC10]
    |     `--+--A. americana SC99
    |        `--A. sibilatrix JT12
    `--+--+--+--A. capensis BKB15
       |  |  `--+--A. erythrorhyncha JT12
       |  |     `--+--A. bahamensis JT12
       |  |        `--+--A. acuta Linnaeus 1758 JT12, M02 [=Dafila acuta S18]
       |  |           `--A. georgica JT12
       |  `--+--+--A. crecca Linnaeus 1758 BKB15, M02 (see below for synonymy)
       |     |  `--+--A. carolinensis BKB15 [=A. crecca carolinensis SU93]
       |     |     `--A. flavirostris BKB15
       |     `--+--+--A. castanea (Eyton 1838) BKB15, WS48 (see below for synonymy)
       |        |  `--A. gracilis Buller 1869 JT12, WH02 (see below for synonymy)
       |        `--+--A. bernieri JT12 [=Querquedula bernieri S66]
       |           `--+--A. aucklandica (Gray 1849) BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
       |              `--+--A. chlorotis Gray 1845 BKB15, WH02 (see below for synonymy)
       |                 `--A. nesiotis Fleming 1935 BKB15, WH02 (see below for synonymy)
       `--+--A. sparsa BKB15
          `--+--A. undulata BKB15
             `--+--A. melleri BKB15
                `--+--+--A. luzonica BKB15
                   |  `--+--A. zonorhyncha BKB15 [=A. poecilorhyncha zonorhyncha SU93]
                   |     `--+--A. platyrhynchos Linnaeus 1758 BKB15, M02 (see below for synonymy)
                   |        `--A. poecilorhyncha Forster 1781 JT12, WS48
                   |             |--A. p. poecilorhyncha SU93
                   |             `--A. p. haringtoni SU93
                   `--+--+--A. laysanensis BKB15
                      |  `--A. superciliosa Gmelin 1789 BKB15, WH02 (see below for synonymy)
                      `--+--A. diazi BKB15
                         |--A. fulvigula BKB15
                         `--A. rubripes BKB15

Anas incertae sedis:
  A. albae Jánossy 1979 M02
  A. andium JT12
  A. assimilis S66
  A. benedeni Sharpe 1899 [=A. creccoides Beneden 1871 non King 1828] M02
  A. eatoni JT12
  A. eppelsheimensis Lambrecht 1933 M02
  A. fusca Ellman 1861 (n. d.) CC10
  A. gibberifrons Müller 1842 SC99, WS48 (see below for synonymy)
    |--A. g. gibberifrons SU93
    `--A. g. albogularis SU93
  A. integra FP64
  A. isarensis Lambrecht 1933 M02
  A. lignitifila Portis 1884 [=A. lignitiphila] M02
  A. marecula FS01
  A. mediterranea Ellman 1861 (n. d.) CC10
  A. obscura L81
  A. oeningensis Meyer 1865 [=Anser oeningensis] M02
  A. risgoviensis Ammon 1918 M02
  A. sansaniensis Milne-Edwards 1868 [=Dendrocygna sansaniensis] M02
  A. skalicensis Bayer 1882 M02
  A. specularioides ZJM03
  A. theodori FS01
  A. vallisneria L81
  A. velox Milne-Edwards 1868 [=Nettion velox; incl. Anas meyerii Milne-Edwards 1868, Aythya meyerii] M02
  A. wyvilliana SC99 [=A. platyrhynchos wyvilliana L81]

Nomina nuda: Anas arcensis Kretzoi 1962 M02
             Anas crassa Milne-Edwards 1871 M02

Anas Linnaeus 1758 M02 [=Anassus Rafinesque 1815 CC10; incl. Boschas Swainson 1831 B94, Chauliodus Swainson 1831 B94, Dafila Stephens 1824 B94, Elasmonetta Salvadori 1895 CC10, Mareca Stephens in Shaw 1824 CC10, Nesonetta Gray 1844 CC10, Nettion Kaup 1829 CC10, Sibirionetta von Boetticher 1929 B94, Virago Newton 1872 CC10, Xenonetta Fleming 1935 CC10]

Anas aucklandica (Gray 1849) BKB15, CC10 [=*Nesonetta aucklandica CC10, A. castanea aucklandica CC10, Erismatura (*Nesonetta) aucklandica CC10]

Anas castanea (Eyton 1838) BKB15, WS48 [=Mareca castanea WS48, Nettion castanea CC10, Virago castanea; incl. V. castanea alexanderi Mathews 1916 WS48, Anas punctata Gould 1845 non Burchell 1822 CC10, *V. punctata CC10]

Anas chlorotis Gray 1845 BKB15, WH02 [=A. aucklandica chlorotis HR96, A. castanea chlorotis CC10, *Elasmonetta chlorotis CC10; incl. E. chlorotis peculiaris Mathews 1937 CC10]

Anas crecca Linnaeus 1758 JT12, M02 [=*Nettion crecca CC10, Nettium crecca M01; incl. A. crecca percrecca Jánossy 1992 M02]

Anas gibberifrons Müller 1842 SC99, WS48 [=A. (Mareca) gibberifrons WS48, Nettion gibberifrons S13, Nettium (l. c.) gibberifrons CC10, Querquedula gibberifrons CC10]

Anas gracilis Buller 1869 JT12, WH02 [=A. gibberifrons gracilis SU93, Virago gibberifrons gracilis CC10; incl. Mareca castanea Marie 1870 non Eyton 1838 CC10, Nettion castaneum CC10, Nettium (l. c.) castaneum CC10, Nettion castaneum rogersi Mathews 1912 non Anas superciliosa rogersi Mathews 1912 WS48, Virago gibberifrons rogersi CC10]

Anas nesiotis Fleming 1935 BKB15, WH02 [=A. aucklandica nesiotis HR96, A. castanea nesiotis CC10, *Xenonetta nesiotis CC10]

Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus 1758 BKB15, M02 [incl. Fuligula aretina Portis 1887 M02, Anas aretina M02, Aythya aretina M02, *Anas boschas Linnaeus 1766 CC10, Anas boscas (l. c.) CC10, *Boschas boschas CC10, Fuligula sepulta Portis 1887 M02, Anas sepulta M02, Aythya sepulta M02]

Anas superciliosa Gmelin 1789 BKB15, WH02 [=A. superciliaris CC10; incl. A. leucophrys Forster in Lichtenstein 1844 CC10, A. muelleri Bonaparte 1856 CC10, A. novaehollandiae Mathews 1920 CC10, A. oustaleti Salvadori 1894 CC10, A. platyrhynchos oustaleti FR98, A. superciliosa var. pelewensis Hartlaub & Finsch 1872 CC10, A. superciliosa percna Riley 1919 CC10, A. superciliosa rogersi Mathews 1912 CC10, A. poecilorhyncha rogersi WS48, A. superciliosa rukeniss Kuroda 1939 CC10]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[FS01] Flannery, T., & P. Schouten. 2001. A Gap in Nature: Discovering the World's Extinct Animals. Text Publishing: Melbourne.

[FR98] Fritts, T. H., & G. H. Rodda. 1998. The role of introduced species in the degradation of island ecosystems: a case history of Guam. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 113–140.

[HR96] Heather, B. D., & H. A. Robertson. 1996. The Field Guide to the Birds of New Zealand. Viking: Auckland.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[M01] Madarász, J. 1901. Madarak [Vögel]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 21–39. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[S13] Sarasin, F. 1913. Die Vögel Neu-Caledoniens und der Loyalty-Inseln. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1, Heft I pp. 1–78, pls 1–3. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[S66] Schlegel, H. 1866. Communication from, on mammals and birds collected in Madagascar. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 419–426.

[SU93] Sonobe, K., & S. Usui (eds.) 1993. A Field Guide to the Waterbirds of Asia. Wild Bird Society of Japan: Tokyo.

[SC99] Sorenson, M. D., A. Cooper, E. E. Paxinos, T. W. Quinn, H. F. James, S. L. Olson & R. C. Fleischer. 1999. Relationships of the extinct moa-nalos, flightless Hawaiian waterfowl, based on ancient DNA. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 266: 2187–2193.

[S18] Stone, W. 1918. Birds of the Panama Canal Zone, with special reference to a collection made by Mr. Lindsey L. Jewel. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 239–280.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M., & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1–126.

[WH02] Worthy, T. H., & R. N. Holdaway. 2002. The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press: Bloomington (Indiana).

[ZJM03] Zeffer, A., L. C. Johansson & Å. Marmebro. 2003. Functional correlation between habitat use and leg morphology in birds (Aves). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 79: 461–484.

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