Canidae

Grey fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus, photographed by Don Getty.


Belongs within: Carnivora.
Contains: Canis, Vulpes, Dusicyon.

The Canidae are the dogs and foxes. Members of this family are found in all continents except Antarctica (though the single species present in Australia, the dingo Canis dingo, is present due to prehistoric human introduction). All living species listed below except Otocyon megalotis are placed in the subfamily Caninae; the remaining subfamilies are extinct.

See also: Dog's life.

Characters (from Macdonald 1984a): Skull with long muzzle; jaws well-developed, dental formula usually I3/3, C1/1, P4/4, M2/3 = 42, carnassial teeth and molars well developed, heel of carnassial teeth usually with two cusps (one in some species). Legs long; radius and ulna locked, preventing rotation; scaphoid and lunar fused; feet four-toed, digitigrade, claws usually non-retractile, vestigial first toe on front feet in most species, vestigial first claws on hind legs in Canis familiaris and C. dingo. Tail long and bushy. Male with well-developed baculum; blood trapped in penis up to an hour or more during mating, preventing withdrawal and forming copulatory tie.

<==Canidae [Cynoidea]
    |  i. s.: Cynodictis M84a
    |         Nothocyon geismarianus V91
    |         Phlaocyon leucosteus V91
    |         Xenocyon lycaonoides Kretzoi 1938 ME05
    |         *Cynotherium sardous AC98
    |--Cynarctinae V91
    |--Otocyon [Otocyoninae] M84a
    |    |--O. megalotis M84b
    |    `--O. recki S78
    |--Hesperocyoninae V91
    |    |--Hesperocyon gregarius V91
    |    |--Enhydrocyon crassidens V91
    |    |--Brachyrhynchocyon intermedius V91
    |    |--Cynodesmus iamonensis V91
    |    `--Mesocyon V91
    |         |--M. coryphaeus V91
    |         |--M. geringensis V91
    |         |--M. josephi V91
    |         `--M. venator V91
    |--Borophaginae V91
    |    |--Euoplocyon spissidens V91
    |    |--Tomarctus canavus V91
    |    |--Carpocyon cuspidatus V91
    |    |--Strobodon stirtoni V91
    |    |--Aeleurodon taxoides V91
    |    |--Osteoborus cynoides V91
    |    |--Borophagus diversidens V91
    |    `--Epicyon V91
    |         |--E. haydeni V91
    |         `--E. saveus V91
    `--Caninae M84a
         |--Canis M84a
         |--Nyctereutes procyonoides Gray 1834 M84a, M76
         |--Vulpes M84a
         |--Dusicyon M84a
         |--Lycaon pictus V91, M84a
         |--Leptocyon vafer V91
         |--Chrysocyon Hamilton Smith 1839 M84a, C57
         |    `--C. brachyurus (Illiger 1815) (see below for synonymy) C57
         |--Alopex M84a
         |    |--A. lagopus M84b
         |    `--A. praeglacialis ME05
         |--Theriodictis Mercerat 1899 V91, V66
         |    |--T. platensis V91
         |    `--T. tarijensis V91
         |--Protocyon V91
         |    |--P. orcesi V91
         |    |--P. scagliarum V91
         |    `--P. troglodytes V91
         |--Speothos Lund 1839 V91, C57 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--*S. pacivorus C57
         |    `--S. venaticus (Lund 1842) [=Cynogale venatica, Icticyon venaticus] C57
         |         |--S. v. venaticus [incl. Melictis baskii Schinz 1849, Cynalicus melanogaster Gray 1846] C57
         |         |--S. v. panamensis C57
         |         `--S. v. wingei Ihering 1911 C57
         |--Cuon V91
         |    |--C. alpinus M84a
         |    |    |--C. a. alpinus J84
         |    |    |--C. a. dukhunensis J84
         |    |    |--C. a. hesperius J84
         |    |    |--C. a. laniger J84
         |    |    `--C. a. primaevus J84
         |    `--C. stehlini Thenius 1954 ME05
         `--Urocyon Baird 1858 GL30, C57
              |--U. cinereoargenteus C57 (see below for synonymy)
              |    |--U. c. cinereoargenteus C57
              |    |--U. c. furvus C57
              |    |--U. c. madrensis Burt & Hooper 1941 MB86
              |    |--U. c. nigrirostris (Lichtenstein 1850) MB86
              |    |--U. c. ocythous Bangs 1899 B75
              |    |--U. c. orinomus G69
              |    |--U. c. scottii Mearns 1891 MB86
              |    `--U. c. venezuelae Allen 1911 C57
              `--U. littoralis GL30 [=Vulpes littoralis M84b]
                   |--U. l. littoralis GL30
                   |--U. l. clementae GL30
                   |--U. l. dickeyi Grinnell & Linsdale 1930 GL30
                   |--U. l. santacruzae GL30
                   `--U. l. santarosae Grinnell & Linsdale 1930 GL30

Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger 1815) [=Canis brachyurus; incl. Canis isodactylus Ameghino 1905, Canis jubatus Desmarest 1820, Canis (*Chrysocyon) jubatus] C57

Speothos Lund 1839 V91, C57 [incl. Cynalicus Gray 1846 C57, Icticyon Lund 1843 C57, Melictis Schinz 1849 C57]

Urocyon cinereoargenteus C57 [=Canis cinereoargenteus C57, Vulpes cinereoargenteus M84b; incl. C. virginianus C57, *U. virginianus C57]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AC98] Alcover, J. A., X. Campillo, M. Macias & A. Sans. 1998. Mammal species of the world: additional data on insular mammals. American Museum Novitates 3248: 1-29.

[C57] Cabrera, A. 1957. Catalogo de los mamiferos de America del Sur. I (Metatheria - Unguiculata - Carnivora). Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia” e Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de Las Ciencias Naturales, Ciencias Zoológicas 4 (1): 1-307.

[GL30] Grinnell, J., & J. M. Linsdale. 1930. Two new foxes from the southern Californian islands. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 43: 153-155.

[J84] Johnsingh, A. J. T. 1984. Dhole. In All the World’s Animals: Carnivores (D. Macdonald, ed.) pp. 72-73. Torstar Books Inc.: New York.

[M84a] Macdonald, D. W. 1984a. The dog family. In All the World’s Animals: Carnivores (D. Macdonald, ed.) pp. 48-49. Torstar Books Inc.: New York.

[M84b] Macdonald, D. W. 1984b. Foxes. In All the World’s Animals: Carnivores (D. Macdonald, ed.) pp. 60-67. Torstar Books Inc.: New York.

[M76] Masui, M. 1976. Nihon no Doobutsu. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

[ME05] Moullé, P.-E., A. Echassoux, F. Lacombat, E. Desclaux & S. Bailon. 2005. L'environnement animal des premiers habitants de l'Europe méditerranéenne: les grands mammifères contemporains de l'homme du Vallonnet, données taxonomiques et biostratigraphiques pour la deuxième moitie du Pléistocène inférieur. BAR International Series 1364: 105-113.

[S78] Savage, R. J. G. 1978. Carnivora. In Evolution of African Mammals (V. J. Maglio & H. B. S. Cooke, eds) pp. 249-267. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[V91] Valkenburgh, B. van. 1991. Iterative evolution of hypercarnivory in canids (Mammalia: Carnivora): evolutionary interactions among sympatric predators. Paleobiology 17 (4): 340-362.

[V66] Van Valen, L. 1966. Deltatheridia, a new order of mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 132 (1): 1-126.

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