Lepidoptera

Agathiphaga queenslandensis, from CSIRO.


Belongs within: Panorpoidea.
Contains: Selidosemidae, Micropterigidae, Glossata.

The Lepidoptera are the moths and butterflies, one of the most familiar groups of insects. The name 'Lepidoptera' means 'scaly wings', referring to the most distinctive feature of the group. Most living lepidopterans have the mouthparts modified into a proboscis (the clade Glossata), but some basal families retain functional mandibles. These include the Agathiphagidae, whose larvae bore within the seeds of Agathis kauris in the south-west Pacific region, and the leaf-boring Heterobathmiidae. The earliest known fossil lepidopteran, Archaeolepis mane, is represented by three wings from the Early Jurassic of Dorset in England; it differs from more derived lepidopterans in having only two branches to the M vein (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). A number of basal genera are known from the Late Jurassic of Karatau in Kazakhstan including Karataunia, Protolepis and Auliepterix (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). The Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous Eolepidopterigoidea are a group of stem-lepidopterans characterised by a pronotum that is sclerotised throughout, and at least quarter the length of the pronotum (Kozlov et al. 2002).

See also: Diversity and distribution of tropical Lepidoptera: a bit of cross-purposes.

Synapomorphies (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Wings with dense covering of scales on veins and membrane; (except Archaeolepis:) wings with M veins having three branches; (crown Lepidoptera, i.e. Micropterigidae to Glossata:) foretibia with one or no apical spur, median ocellus absent, tergum one extensively desclerotised, cerci absent, foretibia with articulated epiphysis on inner surface.

<==Lepidoptera [Aglossata, Dacnonypha, Heterocera, Homoneura, Laciniata, Microlepidoptera, Papilionida]
    |--Archaeolepis mane GE05
    `--+--Karataunia lapidaria GE05, KIR02
       |--Protolepis cuprealata GE05
       |--Auliepterix GE05
       |    |--A. minima GE05
       |    `--A. mirabilis KIR02
       |--+--Micropterigidae GE05
       |  `--+--Agathiphaga WRM02 [Agathiphagidae GE05, Agathiphagina, Agathiphagoidea]
       |     |    |--A. queenslandensis WRM02
       |     |    `--A. vitiensis NC91
       |     `--+--Glossata GE05
       |        `--Heterobathmia WRM02 [Heterobathmiidae GE05, Heterobathmiina, Heterobathmioidea]
       |             `--H. pseueriocrania WRM02
       `--Eolepidopterigoidea KIR02
            |--Undopterix [Undopterigidae] KIR02
            |    |--U. carirensis GE05
            |    `--U. sukatshevae GE05
            `--Eolepidopterigidae KIR02
                 |--Eolepidopterix jurassica KIR02
                 `--Daiopterix KIR02
                      |--D. olgae GE05
                      `--D. rasnitsyni GE05

Lepidoptera incertae sedis:
  Anticarsia gemmatalis MC02
  Pseudorthophlebia KIR02
  Nannotrichopteron KIR02
  Pararchitaulius KIR02
  Parataulius KIR02
  Archiptilia KIR02
  Liadoptilia KIR02
  Metarchitaulius KIR02
  Epididontus KIR02
  Vogtia malloi C74
  Monema flavescens A71
  Diataraxia oleracea A71
  Bupalus piniarius A71
  Operophtera brumata A71
  Artona catoxantha A71
  Biston betularia G80
  Laspeyresia pomonella FM80
  Comostolopsis germana WFS04
  Oporabia autumnata D37
  Dicranura D37
    |--D. erminea D37
    `--D. vinula D37
  Pygaera D51
    |--P. anachoreta D51
    |--P. curtula D51
    `--P. pigra D51
  Fabriciana nerippe (Felder & Felder 1862) Iw92
  Oeneis Iw92
    |--O. melissa Iw92
    |    |--O. m. melissa Iw92
    |    `--O. m. daisetsuzana Matsumura 1926 Iw92
    `--O. norna Iw92
         |--O. n. norna Iw92
         |--O. n. asamana Matsumura 1919 Iw92
         `--O. n. sugitanii Shirôzu 1952 wI92
  Ochlodes Iw92
    |--O. asahinai Shirôzu 1964 Iw92
    `--O. subhyalina Iw92
  Luehdorfia Iw92
    |--L. japonica Leech 1889 Iw92
    `--L. puziloi Iw92
         |--L. p. puziloi Iw92
         |--L. p. inexpectata Sheljuzhko 1913 Iw92
         `--L. p. yessoensis Rothschild 1918 Iw92
  Shijimia moorei (Leech 1889) Iw92
  Panchala ganesa Iw92
    |--P. g. ganesa Iw92
    `--P. g. loomisi (Pryer 1886) Iw92
  Coreana raphaelis Iw92
    |--C. r. raphaelis Iw92
    `--C. r. yamamotoi Okano 1953 Iw92
  Spindasis takanonis (Matsumura 1906) Iw92
  Vacciniina optilete Iw92
    |--V. o. optilete Iw92
    `--V. o. daisetsuzana (Matsumura 1926) Iw92
  Cymatophoropsis trimaculata (Bremer 1861) Iw92
  Sinocharis korbae Püngeler 1912 Iw92
  Edith editha Cam96
  Hedylepta H91
    |--H. diemenalis B88
    |--H. euryprora H91
    |--H. fullawayi H91
    |--H. meyricki H91
    `--H. musicola H91
  Cosmosoma myrodora T01
  Gnorimoschema H74
    |--G. operculella H74
    `--G. scutellariaeela Chambers 1873 S69
  Erebida butleri O81
  Helleia salustius O81
  Selidosemidae P27
  Epirrhanthis [Orthostixidae] T27
    `--E. alectoraria L27
  Asaphodes L27
    |--A. megaspilata L27
    `--A. parora L27
  Ariathisa comma L27
  Rhapsa scotosialis L27
  Elvia glaucata L27
  Eucymatoge gobiata L27
  Venusia L27
    |--V. undosata L27
    `--V. verriculata L27
  Sestra humeraria L27
  Diplopseustis perieralis L27
  Anisoplaca L27
    |--A. achyrota L27
    `--A. ptyoptera L27
  Zapyrasta calliphana L27
  Crypsitricha mesotypa L27
  Adelomorpha Snellen 1885 BR05
  ‘Alaria’ Duncan 1841 non Schrank 1788 BR05
  Naenia Stephens 1829 BR05
  Pseudosetia Boisduval 1874 BR05
  ‘Thais’ Fabricius 1807 non Röding 1798 BR05
  Lycaeides argyrognomon USDI77
    |--L. a. argyrognomon USDI77
    `--L. a. lotis USDI77
  Icaricia icarioides USDI77
    |--I. i. icarioides USDI77
    `--I. i. missionensis USDI77
  Callophrys mossii USDI77
    |--C. m. mossii USDI77
    `--C. m. bayensis USDI77
  Gracilepterix pulchra GE05
  Setella Schrank 1902 B26
  ‘Panthera’ Hübner 1823 non Oken 1816 C57
  Phrissogonus denotatus L27
  Lamprosema B88
    |--L. abstitalis B88
    |--L. indicata VHK02
    `--L. octasema B88
  Hemicyoleca australasica B88
  Lycena sephirus Frivaldszky 1835 B08
  Hipparchia amalthea Frivaldszky 1845 B08
  Panchrysia deaurata (Esper 1787) B08
  Uxia Walker 1866 PH90
  Hydrocampa algiralis Guénée 1849 E12
  Trichosoma E12
    |--T. algiricum Lucas 1849 E12
    `--T. mauritanicum Lucas 1849 E12
  Arnia Guénée 1849 E12
    `--A. nervosalis Guénée 1849 E12
  Aspilates duponchellaria Lucas 1849 E12
  Helina Guénée 1849 E12
  Cledeobia E12
    |--C. interjunctalis Guénée 1849 E12
    `--C. morbidalis Guénée 1849 E12
  Haemylis jugurthella Lucas 1849 E12
  Argyrolepia loriculana Guénée 1849 E12
  Episema orana Lucas 1849 E12
  Nygmia phaeorrhoea F62
  Stilpnotia salicis F62
  ‘Zarax’ Fruhstorfer 1914 non Pascoe 1867 KA-Z11
  Alabonia geoffrella Im92
  Batocnema coquereli Im92
  Neoleucinodes torvis Clapps 1948 S69
  Goniodoma Zeller 1849 TS87
  Lativalva Amsel 1956 L03
  Diatraea saccharalis M10
  Anatrachyntis terminella HAA07
  Caulobius Duponchel 1838 HW92
  Cacochroa Heinemann 1870 CW92
  Laphygma exempta CS77
  Themiscyra laetifera M86a
  Nudaria albida M86a
  Pallene elegans Butl. 1877 M86a
  Oistophora [Conchylididae] M86b
    `--O. mediella [=Enopa mediella; incl. O. ptterocosmana Meyr. 1881] M86b
  Chrosis Guenée 1845 Cal96
  Patricia Fox 1940 Cal96
  Lysandra nivescens W70
  Thysonotis hymetus N70
  Astraptes talus F11

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B08] Bálint, Z. 2008. Lepidoptera collections of historical importance in the Hungarian Natural History Museum. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 100: 17–35.

[B26] Bigelow, H. B. 1926. Plankton of the offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 40 (2): 1–509.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[C57] Cabrera, A. 1957. Catalogo de los mamiferos de America del Sur. I (Metatheria—Unguiculata—Carnivora). Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia” e Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de Las Ciencias Naturales, Ciencias Zoológicas 4 (1): 1–307.

[Cal96] Calder, A. A. 1996. Click beetles: genera of the Australian Elateridae (Coleoptera). CSIRO Australia: Collingwood.

[Cam96] Campbell, N. A. 1996. Biology 4th ed. The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc.: Menlo Park (California).

[CW92] Cassis, G., & T. A. Weir. 1992. Cetoniinae. In: Houston, W. W. K. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 9. Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea pp. 426–454. AGPS Press: Canberra.

[C74] Common, I. F. B. 1974. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 98–107. Melbourne University Press.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[C74] Crowder, J. P. 1974. Exotic Plant Pests of South Florida. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife (USA).

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[D51] Dobzhansky, T. 1951. Genetics and the Origin of Species, 3rd ed. Columbia University Press: New York.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F62] Flanders, S. E. 1962. Did the caterpillar exterminate the giant reptile? Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 1 (1): 85–88.

[F11] Fraga, R. M. 2011. Family Icteridae (New World blackbirds). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 684–807. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[FM80] Futuyma, D. J., & G. C. Mayer. 1980. Non-allopatric speciation in animals. Systematic Zoology 29 (3): 254–271.

[G80] Gould, S. J. 1980. Is a new and general theory of evolution emerging? Paleobiology 6: 119–130.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HAA07] Harvey, M. S., A. D. Austin & M. Adams. 2007. The systematics and biology of the spider genus Nephila (Araneae: Nephilidae) in the Australasian region. Invertebrate Systematics 21: 407–451.

[H74] Helson, G. A. H. 1974. Insect Pests: Identification, life history, and control of pests of farms, horticulture, gardens, and public health. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[HW92] Houston, W. W. K., & T. A. Weir. 1992. Melolonthinae. In: Houston, W. W. K. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 9. Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea pp. 174–358. AGPS Press: Canberra.

[H91] Howarth, F. G. 1991. Environmental impacts of classical biological control. Annual Review of Entomology 36: 485–509.

[Im92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[Iw92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[KIR02] Kozlov, M. V., V. D. Ivanov & A. P. Rasnitsyn. 2002. Order Lepidoptera Linné, 1758. The butterflies and moths (=Papilionida Laicharting, 1781). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 220–227. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[KA-Z11] Kury, A. B., & M. A. Alonso-Zarazaga. 2011. Addenda and corrigenda to the “Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones)”. Zootaxa 3034: 47–68.

[L03] Lienhard, C. 2003. Nomenclatural amendments concerning Chinese Psocoptera (Insecta), with remarks on species richness. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 110 (4): 695–721.

[L27] Lindsay, S. 1927. A list of the Lepidoptera of Deans Bush, Riccarton, Canterbury. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 693–696.

[M10] Marshall, S. A. 2010. Micropezidae (stilt-legged flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 805–813. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[M86a] Meyrick, E. 1886a. Revision of Australian Lepidoptera. I. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (3): 687–802.

[M86b] Meyrick, E. 1886b. Notes on synonymy of Australian micro-Lepidoptera. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (3): 803–806.

[MC02] Miliczky, E. R., & C. O. Calkins. 2002. Spiders (Araneae) as potential predators of leafroller larvae and egg masses (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in central Washington apple and pear orchards. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 78 (2): 140–150.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[N70] Norris, K. R. 1970. General biology. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 107–140. Melbourne University Press.

[O81] O’Brien, C. O. 1981. A. A. Book of New Zealand Wildlife: A guide to the native and introduced animals of New Zealand. Lansdowne Press: Auckland.

[PH90] Petit, R. E., & M. G. Harasewych. 1990. Catalogue of the superfamily Cancellarioidea Forbes and Hanley, 1851 (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia). Nautilus 103 (Suppl. 1): 1–69.

[P27] Philpott, A. 1927. New Zealand Lepidoptera: Notes and descriptions. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 703–709.

[S69] Steyskal, G. C. 1969. The mistreatment of the Latin genitive case in forming names of parasites. Systematic Zoology 18 (3): 339–342.

[TS87] Taylor, F. J. R., W. A. S. Sarjeant, R. A. Fensome & G. L. Williams. 1987. Standardisation of nomenclature in flagellate groups treated by both the botanical and zoological codes of nomenclature. Systematic Zoology 36 (1): 79–85.

[T27] Thomson, G. M. 1927. The pollination of New Zealand flowers by birds and insects. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 106–125.

[T01] Tromans, A. 2001. The alkaloid defence. Nature 409: 28.

[USDI77] USDI (United States Department of the Interior). 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants—republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420–36431.

[VHK02] Verma, M., M. Hayat & S. I. Kazmi. 2002. The species of Elasmus from India (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae). Oriental Insects 36: 245–306.

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[WRM02] Wiegmann, B. M., J. C. Regier & C. Mitter. 2002. Combined molecular and morphological evidence on the phylogeny of the earliest lepidopteran lineages. Zoologica Scripta 31 (1): 67–81.

[WFS04] Winks, C. J., S. V. Fowler & L. A. Smith. 2004. Invertebrate fauna of boneseed, Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera (L.) T. Norl. (Asteraceae: Calenduleae), an invasive weed in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 61–72.

Last updated: 25 August 2017.

2 comments:

  1. Well this does not make any sense, or at least I fail to understand or see the point of it. The classification is truncated and ridiculously incomplete, and the "incertae sedis" taxa listed are not incertae sedis at all, at least in glance many of them have a pretty clear taxonomic status. Maybe I just don't get what is being presented here.

    ReplyDelete
  2. That's because it's not done yet (it's barely started). And you're right, most of what I've chucked into 'incertae sedis' is not really so; I've just put them there as indications to myself that I need to find their true position.

    ReplyDelete

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