Lepidoptera

Agathiphaga queenslandensis, from CSIRO.


Belongs within: Panorpoidea.
Contains: Selidosemidae, Trifidae, Focillidae, Micropterigidae, Glossata.

The Lepidoptera are the moths and butterflies, one of the most familiar groups of insects. The name 'Lepidoptera' means 'scaly wings', referring to the most distinctive feature of the group. Most living lepidopterans have the mouthparts modified into a proboscis (the clade Glossata), but some basal taxa retain functional mandibles. These include Agathiphaga, whose larvae bore within the seeds of Agathis kauris in the south-west Pacific region, and the leaf-boring Heterobathmia pseueriocrania. Agathiphaga and Heterobathmia are united in a clade with the Glossata excluding the Micropterigidae owing to the loss of the paraglossae in the adult mouthparts. The earliest known fossil lepidopteran, Archaeolepis mane, is represented by three wings from the Early Jurassic of Dorset in England; it differs from more derived lepidopterans in having only two branches to the M vein (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). A number of basal genera are known from the Late Jurassic of Karatau in Kazakhstan including Karataunia, Protolepis and Auliepterix (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). The Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous Eolepidopterigoidea are a group of stem-lepidopterans characterised by a pronotum that is sclerotised throughout, and at least quarter the length of the pronotum (Kozlov et al. 2002).

See also: Diversity and distribution of tropical Lepidoptera: a bit of cross-purposes.

Synapomorphies (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Wings with dense covering of scales on veins and membrane; (except Archaeolepis:) wings with M veins having three branches; (crown Lepidoptera, i.e. Micropterigidae to Glossata:) foretibia with one or no apical spur, median ocellus absent, tergum one extensively desclerotised, cerci absent, foretibia with articulated epiphysis on inner surface.

<==Lepidoptera [Aglossata, Dacnonypha, Heterocera, Homoneura, Laciniata, Microlepidoptera, Papilionida]
    |--Archaeolepis [Archaeolepidae] GE05
    |    `--A. mane GE05
    `--+--Karataunia lapidaria GE05, KIR02
       |--Protolepis cuprealata GE05
       |--Auliepterix GE05
       |    |--A. minima GE05
       |    `--A. mirabilis Kozlov 1989 RJ93
       |--+--Micropterigidae GE05
       |  `--+--Agathiphaga WRM02 [Agathiphagidae GE05, Agathiphagina, Agathiphagoidea]
       |     |    |--A. queenslandensis WRM02
       |     |    `--A. vitiensis NC91
       |     `--+--Glossata GE05
       |        `--Heterobathmia WRM02 [Heterobathmiidae GE05, Heterobathmiina, Heterobathmioidea]
       |             `--H. pseueriocrania WRM02
       `--Eolepidopterigoidea KIR02
            |--Undopterix [Undopterigidae] KIR02
            |    |--U. carirensis GE05
            |    `--U. sukatshevae GE05
            `--Eolepidopterigidae KIR02
                 |--Eolepidopterix jurassica KIR02
                 `--Daiopterix KIR02
                      |--D. olgae GE05
                      `--D. rasnitsyni GE05

Lepidoptera incertae sedis:
  Pseudorthophlebia KIR02
  Nannotrichopteron KIR02
  Pararchitaulius KIR02
  Parataulius KIR02
  Archiptilia KIR02
  Liadoptilia KIR02
  Metarchitaulius KIR02
  Epididontus KIR02
  Vogtia malloi C74
  Monema flavescens A71
  Diataraxia oleracea A71
  Bupalus piniarius A71
  Operophthera brumata A99
  Artona A71
    |--A. catoxantha A71
    `--A. funeralis F92
  Biston G80
    |--B. betularia G80
    `--B. zonarius F92
  Laspeyresia FM80
    |--L. cosmopharana F92
    |--L. pomonella FM80
    |--L. servillana F92
    `--L. splendana F37
  Comostolopsis germana WFS04
  Oporabia autumnata D37
  Dicranura D37
    |--D. erminea D37
    `--D. vinula D37
  Fabriciana nerippe (Felder & Felder 1862) Iw92
  Oeneis Iw92
    |--O. jutta R13
    |--O. melissa Iw92
    |    |--O. m. melissa Iw92
    |    `--O. m. daisetsuzana Matsumura 1926 Iw92
    `--O. norna Iw92
         |--O. n. norna Iw92
         |--O. n. asamana Matsumura 1919 Iw92
         `--O. n. sugitanii Shirôzu 1952 Iw92
  Ochlodes Iw92
    |--O. asahinai Shirôzu 1964 Iw92
    `--O. subhyalina Iw92
  Luehdorfia Iw92
    |--L. japonica Leech 1889 Iw92
    `--L. puziloi Iw92
         |--L. p. puziloi Iw92
         |--L. p. inexpectata Sheljuzhko 1913 Iw92
         `--L. p. yessoensis Rothschild 1918 Iw92
  Shijimia moorei (Leech 1889) Iw92
  Panchala ganesa Iw92
    |--P. g. ganesa Iw92
    `--P. g. loomisi (Pryer 1886) Iw92
  Coreana raphaelis Iw92
    |--C. r. raphaelis Iw92
    `--C. r. yamamotoi Okano 1953 Iw92
  Vacciniina optilete Iw92
    |--V. o. optilete Iw92
    `--V. o. daisetsuzana (Matsumura 1926) Iw92
  Cymatophoropsis trimaculata (Bremer 1861) Iw92
  Sinocharis korbae Püngeler 1912 Iw92
  Edith editha Cam96
  Hedylepta H91
    |--H. diemenalis B88
    |--H. euryprora H91
    |--H. fullawayi H91
    |--H. meyricki H91
    `--H. musicola H91
  Cosmosoma myrodora T01
  Gnorimoschema H74
    |--G. gudmannella M38
    |--G. lycopersicella F37
    |--G. operculella H74
    `--G. scutellariaeela Chambers 1873 S69
  Erebida butleri O81
  Helleia salustius O81
  Selidosemidae P27
  Epirrhanthis [Orthostixidae] T27
    `--E. alectoraria L27
  Asaphodes L27
    |--A. megaspilata L27
    `--A. parora L27
  Ariathisa comma L27
  Rhapsa scotosialis L27
  Elvia glaucata L27
  Eucymatoge gobiata L27
  Venusia L27
    |--V. undosata L27
    `--V. verriculata L27
  Sestra humeraria L27
  Diplopseustis perieralis L27
  Anisoplaca L27
    |--A. achyrota L27
    `--A. ptyoptera L27
  Zapyrasta calliphana L27
  Crypsitricha mesotypa L27
  Adelomorpha Snellen 1885 BR05
  ‘Alaria’ Duncan 1841 non Schrank 1788 BR05
  Naenia Stephens 1829 BR05
    `--N. typica F92
  Pseudosetia Boisduval 1874 BR05
  Lycaeides WW96
    |--L. argyrognomon USDI77
    |    |--L. a. argyrognomon USDI77
    |    `--L. a. lotis USDI77
    `--L. melissa WW96
         |--L. m. melissa WW96
         `--L. m. samuelis WW96
  Icaricia icarioides USDI77
    |--I. i. icarioides USDI77
    `--I. i. missionensis USDI77
  Callophrys USDI77
    |--C. mossii USDI77
    |    |--C. m. mossii USDI77
    |    `--C. m. bayensis USDI77
    `--C. rubi F92
  Gracilepterix pulchra GE05
  Setella Schrank 1902 B26
  ‘Panthera’ Hübner 1823 non Oken 1816 C57
  Phrissogonus denotatus L27
  Lamprosema B88
    |--L. abstitalis B88
    |--L. indicata VHK02
    `--L. octasema B88
  Hemicyoleca australasica B88
  Lycena sephirus Frivaldszky 1835 B08
  Hipparchia amalthea Frivaldszky 1845 B08
  Panchrysia deaurata (Esper 1787) B08
  Uxia Walker 1866 PH90
  Trichosoma E12
    |--T. algiricum Lucas 1849 E12
    `--T. mauritanicum Lucas 1849 E12
  Arnia Guénée 1849 E12
    `--A. nervosalis Guénée 1849 E12
  Aspilates duponchellaria Lucas 1849 E12
  ‘Helina’ Guénée 1849 non Robineau-Desvoidy 1830 E12
  Cledeobia E12
    |--C. interjunctalis Guénée 1849 E12
    `--C. morbidalis Guénée 1849 E12
  Haemylis jugurthella Lucas 1849 E12
  Argyrolepia loriculana Guénée 1849 E12
  Episema orana Lucas 1849 E12
  Stilpnotia F62
    |--S. ochropoda F92
    `--S. salicis F62
  ‘Zarax’ Fruhstorfer 1914 non Pascoe 1867 KA-Z11
  Alabonia geoffrella Im92
  Batocnema coquereli Im92
  Neoleucinodes torvis Clapps 1948 S69
  Goniodoma Zeller 1849 TS87
  Lativalva Amsel 1956 L03
  Anatrachyntis terminella HAA07
  Caulobius Duponchel 1838 HW92
  Cacochroa Heinemann 1870 CW92
  Laphygma CS77
    |--L. exempta CS77
    `--L. exigua F92
  Themiscyra laetifera M86a
  Nudaria albida M86a
  Pallene elegans Butl. 1877 M86a
  Oistophora [Conchylididae] M86b
    `--O. mediella [=Enopa mediella; incl. O. ptterocosmana Meyr. 1881] M86b
  Chrosis Guenée 1845 Cal96
  Patricia Fox 1940 Cal96
  Lysandra nivescens W70
  Thysonotis hymetus N70
  Astraptes talus F11
  Erannis defeliaria [=Hibernia defeliaria] F92
  Charaeas graminis F92
  Polia F92
    |--P. chi F92
    |--P. flauicincta F92
    `--P. oleracea F92
  Collix sparsata F92
  Brachmia macroscopa F92
  Semasia F92
    |--S. diniana F92
    |--S. profundana F92
    |--S. rufimitrana F92
    `--S. ustomaculana F92
  Eratria fasciana F92
  Acalla F92
    |--A. cristana F92
    |--A. ferrugana F92
    |--A. hastiana F92
    `--A. macana F92
  Clysia ambiguella F92
  Asthenia pygmaeana F92
  Psecadia F92
    |--P. bipunctella F92
    `--P. decemgutella F92
  Salebria marmorata F92
  Minoa murinata F92
  Cymatophora or F92
  Ocneria F92
    |--O. detrita F92
    `--O. dispar F92
  Naxa sericata F92
  Mahasena colona F92
  Chalioides kondonsis F92
  Eurobracon yokohamae F92
  Earia pudicana F92
  Clanis bilineata F92
  Rondotia menciana F92
  Dictroploca japonica F92
  Cocytodes coerulea F92
  Algedonia coelesalis F92
  Melalopha anachoreta F92
  Dicrenura lanigera F92
  Dasychira F92
    |--D. axutha F92
    |--D. baibaran F92
    |--D. fascelina F92
    |--D. groenlandica F92
    |--D. mendosa F92
    |--D. pudibunda F92
    `--D. selenitica F92
  Cosmotriche F92
    |--C. monotona F92
    `--C. potatoria F92
  Eriogaster F92
    |--E. catax F92
    `--E. lanestris F92
  Macrothylaeia rubi F92
  Histia rhodope F92
    |--H. r. rhodope F92
    `--H. r. nigrinus F92
  Simyra albovenasa F92
  Pantana phyllostachysae F92
  Ascotis selenaria F92
  Macrothylacia rubi F92
  Spaelotis praecos F92
  Trachea F92
    |--T. atriplicis F92
    `--T. piniperda F92
  Gynacphora alpherakii F92
  Diatsara saccharalis F92
  Hibernia F92
    |--H. leucophaearia F92
    `--H. marginaria F92
  Gonepteryx rhamni F92
  Neusinoe geomatralis F92
  Lambdina fiscellaria F92
    |--L. f. fiscellaria F92
    `--L. f. lugubrosa F92
  Adris tyrannus F92
  Andraea bipunctata F92
  Trabana vishnu F92
  Cocytredes caerulea F92
  Phalenia roseana F92
  Tholera polygonalis F92
  Naranga aenescens F92
  Peronea F92
    |--P. hastiana F92
    `--P. maccana F92
  Halias prasinana [=Hylophila prasinana] F92
  Scolipteryx libatrix F92
  Tapinostola elymi F92
  Oligia vulgaris F92
  Helotropha leucostigma F92
    |--H. l. leucostigma F92
    `--H. l. laevis F92
  Adopaea lineola F92
  Evetria F92
    |--E. buoliana F92
    |--E. resinilla F92
    `--E. taxifoliella G17
  Cheimophila salicellum F92
  Elcysma westwoodii KVV96
  Notolophus Ch96
    |--N. antiquus F92
    `--N. australis Ch96
         |--N. a. australis Ch96
         `--N. a. posticus Ch96
  Evius Walker 1855 GT03
    `--*E. hippius (Stoll 1790) [=Phalaena hippia] GT03
  Metasarca Hampson 1925 K18
  Menis [Cyllopodidae] D01
    `--M. ithrites Druce 1901 D01
  Plotheia metaspilella S01
  Trifidae S01
  Focillidae S01
  Estigmene acrea RA96
  Zaphodiopsis hyanella R13
  Carpocapsa R13
    |--C. funebrana R13
    `--C. saltitans R13
  Schistodepressaria nervosa R13
  Bumia crataegi R13
  Adolias adonia R13
  Pronuba yuccasella R13
  Retina resinella R13
  Cnethocampa processionea R13
  Leuconia extranea R13
  Hybernia defoliaria R13
  Anosia plexippus R13

*Type species of generic name indicated

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Last updated: 27 January 2019.

2 comments:

  1. Well this does not make any sense, or at least I fail to understand or see the point of it. The classification is truncated and ridiculously incomplete, and the "incertae sedis" taxa listed are not incertae sedis at all, at least in glance many of them have a pretty clear taxonomic status. Maybe I just don't get what is being presented here.

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  2. That's because it's not done yet (it's barely started). And you're right, most of what I've chucked into 'incertae sedis' is not really so; I've just put them there as indications to myself that I need to find their true position.

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