Ardeidae

Black-crowned night heron Nycticorax nycticorax, photographed by Ashok Khosla.


Belongs within: Aequorlitornithes.
Contains: Ixobrychus, Egretta, Butorides, Ardea.

The Ardeidae include the herons and bitterns, long-billed and -legged fishing birds found worldwide. Characters of the group include a short tail, powder down patches on the breast, rump and sometimes the thighs, and serrations used for grooming along the side of the central forward-directed toe. Basal members of the family include the tiger herons Tigrisoma of South America, which resemble bitterns in their cryptic colouration and booming mating calls. The night herons of the genus Nycticorax are relatively short-necked and stout herons, generally with a dark crown and paler underparts; as indicated by their vernacular name, they are mostly nocturnal in habits. The yellow-crowned night heron Nyctanassa violacea, found in warmer regions of the Americas, is mostly blue-grey with a black head marked by white cheeks and a pale yellow crown. The boatbill heron Cochlearius cochlearius is a Neotropical species with a similar habitus to the night-herons Nycticorax but with a unique broad beak; several authors classify it in its own family, outside the Ardeidae.

See also: The stately herons.

Ardeidae [Ardeae, Ardeiformes, Ardeinae, Ardeini, Botaurinae, Erodii, Tigriornithini] JT12
    |--Calcardea junnei Gingerich 1987 JM14, M09
    |--Proardea Lambrecht 1933 JM14, M02
    |    `--*P. amissa (Milne-Edwards 1892) [=Ardea amissa, Egretta amissa] M02
    |--Proardeola Harrison 1979 JM14, M02
    |    `--*P. walkeri Harrison 1979 M02 (see below for synonymy)
    `--+--Tigrisoma JT12
       |    |--T. brasiliense SS66
       |    |--T. cabanisi S18
       |    |--T. fasciatum JT12
       |    |--T. lineatum JT12
       |    `--T. mexicanum JT12
       `--+--Cochlearius Brisson 1760 JT12, B94 [incl. Cancroma Linné 1766 B94; Cancromini, Cochleariidae, Cochleariini]
          |    `--C. cochlearius JT12
          |         |--C. c. cochlearius FS55
          |         `--C. c. zeledoni FS55
          `--+--+--Ixobrychus JT12
             |  `--Zebrilus Bonaparte 1855 JT12, B94 [Zebrilini]
             |       `--Z. undulatus JT12
             `--+--+--Syrigma sibilatrix JT12
                |  `--Egretta JT12
                `--+--+--Nyctanassa violacea JT12
                   |  `--Nycticorax Forster 1817 JT12, B94 (see below for synonymy)
                   |       |--N. nycticorax (Linnaeus 1758) CS77 [=Ardea nycticorax CS77; incl. *N. infaustus CC10]
                   |       |    |--N. n. nycticorax S18
                   |       |    |--N. n. hoactli (Gmelin 1789) CS77
                   |       |    `--N. n. naevius S18
                   |       |--N. caledonicus (Gmelin 1789) [=Ardea caledonica] CC10
                   |       |    |--N. c. caledonicus CC10
                   |       |    |--N. c. australasiae (Vieillot 1823) (see below for synonymy) CC10
                   |       |    `--N. c. crassirostris Vigors 1839 I92
                   |       |--N. duboisi HSS13
                   |       |--N. gardeni SS66
                   |       |--N. leuconotus [incl. Ardea cucullata, *Calherodius cucullatus] CC10
                   |       |--N. mauritianus HSS13
                   |       `--N. megacephalus HSS13
                   `--+--+--Butorides JT12
                      |  `--Ardeola Boie 1822 BKB15, CC10 [Ardeolini]
                      |       |--A. bacchus (Bonap. 1855) [=Buphus bacchus] M01
                      |       |--A. grayii (Sykes 1832) [=Ardea grayii; incl. Ardeola grayii phillipsi Scheer 1960] CS77
                      |       |--A. idae JT12
                      |       |--A. ralloides (Scopoli 1769) (see below for synonymy) CS77
                      |       |--A. rufiventris JT12
                      |       `--A. speciosa JT12
                      `--+--Ardea BKB15
                         `--+--Bubulcus Bonaparte 1855 BKB15, B94 [Bubulcini]
                            |    `--*B. ibis (Linnaeus 1758) CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                            |         |--B. i. ibis CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                            |         `--B. i. coromandus (Boddaert 1783) CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                            `--+--Casmerodius Gloger 1841 JT12, CC10 [=Cosmerodius Salvadori 1882 CC10]
                               |    `--C. albus (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                               |         |--C. a. albus CS77
                               |         `--‘Egretta alba’ melanorhynchos (Wagler 1827) CS77
                               `--Mesophoyx Sharpe 1894 JT12, CC10
                                    `--*M. intermedia (Wagler 1829) [=Ardea intermedia, Egretta intermedia] CC10
                                         |--M. i. intermedia CC10
                                         |--‘Egretta’ i. brachyrhyncha (Brehn 1854) CS77
                                         `--M. i. plumifera (Gould 1848) (see below for synonymy) CC10

Ardeidae incertae sedis:
  Pilherodius pileatus JT12
  Gorsachius JT12
    |--G. goisagi (Temminck 1835) I92
    |--G. leuconotus JT12
    |--G. magnificus JT12
    `--G. melanolophus (Raffles 1822) I92
  Melanophoyx ardesiaca A61
  Dichromanassa rufescens A61
  Agamia agami JT12
  Proherodius Lydekker 1891 FP64, M02
    `--*P. oweni Lydekker 1891 M02
  Heterocnus cabanisi FS55
  Ardeagrandis Kuročkin & Ganea 1972 M02
    `--*A. arborea Kuročkin & Ganea 1972 M02
  Zonerodius heliosylus JT12
  Tigriornis Sharpe 1895 B94
    `--T. leucolopha JT12
  Florida caerulea S18
  Ardeirallus CS77
    |--A. flavicollis S89
    `--A. sturmii (Wagler 18270 CS77
  Gnotornis aramiellus Wetmore 1942 M09
  ‘Anas’ basaltica Bayer 1883 M02, M05
  Hydranassa RN72
    |--H. caerulea A61
    `--H. tricolor S18
         |--H. t. tricolor S18
         `--H. t. ruficollis S18

Ardeola ralloides (Scopoli 1769) [=Ardea ralloides; incl. A. ralloides paludivaga Clancy 1968] CS77

*Bubulcus ibis (Linnaeus 1758) CC10 [=Ardea ibis CC10, Ardeola ibis CC10, Egretta ibis CC10]

Bubulcus ibis coromandus (Boddaert 1783) CC10 [=Cancroma coromanda CC10, Ardea ibis coromanda CC10, Ardea coromandeliensis Stephens 1819 CC10, Ardeola ibis coromanda L81, Bubulcus coromandensis Bonaparte 1855 CC10, Egretta ibis coromanda CC10; incl. Ardea affinis Horsfield 1820 CC10, Ardea bubulcus Gray & Gray 1846 CC10, Ardea caboga Franklin 1832 CC10, Ardea flavirostris Vieillot 1823 CC10, Herodias flavirostris CC10, Ardea russata Wagler 1827 CC10]

Bubulcus ibis ibis (Linnaeus 1758) CC10 [incl. Ardea ruficrista Bonaparte 1855 S66, CS77, Ardeola ibis seychellarum (Salomonsen 1934) L81, CS77]

Casmerodius albus (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, CC10 [=Ardea alba CC10, Egretta alba CC10, Herodias alba K08; incl. Ardea egretta Gmelin 1789 CC10, *Casmerodius albus egretta CC10, A61, Egretta alba egretta CS77]

Mesophoyx intermedia plumifera (Gould 1848) [=Herodias plumiferus, Ardea intermedia plumifera, Egretta intermedia plumifera] CC10

Nycticorax Forster 1817 JT12, CC10 [incl. Calherodius Bonaparte 1855 CC10; Nycticoracinae, Nycticoracini]

Nycticorax caledonicus australasiae (Vieillot 1823) [=Ardea australasiae; incl. N. caledonicus hilli Mathews 1912, A. maculata Latham 1802 non Gmelin 1789, A. novaehollandiae Vieillot 1817 non Latham 1790] CC10

*Proardeola walkeri Harrison 1979 M02 [=Ardeola walkeri M02, Proardea walkeri JM14; incl. Ardea formosa Milne-Edwards 1871 (n. n.) M02]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[FS55] Felten, H., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Zur Vogelfauna von El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (1–2): 9–19.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[HSS13] Hirschfeld, E., A. Swash & R. Still. 2013. The World's Rarest Birds. Princeton University Press: Princeton (New Jersey).

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[JM14] Jarvis, E. D., S. Mirarab, A. J. Aberer, B. Li, P. Houde, C. Li, S. Y. W. Ho, B. C. Faircloth, B. Nabholz, J. T. Howard, A. Suh, C. C. Weber, R. R. de Fonseca, J. Li, F. Zhang, H. Li, L. Zhou, N. Narula, L. Liu, G. Ganapathy, B. Boussau, M. S. Bayzid, V. Zavidovych, S. Subramanian, T. Gabaldón, S. Capella-Gutiérrez, J. Huerta-Cepas, B. Rekepalli, K. Munch, M. Schierup, B. Lindow, W. C. Warren, D. Ray, R. E. Green, M. W. Bruford, X. Zhan, A. Dixon, S. Li, N. Li, Y. Huang, E. P. Derryberry, M. F. Bertelsen, F. H. Sheldon, R. T. Brumfield, C. V. Mello, P. V. Lovell, M. Wirthlin, M. P. Cruz Schneider, F. Prosdocimi, J. A. Samaniego, A. M. Vargas Velazquez, A. Alfaro-Núñez, P. F. Campos, B. Petersen, T. Sitcheritz-Ponten, A. Pas, T. Bailey, P. Scofield, M. Bunce, D. M. Lambert, Q. Zhou, P. Perelman, A. C. Driskell, B. Shapiro, Z. Xiong, Y. Zeng, S. Liu, Z. Li, B. Liu, K. Wu, J. Xiao, X. Yinqi, Q. Zheng, Y. Zhang, H. Yang, J. Wang, L. Smeds, F. E. Rheindt, M. Braun, J. Fjeldså, L. Orlando, F. K. Barker, K. A. Jønsson, W. Johnson, K.-P. Koepfli, S. O'Brien, D. Haussler, O. A. Ryder, C. Rahbek, E. Willerslev, G. R. Graves, T. C. Glenn, J. McCormack, D. Burt, H. Ellegren, P. Alström, S. V. Edwards, A. Stamatakis, D. P. Mindell, J. Cracraft, E. L. Braun, T. Warnow, W. Jun, M. T. P. Gilbert & G. Zhang. 2014. Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds. Science 346 (6215): 1320–1331.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[K08] Kellogg, V. L. 1908. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Schwedischen Zoologischen Expedition nach dem Kilimandjaro, dem Meru und den Umgebenden Massaisteppen Deutsch-Ostafrikas 1905–1906 vol. 15. Corrodentia pt 4. Mallophaga. Almqvist & Wiksells Boktryckeri-A. B.: Uppsala.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[M01] Madarász, J. 1901. Madarak [Vögel]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 21–39. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[M05] Mayr, G. 2005. The Paleogene fossil record of birds in Europe. Biological Reviews 80: 515–542.

[M09] Mayr, G. 2009. Paleogene Fossil Birds. Springer.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[RN72] Rutgers, A., & K. A. Norris (eds) 1972. Encyclopaedia of Aviculture vol. 1. London, Blandford Press.

[S89] Salvadori, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea nella Birmania e nelle regioni vicine. XIX.—Uccelli raccolti nei Monti Carin a nord-est di Tounghoo, nel Pegù presso Rangoon e Tounghoo e nel Tenasserim presso Malewoon. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 369–438.

[S66] Schlegel, H. 1866. Communication from, on mammals and birds collected in Madagascar. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 419–426.

[SS66] Sclater, P. L., & O. Salvin. 1866. Catalogue of birds collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the River Uyacali, Eastern Peru, with notes and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 175–201.

[S18] Stone, W. 1918. Birds of the Panama Canal Zone, with special reference to a collection made by Mr. Lindsey L. Jewel. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 239–280.

Last updated: 26 June 2019.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="http://www.fieldofscience.com/">FoS</a> = FoS