The Early Eocene Gallinuloides wyomingensis, from Mayr & Weidig (2004).

Belongs within: Aves.
Contains: Galliformes.

The Pangalliformes is the total group for gamebirds, i.e. crown-group Galliformes and all fossil species more closely related to them than to other birds. Pangalliformes probably diverged from other birds during the Cretaceous, and Austinornis has been indicated as a possible Late Cretaceous pangalliform (Clarke 2004).

Synapomorphies (from Mayr & Weidig 2004): Humerus with marked elongated tuberculum dorsale; plantar side of articular surface of trochlea metatarsi III asymmetric with lateral ridge protruding farther proximally than medial ridge.

<==Pangalliformes C04
    |  i. s.: Austinornis Clarke 2004 C04
    |           `--*A. lentus (Marsh 1877) [=Graculavus lentus, Ichthyornis lentus] C04
    |         Archaealectrornis MW04
    |         Amitabha Gulas-Wroblewski & Wroblewski 2003 MW04
    |           `--A. urbsinterdictensis Gulas-Wroblewski & Wroblewski 2003 MW04
    |         Argillipes Harrison & Walker 1977 M05, M02
    |           |--*A. aurorum Harrison & Walker 1977 M02
    |           |--A. magnus Harrison & Walker 1979 M02
    |           `--A. paralectoris Harrison & Walker 1977 [incl. Paraortygoides radagasti Dyke & Gulas 2002] M05
    |--Paraortyx Gaillard 1908 M02 [Paraortygidae MW04]
    |    |--*P. lorteti Gaillard 1908 (see below for synonymy) M02
    |    `--P. brancoi Gaillard 1908 M02
    |--Gallinuloididae [Gallinuloidinae] MW04
    |    |--Gallinuloides Eastman 1900 MW04
    |    |    `--G. wyomingensis Eastman 1900 MW04
    |    `--Paraortygoides Mayr 2000 MW04
    |         `--*P. messelensis Mayr 2000 M02
    `--+--Galliformes MW04
       `--Quercymegapodiidae [Quercymegapodiinae] MW04
            |--Taubacrex Alvarenga 1988 M02
            |--Ludiortyx Brodkorb 1964 M05, M02 [incl. Eortyx Brodkorb 1967 M02]
            |    `--L. hoffmanni (Gervais 1852) (see below for synonymy) M02
            |--Quercymegapodius Mourer-Chauviré 1992 M02
            |    `--*Q. depereti (Gaillard 1908) (see below for synonymy) M02
            `--Ameripodius Alvarenga 1995 M02
                 |--*A. silvasantosi Alvarenga 1995 M02
                 `--A. alexis Mourer-Chauviré 2000 M02

Ludiortyx hoffmanni (Gervais 1852) [=Tringa hoffmanni, *Eortyx hoffmanni, Palaeortyx hoffmanni; incl. P. blanchardi Milne-Edwards 1869, *Ludiortyx blanchardi] M02

*Paraortyx lorteti Gaillard 1908 [incl. Palaeortyx cayluxensis Milne-Edwards 1892 non Lydekker 1891, Par. cayluxensis, Pal. gaillardi Lambrecht 1933, Ludiortyx gaillardi, Paraortyx gaillardi] M02

*Quercymegapodius depereti (Gaillard 1908) [=Palaeocryptonyx depereti, Pirortyx depereti; incl. Quercymegapodius brodkorbi Mourer-Chauviré 1992] M02

*Type species of generic name indicated


[C04] Clarke, J. A. 2004. Morphology, phylogenetic taxonomy, and systematics of Ichthyornis and Apatornis (Avialae: Ornithurae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 286: 1-179.

[M05] Mayr, G. 2005. The Paleogene fossil record of birds in Europe. Biological Reviews 80: 515-542.

[MW04] Mayr, G., & I. Weidig. 2004. The Early Eocene bird Gallinuloides wyomingensis – a stem group representative of Galliformes. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 49 (2): 211-217.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.


  1. So is the 'Pan-' convention for total groups catching on? The most prominent Pan- taxon in use doesn't even conform to the total group, I speak of Panarthropoda, of course. I know of several others but none in regular use, is Pangalliformes used anywhere else other than the paer that proposed it?

  2. So is the 'Pan-' convention for total groups catching on?

    For various reasons, I hope not. But in this specific case, this happens to be the only name I'm aware of that has been proposed for this clade, other than simply using Galliformes for the total group (leaving the crown clade nameless).

    A Google Scholar search for Pangalliformes brings up two results, so at least one other paper has used it ;-)


Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="">FoS</a> = FoS