Lesser bulldog bat Noctilio albiventris, photographed by Stephen Dalton.

Belongs within: Chiroptera.
Contains: Mormoopidae, Phyllostominae.

The Noctilionoidea are a clade of bats primarily found in the New World, with the Mystacinidae (short-tailed bats) known from New Zealand and the Miocene of Australia. Many noctilionoids are at least partially nectarivorous and the primary pollinators for some flowering plants. The bulldog bats of the genus Noctilio are insectivorous and piscivorous bats found in Central and South America with very full lips forming distinct cheek pouches (Miller 1907).

<==Noctilionoidea [Phyllostomatoidea, Phyllostomoidea]
    |--Mystacinidae [Mystacinae, Mystacopidae] MJ11
    |    |--Mystacina Gray 1843 [=Mystacops Lydekker in Flower & Lydekker 1891] M07
    |    |    |--*M. tuberculata Gray 1843 HM98 [=*Mystacops tuberculatus M07; incl. Mystacops velutinus K92]
    |    |    `--M. robusta Dwyer 1962 [=M. tuberculata robusta] WH02
    |    `--Icarops Hand, Murray et al. 1998 HM98
    |         |--*I. breviceps Hand, Murray et al. 1998 HM98
    |         |--I. aenae Hand, Murray et al. 1998 HM98
    |         `--I. paradox Hand, Murray et al. 1998 HM98
    `--+--Thyroptera Spix 1823 M07 [incl. Hyonycteris Lictenstein & Peters 1854 M07; Thyropteridae MJ11]
       |    |--*T. tricolor Spix 1823 [=Molossus tricolor] C57
       |    |    |--T. t. tricolor [incl. T. bicolor Cantraine 1845, Dysopes thyropterus Schinz 1844] C57
       |    |    |--T. t. albiventer (Tomes 1856) [=Hyonycteris albiventer; incl. T. tricolor albigula Allen 1923] C57
       |    |    `--T. t. juquiaensis Vieira 1942 [=T. albiventer juquiaensis] C57
       |    |--T. discifera Lichtenstein & Peters 1854 C57 [=*Hyonycteris discifera M07]
       |    |    |--T. d. discifera C57
       |    |    `--T. d. major Miller 1931 C57
       |    `--T. lavali G10
       `--+--+--Furipteridae [Furiae, Furipterina] MJ11
          |  |    |--Furipterus Bonaparte 1837 [incl. Furia Cuvier 1828 non Linnaeus 1758, Furiella Gray 1866] C57
          |  |    |    `--*F. horrens (Cuvier 1828) (see below for synonymy) C57
          |  |    `--Amorphochilus Peters 1877 C57
          |  |         `--*A. schnablii Peters 1877 [incl. A. schnablii osgoodi Allen 1914] C57
          |  `--Noctilio Linnaeus 1776 C57 (see below for synonymy)
          |       |--N. leporinus (Linnaeus 1758) [=Vespertilio leporinus, Pteropus leporinus] C57
          |       |    |--N. l. leporinus C57 (see below for synonymy)
          |       |    |--N. l. mexicanus G69
          |       |    `--N. l. rufipes D’Orbigny 1835 [incl. N. rufescens Pelzeln 1883] C57
          |       |--N. albiventris Desmarest 1818 PB78, C57 (see below for synonymy)
          |       |--N. labialis (Kerr 1792) [=Vespertilio labialis] C57
          |       |    |--N. l. labialis (see below for synonymy) C57
          |       |    `--N. l. zaparo Cabrera 1907 [=Dirias zaparo] C57
          |       `--N. lacrimaelunaris MJ11
          `--+--Mormoopidae MJ11
             `--Phyllostomidae (see below for synonymy) MJ11
                  |  i. s.: Vampyravus orientalis Schlosser 1910 S68 [=Provampyrus orientalis B78]
                  |--Phyllostominae K06
                  |--Desmodontinae [Desmodi, Desmodidae, Desmodina, Desmodontes, Desmodontidae, Haematophilini] BHH89
                  |    |--Diphylla Spix 1823 [incl. Haematonycteris Allen 1896] C57
                  |    |    `--*D. ecaudata Spix 1823 C57 (see below for synonymy)
                  |    |--Diaemus Miller 1906 C57
                  |    |    `--*D. youngi (Jentink 1893) [=Desmodus youngi; incl. Di. youngi cypselinus Thomas 1928] C57
                  |    `--Desmodus Wied 1824 [=Desmodon Elliot 1905; incl. Edostoma d’Orbigny 1834] C57
                  |         `--D. rotundus (Geoffroy 1810) K92 (see below for synonymy)
                  |              |--D. r. rotundus MB86
                  |              `--D. r. murinus Wagner 1840 MB86
                  `--Vampyrinae [Vampyri] BHH89
                       |--Vampyrum Rafinesque 1815 [=Vampirus Lesson 1827, Vampyrus Leach 1822] C57
                       |    `--*V. spectrum (Linnaeus 1758) (see below for synonymy) C57
                       |         |--V. s. spectrum G69
                       |         `--V. s. nelsoni G69
                       |--Trachops Gray 1847 BHH89, C57 (see below for synonymy)
                       |    `--T. cirrhosa (Spix 1823) (see below for synonymy) C57
                       |         |--T. c. cirrhosus G69
                       |         `--T. c. coffini G69
                       `--Chrotopterus Peters 1865 BHH89, C57
                            `--*C. auritus (Peters 1856) C57, G69 [=Vampyrus auritus G69]
                                 |--C. a. auritus C57
                                 |--C. a. australis Thomas 1905 C57
                                 `--C. a. guianae Thomas 1905 C57

Desmodus rotundus (Geoffroy 1810) K92 [=Phyllostoma rotundum C57; incl. Edostoma cinerea D’Orbigny 1834 C57, Desmodus rotundus dorbignyi Waterhouse 1838 C57, D. fuscus Burmeister 1854 C57, Rhinolophus ecaudatus Schinz 1821 C57, D. mordax Burmeister 1879 C57, *D. rufus Wied 1824 C57]

*Diphylla ecaudata Spix 1823 C57 [incl. D. centralis G69, Glossophaga diphylla Fischer 1829 C57]

*Furipterus horrens (Cuvier 1828) [=Furia horrens, Furipterus torrens (l. c.); incl. Furipterus coerulescens Tomes 1856] C57

Noctilio Linnaeus 1776 C57 [=Noctileo Tiedemann 1808 C57; incl. Celaeno Leach 1821 C57, Dirias Miller 1906 C57; Noctilionidae MJ11, Noctilionineae]

Noctilio albiventris Desmarest 1818 PB78, C57 [=*Dirias albiventer M07, N. albiventer C57, N. labialis albiventris C57; incl. N. affinis D’Orbigny 1835 C57, Dirias irex Thomas 1930 C57, N. ruber Rengger 1830 C57]

Noctilio labialis labialis (Kerr. 1792) [incl. N. albiventer minor Osgood 1912, Dirias albiventer minor, N. labialis minor] C57

Noctilio leporinus leporinus (Linnaeus 1758) C57 [incl. *N. americanus Linné 1766 C57, *Celaeno brocksiana Leach 1821 M07, C57, N. dorsatus Desmarest 1818 C57, N. leporinus var. dorsatus C57, N. longipes Pelzeln 1883 C57, N. macropus Pelzeln 1883 C57, N. leporinus var. mastivus Ribeiro 1914 non Vahl 1797 C57, N. rufus Spix 1823 C57, N. unicolor Desmarest 1818 C57, N. vittatus Schinz 1821 C57]

Phyllostomidae [Hemiderminae, Phyllostomatidae, Phyllostomina, Phyllostomineae, Vampiridae, Vampyrina] MJ11

Trachops Gray 1847 BHH89, C57 [=Trachyops Peters 1865 C57; incl. Istiophorus Gray 1825 non Lacépède 1802 C57, Histiophorus Agassiz 1846 C57; Trachyopina]

Trachops cirrhosa (Spix 1823) [=Vampyrus cirrhosus, Phyllostoma cirrhosum, Trachyops cirrhosus; incl. *Trachops fuliginosus Gray 1857, Tylostoma mexicana Saussure 1850] C57

*Vampyrum spectrum (Linnaeus 1758) [=Vespertilio spectrum, Phyllostoma spectrum, *Vampyrus spectrum; incl. Ve. guianensis Lacépède 1789, Ve. maximus Geoffroy 1806, Ve. nasutus Shaw 1800] C57

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BHH89] Baker, R. J., C. S. Hood & R. L. Honeycutt. 1989. Phylogenetic relationships and classification of the higher categories of the New World bat family Phyllostomidae. Systematic Zoology 38 (3): 228–238.

[B78] Butler, P. M. 1978. Insectivora and Chiroptera. In: Maglio, V. J., & H. B. S. Cooke (eds) Evolution of African Mammals pp. 56–68. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[C57] Cabrera, A. 1957. Catalogo de los mamiferos de America del Sur. I (Metatheria—Unguiculata—Carnivora). Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia” e Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de Las Ciencias Naturales, Ciencias Zoológicas 4 (1): 1–307.

[G69] Goodwin, G. G. 1969. Mammals from the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, in the American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 141 (1): 1–269, 40 pls.

[G10] Graciolli, G. 2010. Nycteribiidae (bat flies, spider bat flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1261–1266. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[HM98] Hand, S. J., P. Murray, D. Megirian, M. Archer & H. Godthelp. 1998. Mystacinid bats (Microchiroptera) from the Australian Tertiary. Journal of Paleontology 72 (3): 538–545.

[K92] Klompen, J. S. H. 1992. Phylogenetic relationships in the mite family Sarcoptidae (Acari: Astigmata). Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 180: i–vi, 1–154.

[K06] Kwiecinski, G. G. 2006. Phyllostomus discolor. Mammalian Species 801: 1–11.

[MB86] Matson, J. O. & R. H. Baker. 1986. Mammals of Zacatecas. Special Publications, Museum of Texas Tech University 24: 1–88.

[MJ11] Meredith, R. W., J. E. Janečka, J. Gatesy, O. A. Ryder, C. A. Fisher, E. C. Teeling, A. Goodbla, E. Eizirik, T. L. L. Simão, T. Stadler, D. L. Rabosky, R. L. Honeycutt, J. J. Flynn, C. M. Ingram, C. Steiner, T. L. Williams, T. J. Robinson, A. Burk-Herrick, M. Westerman, N. A. Ayoub, M. S. Springer & W. J. Murphy. 2011. Impacts of the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution and KPg extinction on mammal diversification. Science 334: 521–524.

[M07] Miller, G. S., Jr. 1907. The families and genera of bats. Smithsonian Institution, United States National Museum, Bulletin 57: i–xvii, 1–282, pl. I–XIV.

[PB78] Patton, J. C. & R. J. Baker. 1978. Chromosomal homolgy and evolution of phyllostomatoid bats. Systematic Zoology 27 (4): 449–462.

[S68] Simons, E. L. 1968. African Oligocene mammals: introduction, history of study, and faunal succession. Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University, Bulletin 28: 1–21.

[WH02] Worthy, T. H., & R. N. Holdaway. 2002. The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press: Bloomington (Indiana).

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