Section of the Carboniferous cryptostome Rhabdomeson, from Benton & Harper 2009.

Belongs within: Bryozoa.
Contains: Crisia, Acamptostega, Fenestrata, Cystoporata.

The Stenolaemata were the dominant group of bryozoans in the Palaeozoic, and remain represented in the modern fauna by the 'cyclostomes' (Articulina to Cancellina in the tree below) (Prothero 1998).

Characters (from Prothero 1998): Zooecia long, narrow, tubular, highly calcified, growing throughout the life of the colony, usually at an angle to direction of colony growth. Tentacles extruded by muscles squeezing coelomic fluid into upper part of zooid.

<==Stenolaemata [Cyclostomata, Tubuliporata]
    |  i. s.: Diplosolen obelia H15
    |         Microecia suborbicularis H15
    |         Heteropora H15
    |         Spiropora Lamouroux 1821 [incl. Pustulopora de Blainville 1830] H15
    |         Apsendesia Lamouroux 1821 [incl. Defrancia Bronn 1825, Pelagia Lamouroux 1821 (preoc.)] H15
    |           |--A. cristata Lamouroux 1821 [incl. Pelagia clypeata, *Defrancia clypeata] H15
    |           `--‘Defrancia’ lucernaria H15
    |         Hornera Lamouroux 1821 [Horneridae, Pachystega] H15
    |           |--H. caespitosa Busk 1875 H15
    |           |--H. fissurata H15
    |           |--H. frondiculata H15
    |           `--H. spinigera Kirkpatrick 1888 H15
    |         Cytisidae H15
    |           |--Hypocytis asteriscus Ortmann 1889 H15
    |           `--Supercytis d’Orbigny 1854 H15
    |                |--S. digitata d’Orbigny 1854 H15
    |                |--‘Fasciculipora’ digitata Busk 1875 non d’Orbigny 1854 H15
    |                |--S. tubigera H15
    |                `--S. watersi Harmer 1915 H15
    |         Lichenopora Defrance 1823 [incl. Disporella Gray 1848; Calyptrostega, Galeidae, Lichenoporidae] H15
    |           |--*L. turbinata H15
    |           |--L. buski Harmer 1915 (see below for synonymy) H15
    |           |--L. californica [=Unicavea californica] H15
    |           |--L. echinata H15
    |           |--L. grandis Q72
    |           |--L. hispida [=Discopora hispida, *Disporella hispida] H15
    |           |--L. mediterranea Michelin 1840-1847 (see below for synonymy) H15
    |           |--L. novaezelandiae (Busk 1875) (see below for synonymy) H15
    |           |--L. radiata (Audouin 1826) [=Melobesia radiata] H15
    |           `--L. verrucaria [incl. Discopora ciliata Busk 1855] H15
    |         Crisia H15
    |         Crisiella producta H30
    |--Palaeotubuliporina P98
    `--+--Articulina P98
       `--+--Salpingina P98
          `--+--+--Cerioporina P98
             |  `--Rectangulina P98
             `--+--Acamptostega P98
                `--+--Cancellina P98
                   `--Cryptostomata P98
                        |  i. s.: Gertyporidae DX84
                        |           |--Hayasakapora Sakagami 1960 DX84
                        |           |    |--*H. erectoradiata Sakagami 1960 DX84
                        |           |    |--H. capillacea DX84
                        |           |    |--H. matsudae Sakagami 1961 DX84
                        |           |    `--H. rugosa Liu in Ding, Xia et al. 1984 DX84
                        |           `--Girtypora Morozova 1966 DX84
                        |                |--*G. ramosa Morozova 1966 DX84
                        |                `--G. minor DX84
                        |--Fenestrata P98
                        `--+--Rhabdomeson Vine 1883 DX84 [Rhabdomesina P98]
                           |    `--R. libitum DX84
                           `--+--Ptilodictyina P98
                              `--+--Timanodictyina P98
                                 `--Cystoporata P98

Lichenopora buski Harmer 1915 [=Discoporella ciliata Busk 1875 non Discopora ciliata Busk 1855, Lichenopora ciliata] H15

Lichenopora mediterranea Michelin 1840-1847 [=Discoporella mediterranea; incl. D. porosa Haswell 1879, Lichenopora wanganuiensis Waters 1887] H15

Lichenopora novaezelandiae (Busk 1875) [=Discoporella novaezelandiae; incl. D. holdsworthii Busk 1875, Lichenopora holdsworthii, L. victoriensis Waters 1889] H15

*Type species of generic name indicated


[DX84] Ding Y., Xia G., Duan C., Li W., Liu X. & Liang Z. 1984. Study on the early Permian stratigraphy and fauna in Zhesi district, Nei Mongol Zizhiqu (Inner Mongolia). Bulletin Tianjin Institure Geol. Min. Res. 10.

[H15] Harmer, S. F. 1915. The Polyzoa of the Siboga Expedition – Part I. Entoprocta, Ctenostomata and Cyclostomata. E. J. Brill: Leyden.

[H30] Harmer, S. F. 1930. Presidential address. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 141: 68-118.

[P98] Prothero, D. R. 1998. Bringing Fossils to Life: An introduction to paleobiology. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.

[Q72] Quilty, P. G. 1972. The biostratigraphy of the Tasmanian marine Tertiary. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 106: 25-44.

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