Zooids of Victorella pavida, photographed by Michelle Carter.

Belongs within: Bryozoa.
Contains: Vesiculariidae, Alcyonidiidae, Arachnidiidae.

The Ctenostomata are an assemblage of bryozoans in which the walls of the colony are uncalcified, either membranous or gelatinous.

<==Ctenostomata [Ctenostomida]
    |  i. s.: Metalcyonidium gautieri R79
    |         Pseudalcyonidium bobinae R79
    |         Monobryozoon Remane 1936 [Monobryozoontidae] H86
    |           |--M. ambulans Remane 1936 H86
    |           |--M. bulbosum Ott 1972 H86
    |           `--M. limicola R79
    |         Orbignyopora devonica (Richards 1974) BM05
    |         Flustrellidra [Flustrellidridae] WT06
    |           `--F. hispida WT06
    |--Vesicularina H15
    |    |  i. s.: Avenella H15
    |    |         Cryptopolyzoon H15
    |    `--Vesiculariidae H15
    |--Carnosa [Alcyonellea, Carnosina] H15
    |    |--Alcyonidiidae H15
    |    `--Flustrellidae H15
    |         |--Echinella placoides Korotneff 1901 H15
    |         |--Verrucularia v. Suhr 1834 H15
    |         |--Elzerina Lamouroux 1816 H15
    |         |    `--E. blainvillii Lamouroux 1816 (see below for synonymy) H15
    |         `--‘Flustrella’ Gray 1848 non Ehrenberg 1839 H15
    |              |--F. binderi [=Farciminaria binderi] H15
    |              |--F. flabellaria H15
    |              `--F. hispida [incl. F. h. var. cylindrica] H15
    |--Paludicellea [Paludicellina] H15
    |    |  i. s.: Pottsiella H15
    |    |--Arachnidiidae H15
    |    |--Paludicella [Paludicellidae] H15
    |    |    `--P. articulata [=Alcyonella articulata] H15
    |    `--Victorella Saville Kent 1870 [Homodiaetidae, Victorellidae, Victorellides] H15
    |         |--*V. pavida Saville Kent 1870 H15
    |         |--V. bengalensis Annandale 1911 H15
    |         |--V. continentalis Braem 1911 H15
    |         |--‘Paludicella’ muelleri Kraepelin 1887 H15
    |         |--V. sibogae Harmer 1915 H15
    |         `--V. symbiotica Rousselet 1907 H15
    `--Stolonifera [Stoloniferina] H15
         |--Hypophorella expansa H15
         |--Valkeria Fleming 1823 [=Walkeria (l. c.); Valkeriidae] H15
         |    |--V. atlantica Busk 1886 [=Farrella atlantica] H15
         |    |--‘Vesicularia’ cuscuta H15
         |    `--V. tuberosa Heller 1867 [incl. V. uva Waters 1910] H15
         |--Triticella Dalyell 1848 [incl. Cordyle Boeck 1862, Hippuraria Busk 1874; Triticellidae, Tritilellidae] H15
         |    |--*T. flava H15
         |    |--‘Plumatella’ familiaris Gros 1849 [incl. T. korenii] H15
         |    |--T. boeckii Sars 1874 [incl. Hippuraria egertoni Busk 1874] H15
         |    `--‘Hippuraria’ elongata H15
         |--Mimosella Hincks 1851 [Mimosellidae] H15
         |    |--M. bigeminata Waters 1914 H15
         |    |--M. gracilis H15
         |    |--M. radicata KBC03
         |    |--M. tenuis Harmer 1915 H15
         |    `--M. verticillata (Heller 1867) (see below for synonymy) H15
         `--Buskia Alder 1856 [Buskiidae] H15
              |--*B. nitens Alder 1856 H15
              |--‘Vesicularia’ armata Verrill 1874 [=Hippuraria armata] H15
              |--B. australis Jullien 1888 H15
              |--B. pilosa Harmer 1915 H15
              |--B. setigera Hincks 1887 H15
              `--B. socialis Hincks 1887 H15

Elzerina blainvillii Lamouroux 1816 [=Farciminaria blainvillii; incl. Verrucularia dichotoma v. Suhr 1834, Farciminaria dichotoma, Flustrella dichotoma] H15

Mimosella verticillata (Heller 1867) [=Valkeria verticillata, Cuscutaria verticillata ms, Hippuraria verticillata; incl. Lagenella nutans Joliet 1877, Valkeria nutans, Walkeria nutans] H15

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BM05] Botquelen, A., & E. Mayoral. 2005. Early Devonian bioerosion in the Rade de Brest, Armorican Massif, France. Palaeontology 48 (5): 1057-1064.

[H15] Harmer, S. F. 1915. The Polyzoa of the Siboga Expedition – Part I. Entoprocta, Ctenostomata and Cyclostomata. E. J. Brill: Leyden.

[H86] d’Hondt, J.-L. 1986. Bryozoa. In Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) (L. Botosaneanu, ed.) pp. 145-146. E. J. Brill / Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[KBC03] Kashin, I. A., E. V. Bagaveeva & S. F. Chaplygina. 2003. Fouling communities of hydrotechnical constructions in Nakhodka Bay (Sea of Japan). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 29: 267-283.

[R79] Ryland, J. S. 1979. Structural and physiological aspects of coloniality in bryozoans. In Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms (G. Larwood & B. R. Rosen, eds) pp. 211-242. Academic Press: London.

[WT06] Waeschenbach, A., M. J. Telford, J. S. Porter & D. T. J. Littlewood. 2006. The complete mitochondrial genome of Flustrellidra hispida and the phylogenetic position of Bryozoa among the Metazoa. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (1): 195-207.

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