African spoonbill Platalea alba, photographed by Callie de Wet.

Belongs within: Neoaves.

The Threskiornithidae include the ibises and spoonbills, long-legged and -billed wading birds that generally feed on small invertebrates. Previous authors have recognised the ibises, with downcurved bills, as a separate subfamily (Threskiornithinae) from the spoonbills (Plataleinae) with straight and distinctly spatulate bills; however, the former may be paraphyletic to the latter. The Old World spoonbills of the genus Platalea are mostly white in colouration, while the roseate spoonbill Ajaja ajaja of the Americas is extensively coloured with pink. Among the ibises, the type genus Threskiornis includes the sacred ibises, a cluster of species with white plumage and featherless black heads and necks (T. aethiopicus, T. bernieri, T. melanocephalus and T. molucca). Authors differ on whether these should be treated as separate species or geographic races of a single species.

<==Threskiornithidae [Ibididae, Ibidinae, Plataleidae, Plegadidae, Threskiornithinae, Threskiornithoidea]
    |  i. s.: *Ajaja ajaja FP64
    |         Bostrychia JT12
    |           |--B. bocagei JT12
    |           |--B. carunculata (Rüppell 1837) [=Ibis carunculata] S05
    |           |--B. hagedash JT12
    |           |--B. olivacea JT12
    |           `--B. rara JT12
    |         Comatibus eremita RN72
    |         Thaumatibis gigantea SU93
    |         Pseudibis JT12
    |           |--P. davisoni JT12 [=P. papillosa davisoni SU93]
    |           `--P. papillosa SU93
    |         Hagedashia hagedash M03
    |         Lophotibis cristata M03
    |         Harpiprion caerulescens EA06
    |         Rhynchaeites Wittich 1899 [incl. Plumumida Hoch 1980] M02
    |           `--*R. messelensis Wittich 1898 M02, M05 [incl. *Plumumida lutetialis Hoch 1980 M02]
    |         Borbonibis latipes FS01
    |         Protibis cnemialis Ameghino 1891 A94
    |         Cercibis oxycerca JT12
    |         Mesembrinibis cayennensis JT12
    |--+--+--Eudocimus Wagler 1832 JT12, B94 [Eudociminae]
    |  |  |    |--E. albus [=Ibis albus] B94
    |  |  |    `--E. ruber M03 [=Ibis rubra B66, I. rubus B94]
    |  |  `--Theristicus JT12
    |  |       |--T. caerulescens JT12
    |  |       |--T. caudatus EA06
    |  |       `--T. hagedash K08
    |  `--+--‘Theristicus’ melanopis JT12
    |     `--+--Phimosus Wagler 1832 JT12, B94 [Phimosinae]
    |        |    `--P. infuscatus JT12
    |        `--Geronticus Wagler 1832 JT12, M02 [Geronticinae]
    |             |--G. apelex Olson 1985 B93
    |             |--G. calvus JT12
    |             |--G. eremita (Linnaeus 1758) S05 (see below for synonymy)
    |             |--G. olivaceus D66
    |             |--G. perplexus (Milne-Edwards 1869) [=Ardea perplexa, Proardea perplexa] M02
    |             `--G. spinicollis Scl66
    `--+--Plegadis Kaup 1829 JT12, M02 (see below for synonymy)
       |    |  i. s.: P. paganus (Milne-Edwards 1868) (see below for synonymy) M02
       |    |--P. ridgwayi JT12
       |    `--+--P. chihi JT12
       |       `--P. falcinellus (Linné 1766) JT12, R85 [=Tantalus falcinellus WS48]
       |            |--P. f. falcinellus WS48
       |            `--P. f. peregrinus (Bonaparte 1855) (see below for synonymy) WS48
       `--+--‘Platalea’ ajaja JT12
          `--+--Nipponia nippon (Temminck 1835) JT12, I92
             `--+--Platalea Linnaeus 1758 JT12, M02 [Plataleinae]
                |    |  i. s.: P. flavipes Gould 1838 R85
                |    |         P. regia Gould 1838 JT12, R85 [=P. leucorodia regia R85]
                |    |         P. telfairi Sch66
                |    |--P. alba JT12
                |    `--+--P. leucorodia Linnaeus 1758 JT12, M02
                |       `--P. minor Temminch & Schlegel 1849 JT12, I92
                `--Threskiornis Gray 1842 [incl. Ibis Cuvier 1816 non Lacépède 1799] B94
                     |--*T. aethiopicus (Latham 1790) [=Tantalus aethiopicus, *Ibis aethiopicus] B94
                     |    |--T. a. aethiopicus WS48
                     |    `--T. a. strictipennis (Gould 1838) WS48 (see below for synonymy)
                     |--T. bernieri JT12
                     |    |--T. b. bernieri HSS13
                     |    `--T. b. abbotti HSS13
                     |--T. melanocephalus (Latham 1790) I92
                     |--T. molucca (Cuvier 1829) R85
                     |--T. solitarius HSS13
                     `--T. spinicollis (Jameson 1835) (see below for synonymy) WS48

Geronticus eremita (Linnaeus 1758) S05 [=Upupa eremita M02; incl. G. balcanicus Boev 1998 M02, Ibis comata Rüppell 1837 (n. n.) S05, G. comatus Rüppell 1845 S05]

Plegadis Kaup 1829 JT12, M02 [incl. Falcinellus Vieillot 1816 B94, Milnea Lydekker 1891 non Reichenbach 1866 M02; Falcinellinae, Plegadinae]

Plegadis falcinellus peregrinus (Bonaparte 1855) [=Ibis peregrina; incl. P. falcinellus rogersi Mathews 1916] WS48

Plegadis paganus (Milne-Edwards 1868) [=Ibis pagana, Actiornis pagana, Eudocimus paganus; incl. *Milnea gracilis Lydekker 1891] M02

Threskiornis aethiopicus strictipennis (Gould 1838) WS48 [=Ibis strictipennis WS48, T. molucca strictipennis HR96]

Threskiornis spinicollis (Jameson 1835) [=Ibis spinicollis; incl. Carphibis spinicollis fitzroyi Mathews 1912] WS48

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A94] Ameghino, F. 1894. Sur les oiseaux fossiles de Patagonie et la aune mammalogique des couches a Pyrotherium. Boletín del Instituto Geográfico Argentino 15 (11-12): 501-602.

[B66] Bartlett, A. D. 1866. Notes on the breeding of several species of birds in the Society's gardens during the year 1865. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 76-79.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

[B93] Brooke, R. K. 1993. Annotated catalogue of the Aves type specimens in the South African Museum. Annals of the South African Museum 102 (10): 327-349.

[D66] Dohrn, H. 1866. Synopsis of the birds of Ilha do Principe, with some remarks on their habits and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 324-332.

[EA06] Ericson, P. G. P., C. L. Anderson, T. Britton, A. Elzanowski, U. S. Johansson, M. Källersjö, J. I. Ohlson, T. J. Parsons, D. Zuccon & G. Mayr. 2006. Diversification of Neoaves: integration of molecular sequence data and fossils. Biology Letters 2 (4): 543-547.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[FS01] Flannery, T. & P. Schouten. 2001. A Gap in Nature: Discovering the World's Extinct Animals. Text Publishing: Melbourne.

[HR96] Heather, B. D., & H. A. Robertson. 1996. The Field Guide to the Birds of New Zealand. Viking: Auckland.

[HSS13] Hirschfeld, E., A. Swash & R. Still. 2013. The World's Rarest Birds. Princeton University Press: Princeton (New Jersey).

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444-448.

[K08] Kellogg, V. L. 1908. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Schwedischen Zoologischen Expedition nach dem Kilimandjaro, dem Meru und den Umgebenden Massaisteppen Deutsch-Ostafrikas 1905–1906, 15. Corrodentia, 4. Mallophaga. Almqvist & Wiksells Boktryckeri-A. B.: Uppsala.

[M03] Mayr, G. 2003. The phylogenetic affinities of the shoebill (Balaeniceps rex). Journal für Ornithologie 144: 157-175.

[M05] Mayr, G. 2005. The Paleogene fossil record of birds in Europe. Biological Reviews 80: 515-542.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[R85] Robertson, C. J. R. (ed.) 1985. Reader’s Digest Complete Book of New Zealand Birds. Reader’s Digest: Sydney.

[RN72] Rutgers, A., & K. A. Norris (eds.) 1972. Encyclopaedia of Aviculture vol. 2. Blandford Press: London.

[Sch66] Schlegel, H. 1866. Communication from, on mammals and birds collected in Madagascar. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 419-426.

[Scl66] Sclater, P. L. 1866. Notice of recent additions to the Society's menagerie. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 418-419.

[SU93] Sonobe, K., & S. Usui (eds.) 1993. A Field Guide to the Waterbirds of Asia. Wild Bird Society of Japan: Tokyo.

[S05] Steinheimer, F. D. 2005. Eduard Rüppel’s avian types at the Natural History Museum, Tring (Aves). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 233-264.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M. & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1-126.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="">FoS</a> = FoS