Phasianidae

Grey partridge Perdix perdix, photographed by Marcel Van der Tol.


Belongs within: Phasiani.
Contains: Arborophila, Coturnix, Alectoris, Francolinus, Meleagrididae, Tetraoninae, Phasianus, Lophura.

The Phasianidae are the family of gamebirds including the pheasants, partridges and Old World quail. They are primarily terrestrial birds with stout bodies and bills and relatively short, rounded wings. Traditionally they have been divided between the Phasianini or Phasianinae sensu stricto (pheasants and peafowl), many of which have elongate tails and are often brightly coloured, and the often smaller and more conservatively coloured Perdicini or Perdicinae (partridges and Old World quail). However, recent phylogenetic analyses have not supported this division. Instead, a basal clade within the Phasianidae unites the Udzungwa forest partridge Xenoperdix udzungwensis of inland Tanzania with the hill partridges Arborophila and related taxa of eastern Asia. Xenoperdix and Arborophila species share dark grey-brown or blackish under-wing coverts bordered by a contrasting white stripe formed by the outer webs of the middle coverts, and a reticulate scalation along the rear of the tarsus (Dinesen et al. 1994).

The genus Gallus includes the domestic chicken G. gallus and its wild relatives, the junglefowl. Junglefowl are distinguished from other members of the Phasianidae by the presence in males of well-developed wattles and a comb on the head, and a strongly arched tail. They are currently found in tropical Asia, though fossils also indicate the presence of chickens in Europe during the warm interglacials of the Pleistocene (Mlíkovský 2002). The domestic chicken, of course, has been carried by humans around the world.

The ocellated pheasants form a group including the peacocks Pavo and the great argus pheasant Argusianus argus. Members of this group have males with display plumage marked by iridescent 'eye-patches'.

<==Phasianidae [Pavoninae, Perdicinae, Perdicini, Phasianinae, Phasianini, Starnini]
    |--+--Xenoperdix Dinesen, Lehmberg et al. 1994 JT12, DL94
    |  |    `--*X. udzungwensis Dinesen, Lehmberg et al. 1994 DL94
    |  `--+--Arborophila JT12
    |     `--+--Caloperdix oculeus JT12
    |        `--Rollulus Bonnaterre 1791 JT12, B94 [incl. Cryptonyx Temminck 1815 B94; Cryptonychini, Rollulini]
    |             `--R. rouloul HK08
    `--+--Gallus Brisson 1760 BKB15, M02 [incl. Pliogallus Gaillard 1939 M02; Gallini]
       |    |--*G. gallus (Linnaeus 1758) CC10, C04 (see below for synonymy)
       |    |    |--G. g. gallus SMD01
       |    |    |--G. g. bankiva Temminck 1813 L81, CC10
       |    |    |--G. g. domesticus (Linnaeus 1758) SMD01
       |    |    |--G. g. ferrugineus L81
       |    |    `--G. g. murghii L81
       |    |--G. beremendensis Jánossy 1976 M02
       |    |--G. europaeus Harrison 1978 M02
       |    `--G. moldovicus Burčak-Abramovič, Ganea & Šušpanov 1993 M02
       `--+--+--Coturnix BKB15
          |  `--+--+--Alectoris BKB15
          |     |  `--Tetraogallus Gray 1832 BKB15, B94 (see below for synonymy)
          |     |       |  i. s.: T. caucasicus JT12
          |     |       |--T. tibetanus JT12
          |     |       `--+--T. himalayensis BKB15
          |     |          `--+--T. altaicus (Gebler 1837) BKB15, M01 [=Perdix altaicus M01]
          |     |             `--T. caspius BKB15
          |     `--+--+--Perdicula BKB15
          |        |  |    |--P. argoondah JT12 [=P. asiatica argoondah L81]
          |        |  |    |--P. asiatica L81
          |        |  |    |--P. erythrorhyncha B66
          |        |  |    `--P. manipurensis JT12
          |        |  `--Ammoperdix Gould 1851 JT12, M02
          |        |       |--A. griseogularis JT12
          |        |       `--A. heyi L81
          |        |            |--A. h. heyi L81
          |        |            `--A. h. nicolli L81
          |        `--+--‘Francolinus’ hartlaubi JT12
          |           `--+--‘Francolinus’ erckelii (Rüppell 1835) BKB15, S05 [=Perdix erckelii S05]
          |              `--+--+--‘Francolinus’ castaneicollis BKB15
          |                 `--+--Pternistis S05
          |                    |    |--P. afer L81 (see below for synonymy)
          |                    |    `--+--P. leucoscepus (Gray 1867) S05 (see below for synonymy)
          |                    |       `--P. swainsonii B93 [=Francolinus swainsonii JT12]
          |                    |            |--P. s. swainsonii B93
          |                    |            `--P. s. gilli Roberts 1932 [=Francolinus swainsoni gilli] B93
          |                    `--+--+--‘Francolinus’ bicalcaratus JT12
          |                       |  `--‘Francolinus’ squamatus JT12
          |                       `--+--‘Francolinus’ griseostriatus JT12
          |                          `--+--+--‘Francolinus’ adspersus JT12
          |                             |  `--‘Francolinus’ capensis JT12
          |                             `--+--‘Francolinus’ hildebrandti JT12
          |                                `--‘Francolinus’ natalensis BKB15
          `--+--‘Arborophila’ rufipectus BKB15
             `--+--+--+--+--Rheinardia ocellata BKB15
                |  |  |  `--Argusianus Rafinesque 1815 BKB15, B94 (see below for synonymy)
                |  |  |       `--A. argus A61
                |  |  `--+--Afropavo Chapin 1936 BKB15, B94 [Afropavonini]
                |  |     |    `--A. congensis DL94
                |  |     `--Pavo Linnaeus 1758 BKB15, M02 [Pavonini]
                |  |          |--*P. cristatus Linnaeus 1758 CC10
                |  |          |--P. archiaci (Gaudry 1862) (see below for synonymy) M02
                |  |          |--P. bravardi (Gervais 1849) (see below for synonymy) M02
                |  |          `--P. muticus M02
                |  `--+--Francolinus BKB15
                |     `--+--Haematortyx sanguiniceps JT12
                |        `--+--Galloperdix Blyth 1844 JT12, B94 [Galloperdicini]
                |           |    |--G. bicalcarata JT12
                |           |    |--G. lunulata JT12
                |           |    `--G. spadicea JT12
                |           `--Polyplectron Temminck 1813 JT12, B94 [Polyplectronini]
                |                |  i. s.: P. emphanum USDI77
                |                |--P. napoleonis JT12
                |                `--+--+--P. malacense JT12
                |                   |  `--P. schleiermacheri JT12
                |                   `--+--P. germaini JT12
                |                      `--+--P. inopinatum JT12
                |                         `--+--P. bicalcaratum JT12
                |                            `--P. chalcurum JT12
                `--+--Ithaginis Wagler 1822 BKB15, B94 [Ithaginini]
                   |    `--I. cruentus RN72
                   `--+--+--Tragopan Cuvier 1829 JT12, B94 [incl. Satyra Lesson 1828 B94; Tragopanini]
                      |  |    |  i. s.: T. melanocephalus USDI77
                      |  |    |--T. blythii BKB15
                      |  |    `--+--T. caboti BKB15
                      |  |       `--+--T. satyra BKB15
                      |  |          `--T. temminckii (Gray in Hardwicke 1831) BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
                      |  `--+--Tetraophasis JT12
                      |     |    |--T. obscurus JT12
                      |     |    `--T. szechenyii JT12
                      |     `--Lophophorus Temminck 1813 JT12, B94 [Lophophorini]
                      |          |--L. sclateri BKB15
                      |          `--+--L. impejanus BKB15
                      |             `--L. lhuysii BKB15
                      `--+--+--Rhizothera longirostris BKB15
                         |  `--Pucrasia Gray 1841 BKB15, B94 [Pucrasiini]
                         |       |--P. macrolopha JT12
                         |       `--P. xanthospila Sa66
                         `--+--+--Meleagrididae BKB15
                            |  `--Tetraoninae BKB15
                            `--+--Perdix Brisson 1760 BKB15, M02 [incl. Starna Bonaparte 1838 B94]
                               |    |  i. s.: P. barbata [incl. P. dauuricae] L81
                               |    |         P. madagascariensis Sc66
                               |    |         P. ponticerianus Sc66
                               |    |         P. saxatilis Bechstein 1805 [=Caccabis saxatilis] CC10
                               |    |         P. spadicea Sc66
                               |    |--P. hodgsoniae BKB15
                               |    `--+--*P. perdix (Linnaeus 1758) M02, BKB15, M02 (see below for synonymy)
                               |       `--P. dauurica BKB15
                               `--+--Syrmaticus JT12
                                  |    |--+--S. reevesii (Gray in Griffith 1829) BKB15, CC10 [=Phasianus reevesii CC10]
                                  |    |  `--S. soemmerringii BKB15 [=Phasianus soemmerringi T89]
                                  |    |       |--S. s. soemmerringii I92
                                  |    |       `--‘Phasianus’ s. ijimae Dresser 1902 I92
                                  |    `--+--S. mikado BKB15
                                  |       `--+--S. ellioti JT12
                                  |          `--S. humiae JT12
                                  `--+--+--‘Polyplectron’ katsumatae BKB15
                                     |  `--Phasianus BKB15
                                     `--+--Chrysolophus JT12
                                        |    |--C. amherstiae L81
                                        |    `--C. pictus (Linnaeus 1758) [=Phasianus pictus, Thaumalea picta] CC10
                                        `--+--+--Catreus wallichii BKB15
                                           |  `--Lophura JT12
                                           `--Crossoptilon JT12
                                                |--+--C. crossoptilon BKB15
                                                |  `--C. drouyni BKB15
                                                `--+--C. harmani BKB15
                                                   `--+--C. auritum JT12
                                                      `--C. mantchuricum JT12

Phasianidae incertae sedis:
  Ophrysia superciliosa FP64
  Pirortyx Brodkorb 1964 M02
    `--*P. major (Gaillard 1939) [=Palaeortyx major] M02
  Miogallus Lambrecht 1933 [incl. Miophasianus Brodkorb 1952] M02
    `--M. altus (Milne-Edwards 1869) (see below for synonymy) M02
  Anissolornis excavatus Amegino 1891 A94
  Anurophasis monorthonyx JT12
  Melanoperdix niger JT12
  Gennaeus Wagler 1832 [incl. Nycthemerus Swainson 1837; Nycthemerini] B94
    `--G. swinhoii A61
  Lerwa Hodgson 1837 [Lerwini] B94
    `--L. lerwa JT12

Inorganic: Gallus gallus minilorientalus Okamura 1987 O87
           Pavo cristatus minilorientalus Okamura 1987 O87

Nomina nuda: Gallus steinheimensis Fraas in Engel 1908 M02
             Palaeortyx media Milne-Edwards 1871 M02

Argusianus Rafinesque 1815 BKB15, B94 [=Argusanus (l. c.) B94; incl. Argus Temminck 1813 non Bohadsch 1761 B94; Argini, Argusaninae, Argusianinae, Argusianini]

*Gallus gallus (Linnaeus 1758) CC10, C04 [=Phasianus gallus C04; incl. *Pliogallus crassipes Gaillard 1939 M02, G. domesticus fossilis Giebel 1847 (n. n.) M02, P. kormosi Gaillard 1939 M02, G. gallus levantinus Pichon & Tchernov 1987 M02]

Miogallus altus (Milne-Edwards 1869) [=Phasianus altus, *Miophasianus altus; incl. Ph. augustus Ammon 1918, Miop. augustus, Ph. desnoyersii Milne-Edwards 1869, Miop. desnoyersii, Gallus longaevus Ammon 1918, *Miogallus longaevus, Palaeortyx maxima Lydekker 1893, Miophasianus maximus, Ph. medius Milne-Edwards 1869, Miophasianus medius, Palaeoperdix medius, Tantalus milneedwardsii Shufeldt 1896, Ibis milneedwardsi, Pseudotantalus milneedwardsi, Ardea similis Fraas 1870, Botaurites similis, Proardea similis] M02

Pavo archiaci (Gaudry 1862) [=Phasianus archiaci; incl. Gallus aesculapii Gaudry 1862, Pavo aesculapi, Pavo aesculapi phasianoides Jánossy 1991] M02

Pavo bravardi (Gervais 1849) [=Gallus bravardi; incl. Phasianus etuliensis Bocheński & Kuročkin 1987, Pavo moldavicus Bocheński & Kuročkin 1987] M02

*Perdix perdix (Linnaeus 1758) M02, BKB15, M02 [=Tetrao perdix M02; incl. P. cinerea Brisson 1760 CC10, P. perdix jurcsaki Kretzoi 1962 M02, P. palaeoperdix Mourer-Chauviré 1975 M02, Alectoris sutcliffei Harrison 1980 M02]

Pternistis afer L81 [=Francolinus afer JT12; incl. Pternistis cranchii L81, P. afer cunenensis Roberts 1932 non Scleroptila jugularis cunenensis Roberts 1932 B93, F. afer palliditectus White 1958 B93]

Pternistis leucoscepus (Gray 1867) S05 [=Francolinus leucoscepus JT12, Perdix rubricollis Cretzschmar 1829 non Gmelin 1789 S05]

Tetraogallus Gray 1832 BKB15, B94 [incl. Oreotetrax Cabanis 1846 B94; Oreotetragini, Tetraogallini]

Tragopan temminckii (Gray in Hardwicke 1831) BKB15, CC10 [=Satyra temminckii CC10, Ceriornis temminckii CC10]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A94] Ameghino, F. 1894. Sur les oiseaux fossiles de Patagonie et la aune mammalogique des couches a Pyrotherium. Boletín del Instituto Geográfico Argentino 15 (11–12): 501–602.

[A61] Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[B93] Brooke, R. K. 1993. Annotated catalogue of the Aves type specimens in the South African Museum. Annals of the South African Museum 102 (10): 327–349.

[B66] Bulger, G. E. 1866. List of birds observed at Wellington, Neilgherry Hills, about 6000 feet above the level of the sea, during the months of April and May, 1866. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 568–571.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[C04] Clarke, J. A. 2004. Morphology, phylogenetic taxonomy, and systematics of Ichthyornis and Apatornis (Avialae: Ornithurae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 286: 1–179.

[DL94] Dinesen, L., T. Lehmberg, J. O. Svendsen, L. A. Hansen & J. Fjeldså. 1994. A new genus and species of perdicine bird (Phasianidae, Perdicini) from Tanzania, a relict form with Indo-Malayan affinities. Ibis 136: 2–11.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[HK08] Hackett, S. J., R. T. Kimball, S. Reddy, R. C. K. Bowie, E. L. Braun, M. J. Braun, J. L. Chojnowski, W. A. Cox, K.-L. Han, J. Harshman, C. J. Huddleston, B. D. Marks, K. J. Miglia, W. S. Moore, F. H. Sheldon, D. W. Steadman, C. C. Witt & T. Yuri. 2008. A phylogenomic study of birds reveals their evolutionary history. Science 320: 1763–1768.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[M01] Madarász, J. 1901. Madarak [Vögel]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 21–39. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[O87] Okamura, C. 1987. New facts: Homo and all Vertebrata were born simultaneously in the former Paleozoic in Japan. Original Report of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory 15: 347–573.

[RN72] Rutgers, A., & K. A. Norris (eds.) 1972. Encyclopaedia of Aviculture vol. 2. Blandford Press: London.

[Sa66] Saurin, D. E. 1866. Notice on the pheasants found in the neighbourhood of Pekin. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 436–438.

[Sc66] Schlegel, H. 1866. Communication from, on mammals and birds collected in Madagascar. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 419–426.

[SMD01] Skoracki, M., W. Magowski & J. Dabert. 2001. Picobia polonica sp. n. (Acari: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae), a new species of quill mite from the domestic hen, Gallus gallus domesticus (Aves: Phasianidae). Folia Parasitologica 48: 154–158.

[S05] Steinheimer, F. D. 2005. Eduard Rüppel’s avian types at the Natural History Museum, Tring (Aves). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 233–264.

[T89] Takeshita, N. 1989. Nihon no Yachoo. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

[USDI77] USDI (United States Department of the Interior). 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants—republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420–36431.

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