Flightless steamer ducks Tachyeres pteneres, photographed by Nick Athanas.

Belongs within: Anatidae.
Contains: Mergini, Tadornini, Anas, Aythya.

The Anatinae contains the majority of the ducks, the generally smaller-bodied, shorter-necked waterfowl. As a clade, the Anatinae are distinguished by the presence of asymmetrical syringeal bullae (Sorenson et al. 1999). Some subgroups such as the Oxyurini and Mergini have been treated as separate subfamilies by various authors. The Oxyurini include the stiff-tailed ducks Oxyura, a pantropical group with legs set back on the body making them awkward on land. The pygmy geese Nettapus of the Old World tropics may also be close relatives of Oxyura.

See also: The Hawaiian superducks.

<==Anatinae [Boschinae, Dafilinae, Marecinae, Querquedulinae, Sibirionettinae, Spatulinae]
    |  i. s.: *Pachyanas chathamica Oliver 1955 WH02
    |         Salvadorina waigiuensis JT12
    |--Oxyurini [Erismaturinae, Oxyurinae] SC99
    |    |--Nettapus Brandt 1836 JT12, B94 [incl. Cheniscus Eyton 1838 B94; Cheniscinae, Nettapodinae]
    |    |    |  i. s.: N. auritus FP64
    |    |    |--N. pulchellus Gould 1842 JT12, WS48 [incl. Cheniscus pulchellus rogersi Mathews 1916 WS48]
    |    |    `--+--N. coromandelianus JT12
    |    |       `--Heteronetta Salvadori 1865 JT12, B94 [Heteronettinae]
    |    |            `--H. atricapilla FP64
    |    `--+--Nomonyx dominicus JT12
    |       `--Oxyura Bonaparte 1828 JT12, B94 [incl. Erismatura Bonaparte 1832 B94]
    |            |  i. s.: O. doksana Mlíkovský 2002 M02
    |            |--O. vittata JT12
    |            `--+--O. jamaicensis JT12
    |               `--+--O. australis Gould 1836 JT12, W04
    |                  `--+--O. leucocephala (Scopoli 1769) JT12, M02 [=Anas leucocephala M02]
    |                     `--O. maccoa JT12
    `--+--Biziura Stephens 1824 JT12, B94 [Biziurinae]
       |    |--B. delautouri Forbes 1892 W04
       |    `--B. lobata (Shaw 1796) [=Anas lobata; incl. B. lobata westralis Mathews 1912] WS48
       `--+--Stictonetta Reichenbach 1853 JT12, B94 [Stictonettinae]
          |    `--S. naevosa (Gould 1840) [=Anas naevosa] WS48
          `--+--+--+--Mergini SC99
             |  |  `--+--Callonetta Delacour 1936 JT12, B94 [Callonettinae]
             |  |     |    `--C. leucophrys ZJM03
             |  |     `--Merganetta Gould 1842 JT12, B94 [Merganettinae]
             |  |          `--M. armata ZJM03
             |  `--+--Tadornini SC99
             |     `--Cairinini [Cairininae] A61
             |          |--Cairina Flemming 1822 SC99, B94
             |          |    `--C. moschata SC99
             |          `--Aix Boie 1828 A61, B94 [incl. Dendronessa Wagler 1832 M02; Aiginae]
             |               |--A. galericulata (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, M02 (see below for synonymy)
             |               `--A. sponsa SC99
             `--+--+--Thambetochenini PJ02
                |  |    |--Chelychelynechen quassus SC99
                |  |    |--Ptaiochen pau SC99
                |  |    `--Thambetochen SC99
                |  |         |--T. chauliodous SC99
                |  |         `--T. xanion SC99
                |  `--Anatini SC99
                |       |--Anas SC99
                |       `--+--Tachyeres Owen 1875 SC99, B94 (see below for synonymy)
                |          |    |--+--T. brachypterus JT12
                |          |    |  `--T. pteneres JT12
                |          |    `--+--T. leucocephalus JT12
                |          |       `--T. patachonius JT12
                |          `--+--Lophonetta specularoides SC99
                |             `--+--Speculanas specularis SC99
                |                `--Amazonetta von Boetticher 1929 SC99, B94 [Amazonettinae]
                |                     `--A. brasiliensis SC99
                `--+--+--Chenonetta Brandt 1836 SC99, B94 [Chenonettinae]
                   |  |    |--C. finschi (van Beneden 1875) W04 [=Anas finschi WH02, *Euryanas finschi WH02]
                   |  |    `--C. jubata (Latham 1801) R85 (see below for synonymy)
                   |  `--+--Hymenolaimus Gray 1843 JT12, B94 [Hymenolaiminae]
                   |     |    `--H. malacorhynchos (Gmelin 1789) W04
                   |     `--Plectropterini SC99
                   |          |--Plectropterus Stephen 1824 [Plectropterinae] B94
                   |          |    `--P. gambiensis ZJM03
                   |          `--Sarkidiornis Eyton 1838 SC99, B94 [Sarkidiornithinae]
                   |               `--S. melanotos SU93 [=Anas melanota S66; incl. Sarcidiornis africana S66]
                   `--+--+--Pteronetta hartlaubi SC99
                      |  `--Cyanochen Bonaparte 1856 SC99, B94 [Cyanocheninae]
                      |       `--C. cyanopterus SC99
                      `--Aythyini [Aythyinae, Fuligulinae, Marilinae, Nyrocinae] SC99
                           |  i. s.: Rhodonessa Reichenbach 1853 A61, B94 [Rhodonessinae]
                           |           `--R. caryophyllacea SU93
                           |--Marmaronetta angustirostris SC99
                           `--+--Asarcornis scutellata SC99 [=Cairina scutulata JT12]
                              `--Netta Kaup 1829 SC99, M02
                                   |  i. s.: N. erythrophthalma JT12
                                   |--N. rufina (Pallas 1773) JT12, M02 [=Anas rufina M02]
                                   `--+--N. pepoasca JT12
                                      `--Aythya SC99

Aix galericulata (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, M02 [=Anas galericulata M02, Dendronessa galericulata M02]

Chenonetta jubata (Latham 1801) R85 [=Anas jubata WS48, Bernicla jubata WH02; incl. Chenonetta jubata alexanderi Mathews 1916 WS48]

Tachyeres Owen 1875 SC99, B94 [incl. Micropterus Lesson 1828 B94; Micropterinae, Tachyeresini, Tachyerinae, Tachyerini]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.
[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444-448.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[PJ02] Paxinos, E. E., H. F. James, S. L. Olson, M. D. Sorenson, J. Jackson & R. C. Fleischer. 2002. mtDNA from fossils reveals a radiation of Hawaiian geese recently derived from the Canada goose (Branta canadensis). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 99: 1399-1404.

[R85] Robertson, C. J. R. (ed.) 1985. Reader’s Digest Complete Book of New Zealand Birds. Reader’s Digest: Sydney.

[S66] Schlegel, H. 1866. Communication from, on mammals and birds collected in Madagascar. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 419-426.

[SU93] Sonobe, K., & S. Usui (eds.) 1993. A Field Guide to the Waterbirds of Asia. Wild Bird Society of Japan: Tokyo.

[SC99] Sorenson, M. D., A. Cooper, E. E. Paxinos, T. W. Quinn, H. F. James, S. L. Olson & R. C. Fleischer. 1999. Relationships of the extinct moa-nalos, flightless Hawaiian waterfowl, based on ancient DNA. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 266: 2187-2193.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M. & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1-126.

[W04] Worthy, T. H. 2004. The Holocene fossil waterfowl fauna of Lake Poukawa, North Island, New Zealand. Tuhinga 15: 77-120.

[WH02] Worthy, T. H., & R. N. Holdaway. 2002. The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press: Bloomington (Indiana).

[ZJM03] Zeffer, A., L. C. Johansson & Å. Marmebro. 2003. Functional correlation between habitat use and leg morphology in birds (Aves). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 79: 461-484.

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