Rhynchonelliformea

Bicia gemma, from Walcott (1886).


Belongs within: Brachiopoda.
Contains: Rhynchonellata, Orthotetida, Billingsellida, Strophomenida, Productida.

The Rhynchonelliformea is the clade containing the articulate brachiopods (Articulata) as well as their stem relatives. The clade is characterised by the possession of an organocalcitic shell with fibrous microstructure (Williams & Holmer 2002). Articulate brachiopods have the valves connected by an arrangement of hinge teeth and dental sockets, though this has been lost in a very few derived subgroups.

<==Rhynchonelliformea
    |--Obolellida HP95 [Obolellata P98]
    |    |  i. s.: Nochoriella EL11
    |    `--Obolellidae [Obolellacea] R65a
    |         |--Obolella Billings 1861 R65a
    |         |    `--*O. chromatica Billings 1861 R65a
    |         |--Alisina Rowell 1962 R65a
    |         |    `--*A. atlantica (Walcott 1890) [=Obolella atlantica] R65a
    |         |--Bicia Walcott 1901 R65a
    |         |    `--*B. gemma (Billings 1871) [=Obolella gemma] R65a
    |         |--Magnicanalis Rowell 1962 R65a
    |         |    `--*M. mobergi (Walcott 1901) [=Obolella mobergi] R65a
    |         `--Trematobolus Matthew 1893 (see below for synonymy) R65a
    |              |--*T. insignis Matthew 1893 R65a
    |              `--T. kempanum (Matthew 1897) [=*Protosiphon kempanum] R65a
    `--Articulata [Arthropomata, Clistenterata, Pygocaulia, Testicardines] P98
         |  i. s.: Eichwaldiacea [Dictyonellidina] R65c
         |           |--Eichwaldiidae R65c
         |           |    |--Eichwaldia Billings 1858 R65c
         |           |    |    `--*E. subtrigonalis Billings 1858 R65c
         |           |    `--Dictyonella Hall 1868 [=Dyctionella (l. c.)] R65c
         |           |         |--*D. coralifera (Hall 1852) [=Atrypa coralifera] R65c
         |           |         `--D. capewelli R65c
         |           `--Isogrammidae R65c
         |                |--Megapleuronia Cooper 1952 R65c
         |                |    |--*M. fabianii (Greco 1947) [=Productus fabianii] R65c
         |                |    `--M. grecoi R65c
         |                `--Isogramma Meek & Worthen 1870 (see below for synonymy) R65c
         |                     |--*I. millipunctatum (Meek & Worthen 1870) [=Chonetes millipunctatus] R65c
         |                     |--*Aulacorhynchus’ pachti Dittmar 1872 [=*Aulacorhyna pachti] R65c
         |                     |--I. renfrarum R65c
         |                     `--I. texanum R65c
         |--Rhynchonellata P98
         `--Strophomenata P98
              |  i. s.: Cyphomenoidea julia D04
              |         Biparetis paucirugosus D04
              |         Nasutimena fluctuosa (Billings 1860) D04
              |         Katastrophomena D04
              |--Orthotetida D04
              |--Billingsellida D04
              `--+--Strophomenida D04
                 `--Productida D04

Rhynchonelliformea incertae sedis:
  Nikolaevirhynchus Baranov 1988 M03
  Pseudocamarotoechia gljadensis Kul’kov 1974 M03
  Kotujella Andreeva 1962 EL11, WW65 [Chileata WH02]
    `--*K. calva Andreeva 1962 WW65
  Kutorginata [Kutorginacea, Kutorginida, Palaeotremata, Rustellacea] WH02
    |  i. s.: Khasagtina EL11
    |--Yorkia Walcott 1897 [incl. Quebecia Walcott 1905; Yorkiidae] R65b
    |    |--*Y. wanneri Walcott 1897 R65b
    |    `--‘Obolella’ circe Billings 1872 [=*Quebecia circe] R65b
    |--Kutorginidae [Rustellidae, Schuchertinidae] R65b
    |    |--Schuchertina Walcott 1905 R65b
    |    |    `--*S. cambria Walcott 1905 R65b
    |    `--Kutorgina Billings 1861 [=Koturgina; incl. Rustella Walcott 1905] R65b
    |         |--*K. cingulata (Billings 1861) [=Obolella cingulata] R65b
    |         |--*Rustella’ edsoni Walcott 1905 R65b
    |         `--K. reticulata R65b
    `--Nisusiidae [Nisusiinae] WW65
         |--Eoconcha Cooper 1951 WW65
         |    `--*E. austini Cooper 1951 WW65
         |--Matutella Cooper 1951 WW65
         |    `--*M. clarki Cooper 1951 WW65
         `--Nisusia Walcott 1905 WH02, WW65
              |--*N. festinata (Billings 1861) [=Orthisina festinata] WW65
              `--N. deissi WW65

Isogramma Meek & Worthen 1870 [incl. Aulacorhyna Strand 1928, Aulacorhynchus Dittmar 1872 non Gould 1834] R65c

Trematobolus Matthew 1893 [=Trematobolos (l. c.); incl. Protosiphon Matthew 1897, Protosyphon (l. c.)] R65a

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D04] Dewing, K. 2004. Shell structure and its bearing on the phylogeny of Late Ordovician–Early Silurian strophomenoid brachiopods from Anticosti Island, Qu├ębec. Journal of Paleontology 78: 275–286.

[EL11] Erwin, D. H., M. Laflamme, S. M. Tweedt, E. A. Sperling, D. Pisani & K. J. Peterson. 2011. The Cambrian conundrum: early divergence and later ecological success in the early history of animals. Science 334: 1091–1097.

[HP95] Holmer, L. E., L. E. Popov, M. G. Bassett & J. Laurie. 1995. Phylogenetic analysis and ordinal classification of the Brachiopoda. Palaeontology 38: 713–741.

[M03] Modzalevskaya, T. L. 2003. Silurian and Devonian brachiopods from Severnaya Zemlya (Russian Arctic). Geodiversitas 25 (1): 73–107.

[P98] Prothero, D. R. 1998. Bringing Fossils to Life: An introduction to paleobiology. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.

[R65a] Rowell, A. J. 1965a. Inarticulata. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt H. Brachiopoda vol. 1 pp. H260–H296. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas Press: Lawrence (Kansas).

[R65b] Rowell, A. J. 1965b. Class uncertain. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt H. Brachiopoda vol. 1 pp. H296–H297. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas Press: Lawrence (Kansas).

[R65c] Rowell, A. J. 1965c. Order uncertain—Dictyonellidina. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt H. Brachiopoda vol. 1 pp. H359–H361. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas Press: Lawrence (Kansas).

[WH02] Williams, A., & L. E. Holmer. 2002. Shell structure and inferred growth, functions and affinities of the sclerites of the problematic Micrina. Palaeontology 45 (5): 845–873.

[WW65] Williams, A., & A. D. Wright. 1965. Orthida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt H. Brachiopoda vol. 1 pp. H299–H359. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas Press: Lawrence (Kansas).

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