Tenebrionidae

Exangeltus gracilior, from Matthews & Bouchard (2008). Scale bar = 1 mm.


Belongs within: Tenebrionoidea.
Contains: Adesmia, Helops, Lagriinae, Phrenapatinae, Alleculinae, Diaperinae, Stenochiinae, Toxicini, Blaps, Amarygmini, Bolitophagini, Pedinini, Ulomini, Opatrini, Palorini, Heleini, Triboliini, Titaenini, Tenebrio, Cossyphodini, Sepidiini, Pimeliini, Tentyria.

The Tenebrionidae are a large and varied family of beetles, most of which are scavengers on dead plant and fungal material, and are one of the most successful families of beetles in arid environments. Many tenebrionids are able to discharge defensive chemicals from glands in the anal region, though these glands are absent in some significant subgroups such as the Pimeliinae. In those groups lacking defensive glands, the sternites of the abdomen hinge along the midline, but those tenebrionids with defensive glands have sternites hinging laterally to allow the abdomen to expand before expelling the defensive fluid (Matthews & Bouchard 2008).

Characters (from Lawrence & Britton 1991): Usually black or brown and subglabrous, with concealed antennal insertions and usually stout, moniliform or incrassate antennae. Eyes usually emarginate; lateral pronotal carinae usually simple and complete; prosternal process usually moderately broad, strongly curved dorsally behind coxae, neither strongly nor abruptly expanded apically; junctions of first three ventrites different from those separating last two, the basal ventrites being strongly connate and the apical ones more or less movable, often with exposed membrane. Externally open fore coxal cavities only occur in Tanylypa, internally open ones in some Tenebrioninae. Tarsal formula usually 5-5-4, sometimes 4-4-4. Most species with paired glandular reservoirs, associated with chemical defence sustem, located usually at base of fifth ventrite. Larvae almost always elongate (ovate in Leiochrini) and subcylindrical to slightly flattened. May be very lightly sclerotised, moderately sclerotised or yellow in colour, with or without darker head and urogomphi, or uniformly heavily sclerotised and darkly pigmented; vestiture consists of scattered fine hairs except in Lagriini whose larvae are densely setose.

Tenebrionidae [Cossyphores, Tenebrionites, Ulominae]
    |--+--Lagriinae MW15
    |  |--Phrenapatinae MB08
    |  `--Nilio Latreille 1802 L02 [=Nilion L02; Nilionidae, Nilioninae MB08]
    |       |--*N. villosus [=Coccinella villosa] L02
    |       `--N. lanatus Germar 1824 B14
    `--+--+--Trachelostenus [Trachelostenidae] MW15
       |  |--Alleculinae MB08
       |  |--Diaperinae MB08
       |  |--Stenochiinae MB08
       |  `--Tenebrioninae [Opatrinae] C68
       |       |  i. s.: Merinus C68
       |       |         Eleodes B14
       |       |           |--E. (Eleodes) acutus (Say 1824) B14
       |       |           |--E. caudifera C90
       |       |           |--E. hispilabris C90
       |       |           `--E. obscurus B14
       |       |         Rhyzodina mniszechii Chevrolat 1873 B14
       |       |         Idiobates MB08
       |       |--Toxicini LB91
       |       |--Blaps LB91
       |       |--Amarygmini LB91
       |       |--Bolitophagini B14
       |       |--Pedinini B14
       |       |--Ulomini LB91
       |       |--Opatrini LB91
       |       |--Palorini MB08
       |       |--‘Tenebrio’ dispar Herbst 1797 [incl. Menearchus impressosulcatus Carter 1920; Platynotini] MB08
       |       |--Cheirodes Gené 1839 [Melanimini] MB08
       |       |    `--*C. sardous Gené 1839 [incl. Anemia caulobioides Carter 1920] MB08
       |       `--+--Heleini MB08
       |          |--Triboliini MB08
       |          |--Titaenini MB08
       |          |--Acropteron [Acropteronini] MB08
       |          |--Tenebrionini MB08
       |          |    |--Tenebrio B14
       |          |    `--Paratoxicum Champion 1894 [incl. Schizophthalmotribolium Kaszab 1940] MB08
       |          |         |--*P. iridescens Champion 1894 MB08
       |          |         |--P. australiae (Kaszab 1940) [=*Schizophthalmotribolium australiae] MB08
       |          |         `--P. nigricans Oke 1932 MB08
       |          `--Alphitobiini MB08
       |               |--Alphitobius Stephens 1829 [incl. Microphyes Macleay 1872] MB08
       |               |    |--A. laevigatus (Fabricius 1781) (see below for synonymy) MB08
       |               |    `--A. diaperinus (Panzer 1797) [=Tenebrio diaperinus] A71
       |               `--Diaclina Jacquelin du Val 1861 MB08
       |                    |--*D. chrysomelina (Carter 1908) [=Tenebrio chrysomelinus] MB08
       |                    `--D. nitida (Carter 1908) [=Heterocheira nitida; incl. D. immaculata Gebien 1920] MB08
       `--Pimeliinae [Tentyriinae] B14
            |  i. s.: Onymacris B14
            |           |--O. bicolor (Haag-Butenberg 1875) B14
            |           |--O. laevigatus B14
            |           `--O. unguicularis B14
            |         Bothroles C68
            |--Cossyphodini A61
            |--Sepidiini B14
            |--Ceratanisini LB91
            |--Pimeliini B14
            |--Lachnogyini MB08
            |--Salax Guérin-Méneville 1834 [Trilobocarini] MB08
            |    `--*S. lacordairei Guérin-Méneville 1834 MB08
            |--Nyctoporis [Nyctoporini] MB08
            |    `--N. cristata Eschscholtz 1831 [incl. Emeax sculpturatus Pascoe 1866] MB08
            |--Coelus MW15 [Coniontini B14]
            |    |--C. globosus LeConte 1852 B14
            |    |--C. gracilis B14
            |    `--C. maritimus B14
            |--Cryptochilini B14
            |    |--Vansonium B14
            |    `--Calognathus chevrolati B14
            |         |--C. c. chevrolati B14
            |         `--C. c. eberlanzi Koch 1950 B14
            |--Nycteliini B14
            |    |--Entomobalia B14
            |    `--Nyctelia B14
            |         |--N. geometrica Fairmaire 1905 B14
            |         `--N. westwoodi B14
            |--Tentyriini MB08
            |    |--Tentyria G89
            |    `--Stenosida Solier 1835 MB08
            |         |--‘Tagenia’ striatopunctata Wiedemann 1821 [incl. *Stenosida tenuicollis Solier 1835] MB08
            |         |--S. australis Medvedev 1995 MB08
            |         `--S. darevskii MB08
            |--Cnemeplatini MB08
            |    |  i. s.: Actizeta MB08
            |    `--Thorictosomatina MB08
            |         |--Wattiana Matthews & Lawrence 2005 MB08
            |         |    `--*W. greensladei Mattthews & Lawrence 2005 MB08
            |         `--Thorictosoma Lea 1919 GWW10, L19
            |              |--*T. ectatommae Lea 1919 L19
            |              `--T. tibiale Lea 1919 L19
            `--Vacronini MB08
                 |--Eupsophulus MB08
                 |--Lixionica Blackburn 1896 MB08
                 |    `--*L. costatipennis Blackburn 1896 MB08
                 `--Exangeltus Blackburn 1897 [=Exangelutus (l. c.)] MB08
                      |--*E. angustus Blackburn 1897 MB08
                      |--E. brevicollis Kulzer 1964 MB08
                      |--E. gracilior Blackburn 1903 MB08
                      `--E. rufipennis Carter 1919 MB08

Tenebrionidae incertae sedis:
  Zeadelium gratiosum ED04
  Stomium BHM08
  Parastizopus armaticeps GE05
  Ulomites GE05
  Pseudognaptorina Kaszab 1977 K77
    `--*P. nepalica Kaszab 1977 K77
  Freudeia Kaszab 1961 K77
    |--F. granulipleuris Kaszab 1977 K77
    |--F. martensi Kaszab 1977 K77
    |--F. nepalica Kaszab 1961 K77
    `--F. punctipleuris Kaszab 1977 K77
  Blaptyscelis Koch 1961 [=Blaptyscellis Pierre 1961] K77
    |--B. alpinus (Kaszab 1965) K77
    |--B. costulatus (Fairmaire 1901) K77
    |--B. dreuxi Pierre 1961 K77
    |--B. nepalicus (Kaszab 1973) [=Tagenoides nepalicus] K77
    |--B. subcarinatus (Blair 1927) K77
    `--B. zurstrasseni Kaszab 1977 K77
  Platolenes nepalensis Kaszab 1977 K77
  Heterotarsus auriculatus Marseul 1876 K77
  Agnaptoria Reitter 1887 K77
    |--A. rubripes Reitter 1887 K77
    |--A. seidlitzi Reitter 1893 K77
    `--A. subcarinata Blair 1927 K77
  Platynoscelis (Leipopleura) politicollis Kaszab 1940 K77
  Hexarhopalus entomogonoides (Allard 1896) [=Ptilonix entomogonoides] K77
  Zophosis Latreille 1802 L02
    |--*Z. testudinaria [=Erodius testudinarius] L02
    |--Z. abbreviata Sol. 1834 G89
    |--Z. acuticosta Fairm. 1885 G89
    |--Z. plana [=Erodius planus] G89
    |--Z. punctata Brullé 1832 G89
    |--Z. pygmaea Sol. 1834 G89
    |--Z. quadricostata Sol. 1834 G89
    |--Z. sabaea Baudi 1881 G89
    `--Z. sulcata Deyr. 1867 G89
  Arthrodes G89
    |--A. impressifrons Baudi 1881 G89
    `--A. rotundatus Sol. 1834 G89
  Erodius G89
    |--E. gibbus L02
    `--E. puncticollis Sol. 1834 G89
  Adesmia G89
  Rhytidonota praelonga (Reiche 1850) [=Axumia praelonga] G89
  Mesostena G89
    |--M. laevicollis Sol. 1835 G89
    |--M. puncticollis Sol. 1835 G89
    `--M. punctipennis Sol. 1835 G89
  Mesostenopa arabica Gestro 1881 G89
  Micipsa philistina Reiche 1857 G89
  Oxycara G89
    |--O. hegeterica (Reiche 1857) [=Melanerus hegetericus] G89
    `--O. pygmaea (Reiche 1857) [=Melanerus pygmaeus] G89
  Sceleodis castaneus [=Cratopus castaneus] G89
  Phaeotribon pulchellus G89
  Himatismus villosus Haag 1870 G89
  Pogonobasis ornata Sol. 1837 G89
  Peristeptus gestroi Haag 1875 G89
  Stenosis costulata Baudi 1881 G89
  Eutagenia arabs (Baudi 1881) [=Stenosis arabs] G89
  Thriptera G89
    |--T. crinita (Klug 1830) [=Pimelia crinita] G89
    `--T. murina Baudi 1881 G89
  Gedeon abyssinicus G89
  Hopatrinus G89
    |--H. corvinus Muls 1852 G89
    `--H. niloticus Muls 1852 G89
  Scleron G89
    |--S. orientale (Fabr. 1775) [=Opatrum orientale] G89
    `--S. sulcatum Baudi 1876 G89
  Hopatrum G89
    |--H. famelicum Oliv. 1811 G89
    |--H. hispidum Brullé 1838 G89
    |--H. lugens G89
    |--H. micans G89
    |--H. murinum Baudi 1876 G89
    |--H. rusticum Oliv. 1811 G89
    `--H. sericeum Baudi 1876 G89
  Halonomus subplumbeus (Fairm. 1856) [=Platydema subplumbea] G89
  Hopatroides punctulatus G89
  Calcar raffrayi Fairm. 1873 G89
  Dilamus pictus Baudi 1881 G89
  Micrantereus G89
    |--M. gerstaeckeri G89
    |--M. rugulosus Gestro 1878 G89
    `--M. tentyrioides G89
  Helopinus G89
    |--H. elegans Baudi 1881 G89
    `--H. psalidiformis Ancey 1881 G89
  Praeugena gagatina Mäklin 1864 G89
  Boletoxenus bellicum K98
  Philolithus densicollis [=Pelecyphorus densicollis] C90
  Stenomorpha C90
  Cryptoglossa C90
  Neatus tenebrioides LKW09
  Anatolica C01a
    |--A. iduna C01b
    |--A. paradoxa C01b
    `--A. sulcipennis Reitt. in Csiki 1901 C01b
  Melanesthes C01a
    |--M. ciliata C01b
    |--M. heydeni Csiki 1901 C01b
    |--M. maxima C01b
    `--M. mongolica Csiki 1901 C01b
  Melaxumia angulosa C01b
  Scytosoma arcibasis C01b
  Microdera interrupta C01b
  Dordanea kraatzi C01b
  Trigonoscelis C01b
    |--T. kraatzi C01b
    |--T. laeviuscula C01b
    |--T. reitteri Csiki 1901 C01b
    |--T. seidlitzi C01b
    `--T. zichyi Csiki 1901 C01b
  Platyscelis rugifrons C01b
  Dendarus C01b
    |--D. barbarus Lucas 1847 E12
    |--D. extensus C01b
    |--D. rotundicollis Lucas 1847 E12
    `--D. subvariolosus Lucas 1847 E12
  Scleropatrum C01b
    |--S. carinatum C01b
    `--S. tubeculiferum C01b
  Praociini B14
  Ammophorus [Scotobiini] MB08
  Gonocnemis B14
  Epitragus Latreille 1802 L02
    `--*E. variegatus [=Helops variegatus] L02
  Asida Latreille 1802 L02
    |--*A. grisea [=Opatrum griseum] L02
    |--A. affinis Lucas 1847 E12
    |--A. complanata Lucas 1847 E12
    `--A. lapidaria Lucas 1847 E12
  Akis L02
    |--A. collaris L02
    `--A. reflexa L02
  Moluris Latreille 1802 L02
    `--*M. gibba [=Pimelia gibba] L02
  Eurychora ciliata L02
  Tagenia Latreille 1802 L02
    |--*T. filiformis [=Akis filiformis] L02
    `--T. algirica Lucas 1847 E12
  Scaurus striatus L02
  Hegeter Latreille 1802 L02
    `--*H. elongatus [=Blaps elongata] L02
  Orthocerus Latreille 1802 L02
    `--O. muticus [=Sarrotrium muticum] L02
  ‘Silvanus’ costatus Steinheil 1869 (n. d.) H73
  Zolodininae [Zolodinini] MB08
    |--Zolodinus zelandicus LB91
    `--Tanylypa Pascoe 1869 MB08
         `--*T. morio Pascoe 1869 MB08
  Metaclisa [Centronopini] MB08
  Damatris MB08
  Baryscelis MB08
    |--B. laticollis Boisduval 1835 (n. d.) MB08
    `--B. politus Boisduval 1835 (n. d.) MB08 [=Meneristes politus M86]
  Chrysobalus fulgidipennis Boisduval 1835 (n. d.) MB08 [=Cyphaleus fulgidipennis M86]
  Helops MB08
  Pseudostrongylium viridipenne Kraatz 1880 (n. d.) MB08
  Tetraphyllus sumptuosus Hope 1843 (n. d.) MB08
  Brysax M86
    |--B. egenus Pascoe 1866 M86
    |--B. macleayi Pascoe 1866 M86
    `--B. saccharatus Pascoe 1870 M86
  Ulodica hispida Pascoe 1869 M86
  Elascus M86
    |--E. crassicornis Pascoe 1860 M86
    `--E. lunatus Pascoe 1860 M86
  Ennebaeus ovalis Waterh. 1878 M86
  Typhobia Pascoe 1869 M86, BR05
  Nyctobates crenata Boisd. 1835 M86
  Menephilus M86
    |--M. colydioides Erichs. 1842 M86
    |--M. convexiusculus Hope 1842 M86
    |--M. corvinus Erichs. 1842 M86
    |--M. cyanipennis Hope 1842 M86
    |--M. humilis Erichs. 1842 M86
    |--M. lonipennis Hope 1842 M86
    `--M. nigerrimus [incl. M. australis] M86
  Acrothymus caenosus Pascoe 1866 M86

Alphitobius laevigatus (Fabricius 1781) [=Opatrum laevigatum; incl. Helops picipes Panzer 1794, *Alphitobius picipes, *Microphyes rufipes Macleay 1872] MB08

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BHM08] Baert, L., F. Hendrickx & J.-P. Maelfait. 2008. Allozyme characterization of Hogna species (Araneae, Lycosidae) of the Galápagos Archipelago. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 411–417.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[C90] Crawford, C. S. 1990. Scorpiones, Solifugae, and associated desert taxa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 421–475. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[C68] Crowson, R. A. 1968. Concerning immunotaxonomy of Coleoptera. Systematic Zoology 17 (1): 95–97.

[C01a] Csiki, E. 1901a. Utivázlat [Reiseskizze]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. xii–xli. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[C01b] Csiki, E. 1901b. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[ED04] Ewers, R. M., & R. K. Didham. 2004. A first assessment of New Zealand beetles restricted to large forest areas. Weta 27: 33–40.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso «Esploratore» dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 5–72.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[GWW10] Guthrie, N. A., T. Weir & K. Will. 2010. Localised and regional patterns in ground-dwelling beetle assemblages in a semi-tropical arid zone environment. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 78 (1): 169–184.

[H73] Halstead, D. G. H. 1973. A revision of the genus Silvanus Latreille (s. l.) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Entomology 29 (2): 39–112.

[K77] Kaszab, Z. 1977. Tenebrionidae der Nepal-Expeditionen von Dr. J. Martens (1969–1974) (Insecta: Coleoptera). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (4–6): 241–283.

[K98] Klimov, P. B. 1998. A new tribe of acarid mites of the subfamily Rhizoglyphinae (Acariformes, Acaridae). Far Eastern Entomologist 59: 1–19.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[LB91] Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 2 pp. 543–683. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[L19] Lea, A. M. 1919. Notes on some miscellaneous Coleoptera with descriptions of new species.—Part V. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 43: 166–261, pls 25–27.

[LKW09] Lindquist, E. E., G. W. Krantz & D. E. Walter. 2009. Order Mesostigmata. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 124–232. Texas Tech University Press.

[M86] Masters, G. 1886. Catalogue of the described Coleoptera of Australia. Part IV. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 259–380.

[MB08] Matthews, E. G., & P. Bouchard. 2008. Tenebrionid Beetles of Australia: Descriptions of tribes, keys to genera, catalogue of species. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[MW15] McKenna, D. D., A. L. Wild, K. Kanda, C. L. Bellamy, R. G. Beutel, M. S. Caterino, C. W. Farnum, D. C. Hawks, M. A. Ivie, M. L. Jameson, R. A. B. Leschen, A. E. Marvaldi, J. V. McHugh, A. F. Newton, J. A. Robertson, M. K. Thayer, M. F. Whiting, J. F. Lawrence, A. Ślipiński, D. R. Maddison & B. D. Farrell. 2015. The beetle tree of life reveals that Coleoptera survived end-Permian mass extinction to diversify during the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Systematic Entomology 40 (4): 835–880.

Last updated: 1 May 2017.

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