Dorsal (left) and ventral views of Acerentulus tillyardi, from Womersley (1939).

Belongs within: Pancrustacea.
Contains: Collembola, Diplura, Insecta.

The Panhexapoda includes the modern Hexapoda (insects and related taxa), together with a small number of Devonian relatives. Members of this clade are united by the presence of only a single pair of antennae, and reduction of appendages posterior to the anterior three pairs of walking legs. In crown-group hexapods, the posterior appendages have been more or less lost (some basal lineages retain small remnants that do not function as walking legs) (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

    |--Devonohexapodus bocksbergensis Haas, Waloszek & Haretenberger 2003 GE05, FT05
    |--+--Wingertshellicus backsei Briggs & Bartels 2001 GE05, FT05
    |  `--Cambronatus brasseli Briggs & Bartels 2001 GE05, FT05
    `--Hexapoda [Apterygota, Ellipura, Entognatha, Entotropha, Nonoculata, Parainsecta] GE05
         |  i. s.: Leverhulmia Anderson & Trewin 2003 FT05
         |           `--*L. mariae Anderson & Trewin 2003 FT05
         |--+--Collembola LSE13
         |  `--+--Diplura LSE13
         |     `--Insecta LSE13
         `--Protura [Acerentomida, Myrientomata] GE05
              |  i. s.: Protapteron [Protapteridae] W39
              |           `--P. indicum W39
              |--Eosentomidae [Eosentomoidea] CI90
              |    |--Isoentomon serinus Szeptycki 2004 F05
              |    |--Styletoentomon CI90
              |    `--Eosentomon Berlese 1910 W39
              |         |--E. canarinum Szeptycki 2004 F05
              |         |--E. millsi Womersley 1939 [incl. E. millsi var. australica Womersley 1939] W39
              |         |--E. swani Womersley 1932 W39
              |         |--E. transitorium BDF73
              |         `--E. westraliense Womersley 1932 W39
              `--Acerentomoidea CI90
                   |--Protentomidae [Meroentominae, Protentominae, Proturentominae] CI90
                   |    |--Hesperentomon CI90
                   |    |--Protentomon CI90 [incl. Meroentomon W39]
                   |    |--Neocondeellum CI90
                   |    `--Proturentomon CI90 [incl. Paraentomon W39]
                   |         `--P. minimum CI90
                   `--Acerentomidae [Acerentominae] CI90
                        |--Fjellbergella CI90
                        |--Tuxenentulus CI90
                        |--Proacerella CI90
                        |--Gracilentulus CI90
                        |--Berberentulus CI90
                        |--Baculentulus tianmushanensis CI90, MG06
                        |--Vesiculentomon CI90
                        |--Yamatentomon CI90
                        |--Filientomon CI90
                        |--Nipponentomon CI90
                        |--Verrucoentomon canadense (Tuxen 1955) (see below for synonymy) CI90
                        |--Alaskaentomon CI90
                        |--Paracerella Imadaté 1980 CI90
                        |--Microentomon W39
                        |--Acerentomon Silvestri 1907 W39
                        |    |--*A. doderoi Silvestri 1907 W39
                        |    `--A. majus BDF73
                        `--Acerentulus LSE13 [incl. Acerentuloides W39]
                             |--A. australiensis Womersley 1932 W39
                             |--A. occidentalis Womersley 1932 W39
                             |--A. sexspinatus Womersley 1936 W39
                             |--A. tillyardi Womersley 1932 W39
                             |--A. traegardhi BDF73
                             `--A. westraliensis Womersley 1932 W39

Verrucoentomon canadense (Tuxen 1955) [=Acerella canadensis, Nosekiella canadensis] CI90

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BDF73] Baccetti, B., R. Dallai & B. Fratello. 1973. The spermatozoon of Arthropoda. XXII. The '12+0', '14+0' or aflagellate sperm of Protura. Journal of Cell Science 13: 321-335.

[CI90] Copeland, T. P., & G. Imadaté. 1990. Insecta: Protura. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 911-933. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[FT05] Fayers, S. R., & N. H. Trewin. 2005. A hexapod from the Early Devonian Windyfield Chert, Rhynie, Scotland. Palaeontology 48 (5): 1117-1130.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261-282.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[LSE13] Legg, D. A., M. D. Sutton & G. D. Edgecombe. 2013. Arthropod fossil data increase congruence of morphological and molecular phylogenies. Nature Communications 4 (2485): 1-7.

[MG06] Mallatt, J., & G. Giribet. 2006. Further use of nearly complete 28S and 18S rRNA genes to classify Ecdysozoa: 37 more arthropods and a kinorhynch. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40: 772-794.

[W39] Womersley, H. 1939. Primitive Insects of South Australia: Silverfish, springtails, and their allies. South Australian Branch of the British Science Guild: Adelaide.

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