Free-tailed bat Tadarida teniotis, photographed by Ahmet Karatash.

Belongs within: Chiroptera.

The Molossidae are the free-tailed or mastiff bats, a pantropical and subtropical family. Molossids are fast-flying bats that mostly hunt flying insects above the forest canopy or over water (Long et al. 2002). As recognised here, the molossids include the blunt-eared bat Tomopeas ravus, a native of Peru that has sometimes been classified separately. The Brazilian free-tailed bat Tadarida brasiliensis has been described as one of the most numerous mammal species in the Western Hemisphere, with some colonies containing millions of individuals.

Characters (from Long et al. 2002): Lips and snout heavy, eyes small. Dental formula I2/1-3, 1-2 or 1, C1/1, P2 and/or 4/2, 4, M1-3/1-3. Tail long, projecting beyond uropatagium.

Molossidae [Molossi, Molossina, Molossini]
    |--Neoplatymops HM98
    |--Sauromys KJ70
    |--Micronomus Troughton 1943 HM98, R64
    |    `--*M. norfolkensis (Gray 1839) [=Molossus norfolkensis] R64
    |--Petramops Hand 1990 LA02
    |    `--*P. creaseri Hand 1990 LA02
    |--Platymops Thomas 1906 M07
    |    `--*P. macmillani M07
    |--Nyctinomops Miller 1902 M07
    |    |--*N. femorosaccus (Merriam 1889) M07, MB86 [=Nyctinomus femorosaccus M07, Tadarida femorosacca RB07]
    |    `--N. laticaudatus (Geoffroy 1805) K92 (see below for synonymy)
    |--Cheiromeles Horsfield 1824 [=Chiromeles Agassiz 1846; incl. Chiropetes Gloger 1841] M07
    |    |--*C. torquatus Horsfield 1824 M07, K92
    |    `--C. parvidens Miller & Hollister 1921 K92
    |--Myopterus Geoffroy 1813 [incl. Eomops Thomas 1905] M07
    |    |--M. albatus HM98
    |    |--M. daubentonii M07
    |    `--M. whitleyi IT07 [=Mormopterus whitleyi M07, *Eomops whitleyi M07]
    |--Otomops KJ70
    |    |--O. formosus IT07
    |    |--O. martiensseni IT07
    |    |--O. papuensis IT07
    |    |--O. secundus IT07
    |    `--O. wroughtoni IT07
    |--Cynomops Thomas 1920 HM98, C57
    |    |--C. brachymeles (Peters 1865) HM98, C57 [=Molossus (Molossops) brachymeles C57]
    |    |    |--C. b. brachymeles C57
    |    |    |--*C. b. cerastes (Thomas 1901) [=Molossus cerastes, Molossops brachymeles cerastes] C57
    |    |    `--C. b. mastivus (Thomas 1911) [=Molossops (Cynomops) brachymeles mastivus] C57
    |    |--C. greenhalli Goodwin 1958 [=Molossops (Cynomops) greenhalli] G69
    |    `--C. milleri (Osgood 1914) [=Molossops (Cynomops) milleri] C57
    |--Promops Gervais 1855 C57
    |    |--P. nasutus (Spix 1823) [=Molossus nasutus] C57
    |    |    |--P. n. nasutus (see below for synonymy) C57
    |    |    `--P. n. ancilla Thomas 1915 C57
    |    |--P. centralis G69
    |    |--P. davisoni Thomas 1921 C57
    |    |--P. occultus Thomas 1915 C57
    |    `--P. pamana Miller 1913 C57
    |--Molossops Peters 1865 [incl. Myopterus Peters 1869 non Geoffroy 1813] M07
    |    |--*M. temminckii (Burmeister 1854) [=Dysopes temminckii, Molossus (*Molossops) temminckii] C57
    |    |    |--M. t. temminckii [incl. M. hirtipes Winge 1892] C57
    |    |    |--M. t. griseiventer Sanborn 1941 C57
    |    |    |--M. t. mattogrossensis Vieira 1942 C57
    |    |    `--M. t. sylvia Thomas 1924 C57
    |    |--M. abrasus IT07
    |    |--M. aequatorianus Cabrera 1917 C57
    |    |--M. neglectus IT07
    |    `--M. planirostris (Peters 1865) K92 [=M. (Cynomops) planirostris C57]
    |         |--M. p. planirostris C57
    |         `--M. p. paranus (Thomas 1901) [=Molossus planirostris paranus] C57
    |--Mops Lesson 1842 M07
    |    |--M. mops (De Blainville 1840) K92 [=Dysopes mops M07, Nyctinomus mops M07; incl. *Mops indicus M07]
    |    |--M. brachypterus IT07
    |    |--M. condylurus (Smith 1833) K92
    |    |--M. congicus IT07
    |    |--M. demonstrator IT07
    |    |--M. midas (Sundevalle 1843) K92
    |    |--M. nanulus IT07
    |    |--M. niangarae IT07
    |    |--M. niveiventer IT07
    |    |--M. petersoni IT07
    |    |--M. sarasinorum IT07
    |    |--M. spurrelli IT07
    |    |--M. thersites IT07
    |    `--M. trevori IT07
    |--Eumops Miller 1906 [incl. Promops Peters 1874 non Gervais 1855] C57
    |    |--E. perotis (Schinz 1821) (see below for synonymy) C57
    |    |    |--E. p. perotis MB86
    |    |    `--*E. p. californicus (Merriam 1890) C57, MB86 [=Molossus californicus C57]
    |    |--E. abrasus (Temminck 1827) (see below for synonymy) C57
    |    |--E. auripendulus G69
    |    |    |--E. a. auripendulus G69
    |    |    `--E. a. oaxacensis G69
    |    |--E. bonariensis (Peters 1874) [=Promops bonariensis, Molossus bonariensis] C57
    |    |    |--E. b. bonariensis [incl. E. bonariensis patagonicus Thomas 1924] C57
    |    |    |--E. b. beckeri Sanborn 1932 C57
    |    |    |--E. b. delticus Thomas 1923 C57
    |    |    `--E. b. nanus (Miller 1900) [=Promops nanus] C57
    |    |--E. glaucinus (Wagner 1843) (see below for synonymy) C57
    |    |--E. hansae Sanborn 1932 C57
    |    |--E. maurus (Thomas 1901) [=Molossus maurus, Myopterus maurus] C57
    |    |--E. trumbulli (Thomas 1901) [=Promops trumbulli, E. perotis trumbulli, Molossus trumbulli] C57
    |    `--E. underwoodi G69
    |--Mormopterus Peters 1865 LA02
    |    |  i. s.: M. alliventer M07
    |    |         M. beccarii IT07
    |    |         M. loriae LA02
    |    |         M. minutus (Miller 1899) K92
    |    |         M. norfolkensis IT07
    |    |         M. petrophilus IT07
    |    |         M. phrudus IT07
    |    |         M. planiceps IT07
    |    |         M. setiger IT07
    |    |--M. (Mormopterus) LA02
    |    |    |--*M. (M.) jugularis (Peters 1865) LA02 [=Nyctinomus (*M.) jugularis C57]
    |    |    |--M. (M.) acetabulosus [=Vespertilio acetabulosus, Tadarida (Mormopterus) acetabulosus] C57
    |    |    `--M. (M.) kalinowskii (Thomas 1893) (see below for synonymy) C57
    |    `--M. (Hydromops) LA02
    |         |--M. (H.) helveticus (Revilliod 1920) LA02
    |         |--M. (H.) nonghenensis Legendre et al. 1988 LA02
    |         |--M. (H.) riversleighensis Hand, Archer & Godthelp 1997 LA02
    |         `--M. (H.) stehlini (Revilliod 1920) LA02
    |--Molossus Geoffroy 1805 [=Dysopes Illiger 1811] C57
    |    |--*M. major (Kerr 1792) [=Vespertilio molossus major] C57
    |    |    |--M. m. major (see below for synonymy) C57
    |    |    |--M. m. crassicaudatus Geoffroy 1805 (see below for synonymy) C57
    |    |    `--M. m. daulensis Allen 1916 C57
    |    |--M. ater Geoffroy 1805 K92
    |    |    |--M. a. ater G69
    |    |    `--M. a. nigricans G69
    |    |--M. aztecus G69
    |    |    |--M. a. aztecus G69
    |    |    `--M. a. lambi Gardner 1966 G69
    |    |--M. barnesi Thomas 1905 [=M. burnesi (l. c.), M. burnsi (l. c.); incl. M. cherriei Allen 1916] C57
    |    |--M. bondae Allen 1904 C57
    |    |--M. macdougalli G69
    |    |--M. molossus (Pallas 1766) K92 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--M. pygmaeus M07
    |    |--M. rufus Geoffroy 1805 C57
    |    |    |--M. r. rufus (see below for synonymy) C57
    |    |    `--M. r. castaneus Geoffroy 1805 C57
    |    |--M. sinaloae Allen 1907 G69
    |    `--M. tropidorhynchus M07
    |--Chaerophon Dobson 1874 M07
    |    |--*C. johorensis [=Nyctinomus (*Chaerephon) johorensis] M07
    |    |--C. aloysiisabaudiae IT07
    |    |--C. angolensis M07
    |    |--C. ansorgei IT07
    |    |--C. bemmeleni IT07
    |    |--C. bivittata IT07
    |    |--C. bregullae AC98
    |    |--C. chapini IT07
    |    |--C. emini M07
    |    |--C. gallagheri IT07
    |    |--C. gambianus M07
    |    |--C. hindei M07
    |    |--C. jobensis (Miller 1902) K92
    |    |--C. leucostigma JP84
    |    |--C. limbatus M07
    |    |--C. major M07
    |    |--C. nigeriae IT07
    |    |--C. plicata (Buchanan 1800) K92
    |    |--C. pumila (Cretzschmar 1826) [incl. C. faini] K92
    |    |--C. pusillus M07
    |    |--C. russata IT07
    |    `--C. solomonis AC98
    |--Wallia scalopidens MJ11, OB13
    |--Tomopeas Miller 1900 MJ11, C57 [Tomopeatinae]
    |    `--*T. ravus Miller 1900 C57
    `--Tadarida Rafinesque 1814 C57 (see below for synonymy)
         |--T. aegyptiaca (Geoffroy 1818) K92 [=*Nyctinomus aegyptiacus M07]
         |--T. africana BP87 [=Nyctinomus africanus M07]
         |--‘Nyctinomus’ anchietae M07
         |--T. aurispinosa (Peale 1848) MB86 (see below for synonymy)
         |--T. australis (Gray 1838) LA02, R64 (see below for synonymy)
         |--T. beccarii M72
         |    |--T. b. beccarii M72
         |    `--T. b. astrolabiensis M72
         |--‘Nyctinomus’ bocagei M07
         |--‘Nyctinomus’ brachypterus M07
         |--T. brasiliensis (Geoffroy 1824) K92 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--T. b. brasiliensis MB86
         |    `--T. b. mexicana (Saussure 1860) MB86
         |--‘Nyctinomus’ brunneus M07
         |--‘Nyctinomus’ cisturus M07
         |--T. espiritosantensis IT07
         |--T. europs (Allen 1899) [=Nyctinomus europs, Nyctinomops europs] C57
         |--T. fulminans IT07
         |--T. gracilis (Wagner 1843) [=Dysopes gracilis, Nyctinomus gracilis] C57
         |--T. insignis (Blyth 1861) I92
         |--T. labiatus BP87
         |--T. lobata IT07 [=Nyctinomus lobatus M07]
         |--T. loriae (Thomas 1897) [=Nyctinomus loriae] R64
         |    |--T. l. loriae R64
         |    `--T. l. cobourgiana Johnson 1959 R64
         |--T. macrotis (Gray 1839) MB86 [=Nyctinomus macrotis C57, Nyctinomops macrotis C57]
         |--T. norfolkensis J59 [=Nyctinomus norfolcensis M07]
         |--T. plicata JP84
         |--T. similis Sanborn 1941 C57
         |--T. teniotis IT07 [=Nyctinomus taeniotis M07]
         |--‘Nyctinomus’ thersites M07
         |--T. tomensis AC98
         |--‘Nyctinomus’ tragatus M07
         `--T. ventralis IT07

Eumops abrasus (Temminck 1827) [=Dysopes abrasus, Molossus abrasus, Promops abrasus; incl. P. barbatus Allen 1904, Dysopes leucopleura Wagner 1843, D. longimanus Wagner 1843, Promops milleri Allen 1900, Eumops abrasus milleri] C57

Eumops glaucinus (Wagner 1843) [=Dysopes glaucinus, Molossus glaucinus, Promops glaucinus; incl. M. ferox Gundlach 1861, Nyctinomus orthotis Allen 1889, Eumops orthotis, Promops orthotis, Tadarida orthotis] C57

Eumops perotis (Schinz 1821) [=Molossus perotis, Dysopes perotis, M. (Promops) perotis; incl. Eumops perotis dabbenei Thomas 1914] C57

Molossus major crassicaudatus Geoffroy 1805 [=M. obscurus crassicaudatus; incl. M. acuticaudatus Desmarest 1820, Dysopes amplexicaudus Wagner 1850, M. amplexicaudus, M. obscurus currentium Thomas 1901, M. moxensis D’Orbygny 1835, Dysopes moxensis, D. olivaceofuscus Wagner 1850, Molossus olivaceofuscus, D. velox Temminck 1827, M. velox] C57

*Molossus major major (Kerr 1792) [incl. M. fusciventer Geoffroy 1805, Dysopes fusciventer, M. longicaudatus Geoffroy 1805, D. longicaudatus, Vespertilio molossus minor Kerr 1792, V. molossus Schreber 1774 non Pallas 1766, Molossus obscurus Geoffroy 1805] C57

Molossus molossus (Pallas 1766) K92 [=Vespertilio molossus G69, Nyctinomus molossus C57, Tadarida molossa G69, T. molossus C57; incl. Nyctinomus aequatorialis Allen 1914 C57, Promops affinis Allen 1900 C57, Nyctinomops affinis C57, Dysopes auritus Wagner 1843 C57, D. caecus Rengger 1830 C57, Molossus coibensis K92, Nyctinomus depressus Ward 1891 C57, Nyctinomops depressus C57, Promops depressus C57, Tadarida depressa C57, Nyctinomus megalotis Dobson 1876 C57, Nyctinomus macrotis nevadensis Allen 1894 C57, Tadarida nevadensis C57]

Molossus rufus rufus Geoffroy 1805 [incl. Dysopes albus Wagner 1843, D. alecto Temminck 1827, Molossus alecto, M. fluminensis Lataste 1891, Dysopes holosericeus Wagner 1843, M. myosurus Tschudi 1844, M. pretiosus Miller 1902, M. ursinus Spix 1823, Dysopes ursinus] C57

Mormopterus (Mormopterus) kalinowskii (Thomas 1893) [=Nyctinomus kalinowskii, Tadarida (Mormopterus) kalinowskii; incl. Mormopterus peruanus Allen 1914] C57

Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Geoffroy 1805) K92 [=Molossus laticaudatus C57, Dysopes laticaudatus C57, Nyctinomus laticaudatus C57, Tadarida laticaudata C57; incl. T. laticaudata ferruginea CD61, T. yucatanica K92]

Promops nasutus nasutus (Spix 1823) [incl. Molossus fosteri Thomas 1901, Promops fosteri, M. fumarius Spix 1823, Dysopes rufocastaneus Schinz 1844, *Promops ursinus Gervais 1856 non Molossus ursinus Spix 1823] C57

Tadarida Rafinesque 1814 C57 [incl. Austronomus Troughton 1941 C57, R64, Nyctinoma Bowdich 1821 C57, Nyctinomes Gray 1821 C57, Nyctinomia Fleming 1822 C57, Nyctinomus Geoffroy 1818 C57, Philippinopterus Taylor 1934 C57]

Tadarida aurispinosa (Peale 1848) MB86 [=Dysopes aurispinosus C57, Molossus aurispinosus C57, Nyctinomops aurispinosus C57; incl. Tadarida similis Sanborn 1941 CD61]

Tadarida australis (Gray 1838) LA02, R64 [=Molossus australis R64, *Austronomus australis R64, Nyctinomus australis TL70]

Tadarida brasiliensis (Geoffroy 1824) K92 [=Nyctinomus brasiliensis C57, N. braziliensis C57; incl. Dysopes multispinosus Burmeister 1861 C57, D. naso Wagner 1841 C57, D. nasutus Temminck 1827 non Molossus nasutus Spix 1823 C57, Molossus nasutus C57, Nyctinomus nasutus C57, M. rugosus D’Orbigny 1835 C57]

*Type species of generic name indicated


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