Fulvous whistling duck Dendrocygna bicolor, photographed by Duncan Wright.

Belongs within: Anseriformes.
Contains: Anserinae, Anatinae.

The family Anatidae contains the waterfowl: ducks, geese and swans. They are swimming birds with relatively short legs, front toes connected by a web, rather long necks and broad bills (Austin 1961). Recent phylogenies agree in placing the whistling ducks of the Dendrocygninae as the sister taxon to the remaining anatids; these are a group of relatively long-legged ducks found in the tropics and subtropics, named for their whistling cries in flight. Of somewhat more uncertain affinities are the stiff-tailed ducks of the Oxyurini, highly aquatic small ducks with thick necks. The feet of stiff-tailed ducks are placed particularly far back on the body, meaning they can move only awkwardly on land (Austin 1961).

<==Anatidae [Anseridae, Lamellirostres, Mergidae]
    |--+--Biziura Stephens in Shaw 1824 BKB15, CC10 [Biziurinae]
    |  |    |--B. lobata (Shaw in Shaw & Nodder 1796) CC10 (see below for synonymy)
    |  |    `--B. delautouri Forbes 1892 [=B. lautouri Forbes 1892] CC10
    |  `--+--+--Anserinae SC99
    |     |  `--Oxyurini [Erismaturinae, Oxyurinae] SC99
    |     |       |  i. s.: Mionetta Livezey & Martin 1988 CC10, M05
    |     |       |           |--*M. blanchardi (Milne-Edwards 1863) (see below for synonymy) M02
    |     |       |           |--M. natator (Milne-Edwards 1867) (see below for synonymy) M02
    |     |       |           `--M. robusta (Milne-Edwards 1868) [=Anas robusta, Anserobranta robusta] M02
    |     |       |         Manuherikia Worthy, Tennyson et al. 2007 CC10
    |     |       |           |--*M. lacustrina Worthy, Tennyson et al. 2007 CC10
    |     |       |           |--M. douglasi Worthy, Tennyson et al. 2008 CC10
    |     |       |           `--M. minuta Worthy, Tennyson et al. 2007 CC10
    |     |       |         Dunstanetta Worthy, Tennyson et al. 2007 CC10
    |     |       |           `--*D. johnstoneorum Worthy, Tennyson et al. 2007 CC10
    |     |       |--Nettapus Brandt 1836 JT12, B94 [incl. Cheniscus Eyton 1838 B94; Cheniscinae, Nettapodinae]
    |     |       |    |  i. s.: N. auratus M07
    |     |       |    |--N. pulchellus Gould 1842 JT12, WS48 [incl. Cheniscus pulchellus rogersi Mathews 1916 WS48]
    |     |       |    `--+--N. coromandelianus JT12
    |     |       |       `--Heteronetta Salvadori 1865 BKB15, B94 [Heteronettinae]
    |     |       |            `--H. atricapilla FP64
    |     |       `--+--Nomonyx dominicus BKB15
    |     |          `--Oxyura Bonaparte 1828 BKB15, B94 [=Erismatura Bonaparte 1832 B94]
    |     |               |  i. s.: O. doksana Mlíkovský 2002 M02
    |     |               |         O. vantetsi Worthy 2005 CC10
    |     |               |--O. vittata JT12
    |     |               `--+--+--O. ferruginea BKB15
    |     |                  |  `--O. jamaicensis JT12 (see below for synonymy)
    |     |                  `--+--O. leucocephala (Scopoli 1769) BKB15, M02 [=Anas leucocephala M02]
    |     |                     `--+--O. australis Gould 1837 BKB15, CC10
    |     |                        `--O. maccoa BKB15
    |     `--Anatinae SC99
    `--Dendrocygninae [Dendrocygnidae, Dendrocygnini] SC99
         |--Thalassornis Eyton 1838 [Thalassornithinae] B94
         |    `--T. leuconotus JT12
         |--Cygnavus Lambrecht 1931 M02
         |    |--*C. senckenbergi Lambrecht 1931 [incl. Cygnopterus alphonsi Cheneval 1984] M02
         |    `--C. formosus Kuročkin 1968 M02
         `--Dendrocygna Swainson 1837 [incl. Leptotarsis Eyton 1838] CC10
              |  i. s.: D. fulva S66
              |         D. major S66
              |         D. vagans [incl. D. gouldi] S66
              |         D. virgata S66
              |--+--D. arborea JT12
              |  `--D. autumnalis JT12
              `--+--D. viduata BKB15
                 `--+--D. eytoni (Eyton 1838) BKB15, R85 (see below for synonymy)
                    `--+--D. bicolor BKB15
                       `--+--D. guttata BKB15
                          `--+--*D. arcuata (Horsfield 1824) CC10, BKB15, WS48 [=Anas arcuata WS48]
                             |    |--D. a. arcuata WS48
                             |    `--D. a. australis Reichenbach 1850 [incl. D. javanica peroni Mathews 1912] WS48
                             `--D. javanica BKB15

Anatidae incertae sedis:
  Philacte canagica A61
  Eonessa anaticula FP64
  Camptorhynchus labradorius CG99
  Dendrochen Miller 1944 M02
    `--*D. robusta Miller 1944 M02
  Chendytes lawi CG99
  Paracygnopterus Harrison & Walker 1979 M02
    `--*P. scotti Harrison & Walker 1979 M02
  Chenalopex jubatus SS66
  Cygnopterus Lambrecht 1931 M02
    `--*C. affinis (Beneden 1883) (see below for synonymy) M02
  Eoneornis Ameghino 1894 A94
    `--*E. australis Ameghino 1894 A94
  Eutelornis Ameghino 1894 A94
    `--*E. patagonicus Ameghino 1894 A94
  Eunetta falcata L81

Biziura lobata (Shaw in Shaw & Nodder 1796) CC10 [=Anas lobata WS48; incl. *B. novaehollandiae CC10, B. lobata westralis Mathews 1912 WS48]

*Cygnopterus affinis (Beneden 1883) [=Sula affinis; incl. Palaeopapia hamsteadiensis Harrison & Walker 1979] M02

Dendrocygna eytoni (Eyton 1838) BKB15, R85 [=*Leptotarsis eytoni CC10; incl. D. eytoni munna Mathews 1912 CC10]

*Mionetta blanchardi (Milne-Edwards 1863) [=Anas blanchardi, Dendrochen blanchardi; incl. Fuligula arvernensis Lydekker 1891, Aythya arvernensis, Anas consobrina Milne-Edwards 1867, Dendrochen consobrina, Mionetta consobrina, Anas macroptera Milne-Edwards 1871 (n. n.), Palaeortyx phasianoides Milne-Edwards 1869, Taoperdix phasianoides] M02

Mionetta natator (Milne-Edwards 1867) [=Anas natator, Dendrochen natator, Querquedula natator] M02

Oxyura jamaicensis JT12 [incl. Anas rubidus CC10, *Erismatura rubida CC10, *Oxyura rubida CC10]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A94] Ameghino, F. 1894. Sur les oiseaux fossiles de Patagonie et la aune mammalogique des couches a Pyrotherium. Boletín del Instituto Geográfico Argentino 15 (11–12): 501–602.

[A61] Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CG99] Carlton, J. T., J. B. Geller, M. L. Reaka-Kudla & E. A. Norse. 1999. Historical extinctions in the sea. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 30: 315–338.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[M05] Mayr, G. 2005. The Paleogene fossil record of birds in Europe. Biological Reviews 80: 515–542.

[M07] Mironov, S. V. 2007. Phylogeny of the feather mite family Alloptidae (Astigmata, Analgoidea) and coevolutionary trends with aquatic birds. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress, pp. 617–633. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[R85] Robertson, C. J. R. (ed.) 1985. Reader’s Digest Complete Book of New Zealand Birds. Reader’s Digest: Sydney.

[S66] Sclater, P. L. 1866. Additional notes on the Anatidae of the genera Dendrocygna and Tadorna. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 148–150.

[SS66] Sclater, P. L., & O. Salvin. 1866. Catalogue of birds collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the River Uyacali, Eastern Peru, with notes and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 175–201.

[SC99] Sorenson, M. D., A. Cooper, E. E. Paxinos, T. W. Quinn, H. F. James, S. L. Olson & R. C. Fleischer. 1999. Relationships of the extinct moa-nalos, flightless Hawaiian waterfowl, based on ancient DNA. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 266: 2187–2193.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M., & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1–126.

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