Nanophyes marmoratus, copyright Siga.

Belongs within: Coleoptera.
Contains: Ithystenini, Eremoxenini, Brentini, Cyphagogini, Trachelizini, Apionini, Aplemonini, Notapionini.

The Brentidae are a family of weevils whose larvae burrow into wood, seeds or other plant structures. Brentids are highly variable in body form, including elongate forms such as members of the subfamily Brentinae as well as the more compact Apioninae. They mostly differ from curculionid weevils in lacking elbowed antennae except in members of the subfamily Nanophyinae. Members of the Nanophyinae and Apioninae are distinguished from other weevils by the possession of elongate trochanters, distinctly separating the femora from the coxae (Zimmerman 1994). Brentids are often strongly sexually dimorphic in rostrum morphology (Zborowski & Storey 2010).

Characters (from Lawrence & Britton 1991): Moderately to very elongate, parallel-sided to anteriorly narrowed beetles, usually subglabrous but occasionally clothed with decumbent or erect hairs. Rostrum usually long and narrow (short and broad in some species); antennae usually straight with short scape, except in Nanophyes where antennae are geniculate with very long scape; antennal club, where present, may be long and distinctly segmented, short and compact and indistinctly segmented, or unsegmented; antennal insertions usually between base and middle of rostrum, but occasionally near apex; labrum not visible; maxillae and labium reduced, with rigid maxillary palps and labial palps reduced and usually concealed on inner surface of labium; gular surfaces fused; prothorax without lateral carinae; pygidium concealed by elytra; first two ventrites solidly fused and much longer than ventrites 3-5 combined. Larvae slender and subcylindrical or short and broad, moderately to strongly curved and very lightly sclerotised. Frontal arms extending to mandibular articulations; labrum with pair of sclerotised rods; mesotergum armed with paired patches of asperities in some Brentinae; abdominal terga with two or four transverse folds; legs, if present, minute and sometimes consisting of dome-like lobes only.

<==Brentidae [Apionidae, Brenthidae, Brenthides, Brentides, Brentoidea]
    |--Ithycerus [Ithyceridae, Ithycerinae] B14
    |    `--I. noveboracensis (Forster 1771) B14
    |--Rhinorhynchidius Voss 1922 [Rhinorhynchidiinae] Z94
    |    |--*R. cylindrirostris Voss 1922 (see below for synonymy) Z94
    |    `--R. australasiae (Lea 1910) [=Apion australasiae] Z94
    |--Myrmacicelus Chevrolat 1833 (see below for synonymy) Z94
    |    |--*M. formicarius Chevrolat 1833 (see below for synonymy) Z94
    |    |--M. exsertus Pascoe 1872 [incl. M. pilosicornis Lea 1915] Z94
    |    `--M. puerulus Lea 1898 Z94
    |--Microcerinae B14
    |    |--Episus B14
    |    |--Gyllenhalia B14
    |    `--Microcerus B14
    |         |--M. borrei B14
    |         |--M. latipennis Fåhraeus 1871 B14
    |         |--M. retusus B14
    |         `--M. spiniger B14
    |--Eurhynchinae [Eurhininae, Eurhynchidae, Eurhynchides, Eurhynchini] B14
    |    |--Orapaeus B14
    |    |--Ctenaphides Pascoe 1870 Z94
    |    |    |--*C. porcellus Pascoe 1870 [=Eurhynchus porcellus] Z94
    |    |    `--C. maculatus (Pascoe 1873) (see below for synonymy) Z94
    |    |--Aporhina Boisduval 1835 [incl. Chalcocybebus Snellen van Vollenhoven 1866] Z94
    |    |    |--*A. bispinosa Boisduval 1835 [=Eurhynchus bispinosus, A. spinosa (l. c.)] Z94
    |    |    |--‘Chalcocybebus’ alboguttatus Z94
    |    |    |--A. australis (Heller 1896) (see below for synonymy) Z94
    |    |    |--*Chalcocybebus’ nitens Snellen van Vollenhoven 1866 Z94
    |    |    `--A. splendida (Blackburn 1894) [=Eurhynchus splendidus, Chalcocybebus splendidus] Z94
    |    `--Eurhynchus Kirby in Kirby & Spence 1828 [=Eurhinus Kirby 1819 non Illiger 1807, Eurhynus] Z94
    |         |--*E. scabrior (Kirby 1819) [=Eurhinus scabrior] Z94
    |         |--E. acanthopterus Boisduval 1835 (see below for synonymy) Z94
    |         |--‘Rhynchaenus’ bidens B35
    |         |--E. laevior (Kirby 1819) (see below for synonymy) Z94
    |         |--E. quadridens Erichson 1842 Mas86
    |         `--E. quadrituberculatus Boheman 1839 [incl. E. quadrinodosus Erichson 1842] Z94
    |--Brentinae B14
    |    |--Prodector [Pseudocephalini] B14
    |    |--Ithystenini B14
    |    |--Eremoxenini B14
    |    |--Brentini B14
    |    |--Cyphagogini Z94
    |    |--Trachelizini Z94
    |    |--Belopherini Z94
    |    |--Eutrachelus RD77 [Eutrachelini Z94]
    |    |--Tychaeus [incl. Belorhynchus; Belorhynchides, Belorhynchini, Tychaeini] Z94
    |    |--Ulocerini Z94
    |    |--Taphroderini [Taphroderinae] Z94
    |    |--Rhyticephalini Z94
    |    |--Nemocephalini Z94
    |    `--Cylas Latreille 1802 B14, L02 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |--*C. brunneus L02 [=Attelabus (Cylas) brunneus G20, Brentus brunneus L02]
    |         |--C. formicarius (Fabricius 1798) (see below for synonymy) Z94
    |         |--C. laevicollis [=*Protocylas laevicollis] Z94
    |         `--C. puncticollis B14
    |--Nanophyinae [Nanophyidae, Nanophyina, Nanophyini] B14
    |    |--Dieckmanniella helvetica (Tournier 1867) HF03
    |    |--Hypophyes aphyllae (Peyerimhoff 1929) [=Corimalia aphyllae] HF03
    |    |--Nanodactylus Blatchley 1922 Z93
    |    |--Pseudotychius Blatchley 1922 Z93
    |    |--Zeugonyx Notman 1922 Z93
    |    |--Allomalia HF03
    |    |    |--A. quadrivirgata (Costa 1863) [=Corimalia quadrivirgatus] HF03
    |    |    `--A. setulosa (Tournier 1867) HF03
    |    |--Austronanodes Zimmerman 1993 Z93
    |    |    |--*A. nigrovarius (Lea 1907) [=Nanophyes nigrovarius] Z93
    |    |    |--A. alleni (Lea 1907) [=Nanophyes alleni] Z93
    |    |    |--A. maurus (Pascoe 1875) [=Nanophyes maurus] Z93
    |    |    |--A. pallidicornis (Lea 1907) [=Nanophyes pallidicornis] Z93
    |    |    `--A. v-notatus (Lea 1907) [=Nanophyes v-notatus, N. v-maculatus (l. c.)] Z93
    |    `--Nanophyes Schoenherr 1838 (nom. cons.) [=Nanodes Schoenherr 1825 (nom. rej.) non Stephens in Shaw 1826] Z93
    |         |--N. brevis MB93
    |         |--N. duriaei Lucas 1846 E12
    |         |--N. maculatus Z93
    |         |--N. marmoratus (Goeze 1777) B14
    |         |    |--N. m. marmoratus B14
    |         |    `--N. m. miguelangeli B14
    |         |--N. shoreae Z93
    |         `--N. terminaliae Z93
    `--Apioninae [Apionides] B14
         |  i. s.: Cnemapion vorax (Herbst 1797) HF03
         |         Hidryocneme cretaceum (Rosenhauer 1856) HF03
         |         Kalcapion pallipes (Kirby 1808) HF03
         |         Malvapion malvae (Fabricius 1775) HF03
         |         Oryxolaemus croceifemoratum (Gyllenhal 1839) [=Apion flavifemoratum var. croceifemoratum] HF03
         |         Oxystoma ochropus Germar 1818 HF03
         |         Phrissotrichium tubiferum (Gyllenhal 1833) HF03
         |         Rhopalapion longirostre (Olivier 1807) HF03
         |         Squamapion jordanianum (Voss 1965) HF03
         |         Taeniapion reitterianum (Wagner 1912) HF03
         |         Aspidapion HF03
         |           |--A. (Aspidapion) radiolus (Marsham 1802) HF03
         |           `--A. (Koestlinia) aeneum (Fabricius 1775) HF03
         |         Protapion HF03
         |           |--P. interjectum (Desbrochers 1895) HF03
         |           `--P. ononidis (Gyllenhal 1827) HF03
         |         Catapion HF03
         |           |--C. bruleriei (Desbrochers 1874) HF03
         |           |--C. corsicum (Desbrochers 1888) HF03
         |           |--C. jaffense (Desbrochers 1896) [=Apion seniculus jaffense] HF03
         |           |--C. pubescens (Kirby 1811) HF03
         |           `--C. seniculus (Kirby 1807) KF03
         |         Ceratapion HF03
         |           |--C. (Acanephodus) onopordi (Kirby 1808) [=Apion onopordi] HF03
         |           `--C. (Echinostroma) HF03
         |                |--C. (E.) basicorne (Illiger 1807) HF03
         |                `--C. (E.) scalptum HF03
         |                     |--C. s. scalptum HF03
         |                     `--C. s. caviceps (Desbrochers 1870) HF03
         |         Antliarhinitae B14
         |           |--Platymerus B14
         |           `--Antliarhinus B14
         |                |--A. signatus Gyllenhal 1836 B14
         |                `--A. zamiae B14
         |         Apiomorphus Z94
         |--Apionini B14
         |--Aplemonini Z94
         `--Notapionini Z94

Brentidae incertae sedis:
  Paratrachelizus Kleine 1921 F54
    |--P. dorsalis (Boheman 1840) F54
    `--P. filiformis (Sharp 1895) F54
  Phocylides pascoei Macleay 1886 Mac86
  Exopleura monilis (Fabricius 1787) [=Brentus monilis] Z93
  Xestocoryphus Z94
  Chalybdicus Z94
    |--C. hahnei Z94
    `--C. reverens Kleine 1928 Z94
  Nesidiobrentus Damoiseau 1964 Z94
    `--*N. samoanus (Kleine 1944) [=Opisthenoxys samoanus] Z94
  Hephebocerus [Ephebocerini, Hephebocerides] Z94
  Nemobrentus Sharp 1895 Z94
  Trichapion lativentre Z94
  Lispotherium Z94

Aporhina australis (Heller 1896) [=Chalcocybebus bispinosus australis, Chalcocyhelus (l. c.) australis, Eurhynchus australis] Z94

Ctenaphides maculatus (Pascoe 1873) [=Eurhynchus maculatus, Eurhinus maculatus; incl. C. gymnostictus Lea 1907] Z94

Cylas Latreille 1802 B14, L02 [incl. Cylanus Rafinesque 1815 (n. n.) Z94, Protocylas Z94; Cyladini Z94, Cylades, Cyladinae, Cylinae]

Cylas formicarius (Fabricius 1798) [=Attelabus formicarius, Brentus formicarius; incl. Apion brentiforme Megerle ms, Otidocephalus elegantulus Summers 1875, Cylas formicarius elegantulus, C. turcipennis Boheman 1833] Z94

Eurhynchus acanthopterus Boisduval 1835 [incl. Eurhynchus bellicosus Blanchard 1859, Eurhinus fulvofasciatus Blanchard 1840, Eurhynchus scapularis Pascoe 1870, Eurhynchus tetracanthus] Z94

Eurhynchus laevior (Kirby 1819) [=Eurhinus laevior; incl. Eurhinus muricatus Kirby 1819, Eurhynchus muricatus] Z94

Myrmacicelus Chevrolat 1833 [=Myarmecacelus (l. c.), Rhynolaccus Latreille in Guérin-Méneville 1831 (n. n.), Rhinolaccus; Myrmacicelinae] Z94

*Myrmacicelus formicarius Chevrolat 1833 [=Rhynolaccus formicarius, Rhinolaccus formicarius, Myrmacicelus bistriatus Chevrolat 1833; incl. Cylas unicolor d’Urville ms, M. unicolor Dejean ms] Z94

*Rhinorhynchidius cylindrirostris Voss 1922 [=Car cylindrirostris; incl. Apion cylindrirostre Lea 1910 non Wagner 1908, A. meridionale Lea 1926, Rhinorhynchidius meridionalis] Z94

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d'Urville. Faune entomologique de l'océan Pacifique, avec l'illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F54] Franz, E. 1954. Brentidae aus El Salvador (Ins. Col.) Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 89–90.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[HF03] Halperin, J., & J. Fremuth. 2003. Contribution to the knowledge of Curculionoidea (Coleoptera) and their host plants in Israel. Zoology in the Middle East 29: 93–100.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[Mac86] Macleay, W. 1886. The insects of the Fly River, New Guinea, "Coleoptera" (continued). Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 183–204.

[MB93] Malecki, R. A., B. Blossey, S. D. Hight, D. Schroeder, L. T. Kok & J. R. Coulson. 1993. Biological control of purple loosestrife. BioScience 43 (10): 680–686.

[Mas86] Masters, G. 1886. Catalogue of the described Coleoptera of Australia. Part V. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (3): 585–686.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[Z93] Zimmerman, E. C. 1993. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 3. Nanophyidae, Rhynchophoridae, Erirhinidae, Curculionidae: Amycterinae, literature consulted. CSIRO Australia.

[Z94] Zimmerman, E. C. 1994. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 2. Brentidae, Eurhynchidae, Apionidae and a chapter on immature stages by Brenda May. CSIRO Australia.

Last updated: 22 November 2020.

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