Double-crested cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus, photographed by Larry Thompson.

Belongs within: Sulida.

Phalacrocorax is a genus of cormorants or shags. The circumscription of this genus varies significantly between authors: some would use it to cover all or almost all shags, while others restrict it to the larger black-footed species.

<==Phalacrocorax Brisson 1760 M02 (see below for synonymy)
    |--‘Graculus’ africanus S66
    |--P. albiventer FST81
    |--P. aristotelis (Linnaeus 1761) (see below for synonymy) M02
    |--P. atriceps FP64
    |--P. auritus M03
    |--P. bougainvillei A61
    |--P. brasilianus TB01
    |--P. campbelli FST81
    |--P. capensis FP64
    |--P. capillatus SU93
    |--P. carbo (Linnaeus 1758) WH02 [=Pelecanus carbo M02; incl. P. novaezealandiae var. major Forbes 1892 WH02]
    |    |--P. c. carbo R85
    |    |--P. c. novaehollandiae HR96
    |    |--P. c. sinensis VP89
    |    `--P. c. steadi (Mathews & Iredale 1913) R85
    |--P. carunculatus TB01
    |--P. chalconotus FST81
    |--P. colensoi FST81
    |--P. filamentosus T89
    |--P. fuscescens SJ85
    |--P. fuscicollis SU93
    |--P. gaimardi M03
    |--P. harrisi M03
    |--P. ibericus Villalta 1963 [=P. ibericum] M02
    |--P. intermedius (Milne-Edwards 1867) (see below for synonymy) M02
    |--P. lautus Kuročkin & Ganea 1972 M02
    |--P. littoralis (Milne-Edwards 1863) [=Graculus littoralis, *Oligocorax littoralis] M02
    |--P. longipes (Tugarinov 1940) [=*Pliocarbo longipes] M02
    |--P. melanoleucos Gould 1837 WH02 [=Microcarbo melanoleucos HWT01]
    |    |--P. m. melanoleucos R85
    |    |--P. m. brevicauda HR96
    |    `--P. m. brevirostris Gould 1837 R85
    |--P. niger SU93
    |--P. olivaceus M03
    |--P. onslowi FST81
    |--P. pelagicus SU93
    |--P. penicillatus M03
    |--P. perspicillatus FP64
    |--P. purpurascens VR72
    |--P. pygmeus SU93 [=Microcarbo pygmaeus S89]
    |--P. ranfurlyi FST81
    |--P. serdicensis Burčak-Abramovič & Nikolov 1984 M02
    |--P. stewarti G60
    |--P. sulcirostris (Brandt 1837) R85
    |--P. urile (Gmelin 1789) I92
    |--P. varius (Gmelin 1789) WH02 [=Hypoleucos varius HWT01]
    |    |--P. v. varius HR96
    |    `--P. v. hypoleucos HR96
    `--P. wetmorei FP64

Nomen nudum: Carbo risgoviensis Fraas in Engel 1908 [=Phalacrocorax risgoviensis] M02

Phalacrocorax Brisson 1760 M02 [incl. Botaurites Ammon 1918 M02, Carbo Lacépède 1799 B94, Graculus Koch 1816 B94, Halieus Illiger 1811 B94, Oligocorax Brodkorb 1952 M02, Paracorax Lambrecht 1933 M02, Pliocarbo Tugarinov 1940 M02; Carboninae, Halieinae, Phalacrocoracinae]

Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Linnaeus 1761) [=Pelecanus aristotelis; incl. Ph. destefanii Regàlia 1902, *Paracorax destefanii, Ph. destefani] M02

Phalacrocorax intermedius (Milne-Edwards 1867) [=Graculus intermedius, Miocorax intermedius; incl. *Botaurites avitus Ammon 1918, Ardea brunhuberi Ammon 1918, Phalacrocorax brunhuberi, P. praecarbo Ammon 1918] M02

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

[FST81] Falla, R. A., R. B. Sibson & E. G. Turbott. 1981. Collins Guide to the Birds of New Zealand and Outlying Islands 2nd ed. with addenda. Collins: Auckland.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[G60] Gillham, M. E. 1960. Vegetation of New Zealand shag colonies. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 363-380.

[HR96] Heather, B. D., & H. A. Robertson. 1996. The Field Guide to the Birds of New Zealand. Viking: Auckland.

[HWT01] Holdaway, R. N., T. H. Worthy & A. J. D. Tennyson. 2001. A working list of breeding bird species of the New Zealand region at first human contact. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 28: 119-187.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[M03] Mayr, G. 2003. The phylogenetic affinities of the shoebill (Balaeniceps rex). Journal für Ornithologie 144: 157-175.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[R85] Robertson, C. J. R. (ed.) 1985. Reader’s Digest Complete Book of New Zealand Birds. Reader’s Digest: Sydney.

[S89] Salvadori, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea nella Birmania e nelle regioni vicine. XIX. – Uccelli raccolti nei Monti Carin a nord-est di Tounghoo, nel Pegù presso Rangoon e Tounghoo e nel Tenasserim presso Malewoon. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 369-438.

[S66] Schlegel, H. 1866. Communication from, on mammals and birds collected in Madagascar. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 419-426.

[SU93] Sonobe, K., & S. Usui (eds.) 1993. A Field Guide to the Waterbirds of Asia. Wild Bird Society of Japan: Tokyo.

[SJ85] Storr, G. M., & R. E. Johnstone. 1985. Field Guide to the Birds of Western Australia 2nd ed. Western Australian Museum: Perth (Australia).

[T89] Takeshita, N. 1989. Nihon no Yachoo. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

[TB01] Tuinen, M. van, D. B. Butvill, J. A. W. Kirsch & S. B. Hedges. 2001. Convergence and divergence in the evolution of aquatic birds. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences 268: 1345-1350.

[VR72] Vickers Rich, P. 1972. A fossil avifauna from the Upper Miocene Beglia Formation of Tunisia. Notes du Service Géologique 35: 29-66.

[VP89] Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

[WH02] Worthy, T. H., & R. N. Holdaway. 2002. The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press: Bloomington (Indiana).

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