Black-bearded tomb bats Taphozous melanopogon, from PSUNHM.

Belongs within: Chiroptera.
Contains: Emballonura.

The Emballonuridae are the sheath-tailed bats, a pantropical family characterised by the emergence of the tail from the dorsal surface of the uropatagium ahead of its posterior margin. Within the Emballonuridae, the New World Diclidurinae are distinguished from the Old World Emballonurinae and Taphozoinae by the possession of a broad postorbital process and greatly expanded clavicle (Miller 1907) Members of the Taphozoinae have a short, very conical muzzle, with a distint concavity on the lower margin of the mandible (Miller 1907).

Characters (from Miller 1907): Humerus with trochiter well developed, though not as large as trochin, not articulating with scapula, neither tubercle rising above head; epitrochlea not specially developed, but with distinct spinous process (especially in Taphozous and Diclidurus), capitellum nearly in line with shaft; second manal digit with fully developed metacarpal, but no phalanges; third finger with two phalanges, of which the proximal is flexed on dorsal surface of metacarpal when at rest; shoulder girdle normal, seventh cervical vertebra free; foot normal; fibula complete, thread-like; tibia flattened or grooved posteriorly; pelvis normal, except boundaries of sacral vertebrae nearly or quite obliterated; skull with well-developed postorbital processes (in Diclidurus these are obscured by very wide supraorbital ridges); premaxillaries represented by nasal branches only, never fused with each other or with maxillaries; palate ending in plane of last molars or produced somewhat behind it, in the latter case very abruptly narrowed back of toothrows; audital bullae emarginate on inner side; teeth normal; tragus present, simple; muzzle without special cutaneous outgrowths.

<==Emballonuridae [Emballonurina, Emballonurini]
    |  i. s.: Mosia nigrescens IT07
    |         Tachypteron franzeni OB13
    |         Eppsinycteris GJ03
    |--Diclidurinae KJ70
    |    |--Cyttarops Thomas 1913 C57
    |    |    `--*C. alecto Thomas 1913 C57
    |    |--Depanycteris Thomas 1920 [=Drepanycteris] C57
    |    |    `--*D. isabella Thomas 1920 C57
    |    `--Diclidurus Wied 1819 [Dicliduri, Diclidurina] C57
    |         |--*D. albus Wied 1819 [incl. D. freyreissi Wied 1838, D. scutatus Peters 1869] C57
    |         |    |--D. a. albus G69
    |         |    `--D. a. virgo G69
    |         |--D. ingens Hernández-Camacho 1955 C57
    |         `--D. isabellus IT07
    |--Emballonurinae [Emballonurae] KJ70
    |    |--Vespertiliavus KJ70
    |    |--Emballonura M07
    |    |--Rhynchonycteris Peters 1867 G69 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    `--*R. naso (Wied 1820) (see below for synonymy) C57
    |    |--Cormura Peters 1867 [incl. Myropteryx Miller 1906] C57
    |    |    `--*C. brevirostris (Wagner 1843) C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--Coleura Peters 1867 M07
    |    |    |--*C. afra (Peters 1852) M07, K92 [=Emballonura afra M07; incl. C. gallorum K92]
    |    |    `--C. seychellensis IT07
    |    |--Centronycteris Gray 1838 C57
    |    |    `--C. maximiliani Fischer 1829 [=Vespertilio maximiliani] C57
    |    |         |--C. m. maximiliani C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |         `--C. m. centralis Thomas 1912 C57
    |    |--Balantiopteryx Peters 1867 C57
    |    |    |--*B. plicata Peters 1867 C57, F55 [=Saccopteryx (*Balantiopteryx) plicata M07]
    |    |    |    |--B. p. plicata F55
    |    |    |    `--B. p. pallida Burt 1948 F55
    |    |    |--B. infusca (Thomas 1897) [=Saccopteryx infusca] C57
    |    |    |--B. io G69
    |    |    `--B. ochoterenai Martinez & Villa 1938 F55
    |    |--Saccopteryx Illiger 1811 [incl. Urocryptus Temminck 1838] C57
    |    |    |--*S. leptura (Schreber 1774) [=Vespertilio lepturus, S. lepturus, Taphozous lepturus] C57
    |    |    |--S. bilineata (Temminck 1838) C57 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--S. canescens Thomas 1901 C57
    |    |    |--S. gymnura Thomas 1901 C57
    |    |    |--S. perspicillifer Miller 1899 C57
    |    |    `--S. pumila Thomas 1914 C57
    |    `--Peropteryx Peters 1867 C57
    |         |  i. s.: P. trinitatis M07
    |         |--P. (Peropteryx) C57
    |         |    |--P. (P.) macrotis (Wagner 1843) (see below for synonymy) C57
    |         |    `--P. (P.) kappleri Peters 1867 C57
    |         |         |--P. k. kappleri C57
    |         |         `--P. k. intermedia Sanborn 1951 [=P. k. intermedius] C57
    |         `--P. (Peronymus Peters 1868) C57
    |              `--P. (*P.) leucoptera Peters 1867 [=*Peronymus leucopterus] C57
    |                   |--P. l. leucoptera C57
    |                   `--P. l. cyclops (Thomas 1924) [=Peronymus cyclops] C57
    `--Taphozoinae [Taphozoi] MJ11
         |--Saccolaimus Lesson 1842 MJ11, M07
         |    |--S. flaviventris IT07
         |    |--S. mixtus Troughton 1925 R64
         |    |--S. peli IT07
         |    |--S. pluto IT07
         |    `--S. saccolaimus IT07
         `--Taphozous Geoffroy 1813 [=Taphagous (l. c.)] M07
              |--*T. perforatus M07
              |--T. affinis [=T. (Taphonycteris) affinis] M07
              |--T. australis P66
              |--T. flaviventris Gould ex Peters 1866 P66
              |--T. georgianus IT07
              |--T. hamiltoni IT07
              |--T. hildegardeae IT07
              |--T. hilli LA02
              |--T. incognita (Butler & Hopwood 1957) [=Saccolaimus incognita] B78
              |--T. kapalgensis IT07
              |--T. longimanus IT07
              |--T. mauritianus M07
              |--T. melanopogon M07
              |--T. mixtus BP87
              |--T. nudicluniatus BP87
              |--T. nudiventris M07
              |--T. peli [=T. (Taphonycteris) peli] M07
              |--T. philippinensis IT07
              |--T. saccolaimus [=T. (Taphonycteris) saccolaimus] M07
              |--T. theobaldi IT07
              `--T. troughtoni Tate 1952 R64

Centronycteris maximiliani maximiliani Fischer 1829 C57 [incl. Vespertilio calcaratus Wied in Schinz 1821 non Rafinesque 1818 C57, Emballonura calcarata C57, Proboscidea (*Centronycteris) calcarata C57, Saccopteryx (*C.) calcarata M07, S. wiedi Palmer 1898 C57]

*Cormura brevirostris (Wagner 1843) C57 [=Emballonura brevirostris C57, Saccopteryx brevirostris M07; incl. *Myropteryx pullus Miller 1906 M07, C57]

Peropteryx (Peropteryx) macrotis (Wagner 1843) [=Emballonura macrotis; incl. E. brunnea Gervais 1855, Vespertilio caninus Wied 1826 non Blumenbach 1797, E. canina, *Peropteryx canina, Saccopteryx canina] C57

Rhynchonycteris Peters 1867 G69 [=Rhynchiscus Miller 1907 G69; incl. Proboscidea Spix 1823 non Brugière 1791 M07]

*Rhynchonycteris naso (Wied 1820) [=Vespertilio naso, *Rhynchiscus naso; incl. Emballonura lineata Temminck 1840, Rhynchiscus naso priscus Allen 1914, Proboscidea rivalis Spix 1823, P. saxatilis Spix 1823] C57

Saccopteryx bilineata (Temminck 1838) C57 [=*Urocryptus bilineatus M07, C57, Emballonura bilineata C57; incl. Saccopteryx bilineata centralis Thomas 1904 C57, E. insignis Wagner 1855 C57]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BP87] Burton, J. A., & B. Pearson. 1987. Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Collins: London.

[B78] Butler, P. M. 1978. Insectivora and Chiroptera. In: Maglio, V. J., & H. B. S. Cooke (eds) Evolution of African Mammals pp. 56–68. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[C57] Cabrera, A. 1957. Catalogo de los mamiferos de America del Sur. I (Metatheria—Unguiculata—Carnivora). Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia” e Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de Las Ciencias Naturales, Ciencias Zoológicas 4 (1): 1–307.

[F55] Felten, H. 1955. Fledermäuse (Mammalia, Chiroptera) aus El Salvador. Teil 1. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (5–6): 271–285.

[G69] Goodwin, G. G. 1969. Mammals from the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, in the American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 141 (1): 1–269, 40 pls.

[GJ03] Gunnell, G. F., B. F. Jacobs, P. S. Herendeen, J. J. Head, E. Kowalski, C. P. Msuya, F. A. Mizambwa, T. Harrison, J. Habersetzer & G. Storch. 2003. Oldest placental mammal from sub-Saharan Africa: Eocene microbat from Tazania—evidence for early evolution of sophisticated echolocation. Palaeontologica Electronica 5 (3). http://palaeo_electronica.org/paleo/2002_2/africa/issue2_02.htm.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PloS One 2 (3): e296.

[K92] Klompen, J. S. H. 1992. Phylogenetic relationships in the mite family Sarcoptidae (Acari: Astigmata). Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 180: i–vi, 1–154.

[KJ70] Koopman, K. F., & J. K. Jones Jr. 1970. Classification of bats. In: Slaughter & Walton (eds) About Bats pp. 22–28. Southern Methodist University Press: Dallas.

[LA02] Long, J., M. Archer, T. Flannery & S. Hand. 2002. Prehistoric Mammals of Australia and New Guinea: One Hundred Million Years of Evolution. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[MJ11] Meredith, R. W., J. E. Janečka, J. Gatesy, O. A. Ryder, C. A. Fisher, E. C. Teeling, A. Goodbla, E. Eizirik, T. L. L. Simão, T. Stadler, D. L. Rabosky, R. L. Honeycutt, J. J. Flynn, C. M. Ingram, C. Steiner, T. L. Williams, T. J. Robinson, A. Burk-Herrick, M. Westerman, N. A. Ayoub, M. S. Springer & W. J. Murphy. 2011. Impacts of the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution and KPg extinction on mammal diversification. Science 334: 521–524.

[M07] Miller, G. S., Jr. 1907. The families and genera of bats. Smithsonian Institution, United States National Museum, Bulletin 57: i–xvii, 1–282, pl. I–XIV.

[OB13] O'Leary, M. A., J. I. Bloch, J. J. Flynn, T. J. Gaudin, A. Giallombardo, N. P. Giannini, S. L. Goldberg, B. P. Kraatz, Z.-X. Luo, J. Meng, X. Ni, M. J. Novacek, F. A. Perini, Z. S. Randall, G. W. Rougier, E. J. Sargis, M. T. Silcox, N. B. Simmons, M. Spaulding, P. M. Velazco, M. Weksler, J. R. Wible & A. L. Cirranello. 2013. The placental mammal ancestor and the post-K-Pg radiation of placentals. Science 339: 662–667.

[P66] Peters, W. 1866. On Taphozous flaviventris, Gould, a new species of bat from Australia. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 430.

[R64] Ride, W. D. L. 1964. A list of mammals described from Australia between the years 1933 and 1963 (comprising newly proposed names and additions to the Australian faunal list). Australian Mammal Society Bulletin 7 (Suppl.): 1–15.

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