Papilionoideae

Hymenolobium mesoamericanum, copyright Rolando Pérez.


Belongs within: Fabales.
Contains: Jacksonia, Dipterygeae, Amburaneae, Swartzieae, Exostyleae, Amorpheae, Dalbergieae, Luetzelbergia, Ormosieae, Brongniartieae, Leptolobieae, Sophoreae, Genisteae, Crotalarieae, Baphieae, Mirbelieae, Hologalegina, Indigofera, Millettieae, Diocleae, Kennediinae, Desmodieae, Mucuna, Cajaninae, Erythrininae, Phaseolinae, Glycine, Psoraleeae.

The Papilionoideae are the largest of the three major subdivisions generally recognised within the Fabaceae/Leguminosae. Members of a number of genera within the Papilionoideae are significant food crops (such as Glycine, soybean, and Cicer arietinum, chickpea) while others are incorporated into pastures to enrich the soil through their nitrogen-fixing nodules (such as Trifolium, clover, and Lotus).

Members of the Papilionoideae are characterised by the presence of 'pea' flowers, with petals differentiated into a standard, wings and keel. The degree of petal differentiation may differ between taxa, and past classifications have differentiated between 'advanced' taxa, with higly differentiated flowers, and 'primitive' taxa with more radial flowers. However, more recent phylogenetic analyses have indicated that the so-called 'primitive' taxa are polyphyletic, and do not form a coherent grouping (Cardoso et al. 2013). The majority of members of the group are herbaceous, though some are shrubs or trees. These woody taxa include the more basally diverging subgroups, outside the so-called '50-kb inversion clade'. This clade, including all papilionoids except the Angylocalyceae, Dipterygeae, Amburaneae, Swartzieae and a small clade of taxa related to Cladrastis, is characterised by a large inversion in the plastid genome. The Angylocalyceae are a disjunctly distributed tropical group characterised by mostly ornithophilous flowers with the calyx and hypanthium enlarged, the petals thickened, the standard often distinctly large, the lower petals undifferentiated or reduced, and the stamens and gynoecium exserted (Cardoso et al. 2013).

Characters (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): N-fixing common; isoflavonoids, prenylated flavonoids, pyrrolizidine, indolizidine, and quinolizidine alkaloids present; sieve tubes with spindle-shaped non-dispersive protein bodies; leaves once compound, palmate or pinnate; androecium with unidirectional [abaxial to adaxial] initiation, adaxial-median corolla external; androecium usually connate [e.g. 9 + 1]; pleurogram absent, linea fissura absent, hour-glass cells present, counter palisade present or absent, raphe shorter than the antiraphe, hilum with a hilar groove, tracheid bar [group of tracheids just below surface of hilum] present; embryo curved, with well-developed suspensor, radicle long, cotyledons accumbent, not investing radicle, cotyledon areole present; duplication of CYC gene.

<==Papilionoideae [Faboideae, Papilionaceae, Papilionatae, Phaseoleae]
    |--+--+--Dipterygeae CP13
    |  |  `--Amburaneae CP13
    |  `--Angylocalyceae CP13
    |       |  i. s.: Uleanthus CP13
    |       |--+--Xanthocercis zambesiaca CP13
    |       |  `--Angylocalyx talbotii CP13
    |       `--+--Castanospermum australe CP13
    |          `--Alexa CP13
    |               |--A. bauhiniiflora CP13
    |               |--A. canaracunensis CP13
    |               |--A. grandiflora CP13
    |               `--A. wachenheimii CP13
    `--+--Swartzieae CP13
       `--+--+--‘Cladrastis’ platycarpa CP13
          |  `--+--Pickeringia montana CP13
          |     |    |--P. m. var. montana CP13
          |     |    `--P. m. var. tomentosa CP13
          |     `--+--Cladrastis CP13
          |        |    |--C. delavayi CP13
          |        |    |--C. kentukea CP13
          |        |    `--C. lutea CP13
          |        `--Styphnolobium CP13
          |             |--S. affine CP13
          |             |--S. japonicum CP13
          |             `--+--S. conzattii CP13
          |                `--+--S. burseroides CP13
          |                   `--S. monteviridis CP13
          `--+--Amphimas pterocarpoides CP13
             |--Exostyleae CP13
             |--+--Amorpheae CP13
             |  `--Dalbergieae CP13
             |--Aldina CP13
             |    |--A. insignis CP13
             |    `--+--A. heterophylla CP13
             |       `--A. latifolia CP13
             |--+--Sweetia fruticosa CP13
             |  |--Vataireopsis CP13
             |  |    |--V. araroba CP13
             |  |    |--V. speciosa CP13
             |  |    `--V. surinamensis CP13
             |  `--+--Luetzelbergia CP13
             |     `--Vatairea CP13
             |          |--+--V. heteroptera CP13
             |          |  `--V. macrocarpa CP13
             |          `--+--+--V. fusca CP13
             |             |  `--V. lundelii CP13
             |             `--+--V. erythrocarpa CP13
             |                |--V. guianensis CP13
             |                |--V. paraensis CP13
             |                `--V. sericea CP13
             |--+--Andira CP13
             |  |    |  i. s.: A. fraxinifolia CP13
             |  |    |--A. carvalhoi CP13
             |  |    |--A. humilis CP13
             |  |    |--A. legalis CP13
             |  |    |--A. marauensis CP13
             |  |    `--+--A. inermis CP13
             |  |       `--+--A. galeottiana CP13
             |  |          `--A. ormosioides CP13
             |  `--Hymenolobium CP13
             |       |--H. alagoanum CP13
             |       |--H. grazielanum CP13
             |       |--H. heringerianum CP13
             |       |--H. janeirense CP13
             |       |--H. mesoamericanum CP13
             |       |--H. petraeum CP13
             |       `--+--H. heterocarpum CP13
             |          `--H. sericeum CP13
             |--Dermatophyllum CP13
             |    |--D. arizonicum CP13
             |    `--D. secundiflorum CP13
             |--+--Ormosieae CP13
             |  `--+--‘Clathrotropis’ macrocarpa CP13
             |     `--+--Brongniartieae CP13
             |        |--Leptolobieae CP13
             |        `--+--Camoensia [Camoensieae] CP13
             |           |    |--C. brevicalyx CP13
             |           |    `--C. scandens CP13
             |           `--+--Sophoreae CP13
             |              `--+--+--Genisteae CP13
             |                 |  `--Crotalarieae CP13
             |                 `--Podalyrieae [Liparieae] CP13
             |                      |--Cadia purpurea CP13
             |                      |--Calpurnia aurea CP13
             |                      |--Amphithalea CP13
             |                      |--Cyclopia CP13
             |                      |--Liparia CP13
             |                      |--Podalyria CP13
             |                      |--Stirtonanthus CP13
             |                      |--Virgilia oroboides CP13, B00
             |                      `--Xiphoteca CP13
             `--+--Baphieae CP13
                `--+--+--Mirbelieae CP13
                   |  `--Hypocalyptus [Hypocalypteae] CP13
                   |       `--H. coluteoides CP13
                   `--+--Hologalegina CP13
                      `--+--Indigofereae CP13
                         |    |--Phylloxylon spinosa CP13
                         |    `--+--Indigofera CP13
                         |       `--+--Microcharis karinensis CP13
                         |          `--Cyamopsis CP13
                         |               |--C. senegalensis CP13
                         |               `--C. tetragonoloba Z94
                         `--+--+--Ostryocarpus riparius CP13
                            |  `--+--Aganope thyrsiflora CP13
                            |     `--Xeroderris stuhlmannii CP13
                            `--+--Barberieae CP13
                               |    |--Dalbergiella nyasae CP13
                               |    `--+--Centrosema CP13
                               |       |    |--C. pubescens M99
                               |       |    `--C. sagittatum CP13
                               |       `--Clitoria CP13
                               |            |--C. australis LK14
                               |            |--C. racemosa A96
                               |            |--C. rubiginosa BMM99
                               |            `--C. ternatea CP13
                               `--+--Austrosteenisia CP13
                                  |    |--A. blackii CP13
                                  |    `--A. glabrista WO95
                                  `--+--+--Disynstemon paullenoides CP13
                                     |  `--+--Abrus [Abreae] CP13
                                     |     |    |--A. precatorius CP13
                                     |     |    `--A. pulchellus SR07
                                     |     `--+--Millettieae CP13
                                     |        `--Diocleae CP13
                                     `--+--Platycyamus regnellii CP13
                                        `--+--Kunstleria ridleyi CP13
                                           `--+--Apios CP13
                                              |    |--A. americana CP13
                                              |    `--A. tuberosa C55
                                              `--+--+--Shuteria vestita CP13
                                                 |  `--Kennediinae CP13
                                                 |--+--Desmodieae CP13
                                                 |  `--+--Craspedolobium schochii CP13
                                                 |     `--Mucuna CP13
                                                 `--+--+--Cajaninae CP13
                                                    |  `--Butea CP13
                                                    |       |--B. frondosa Z94
                                                    |       |--B. lanceaefolia Z94
                                                    |       |--B. monosperma CP13
                                                    |       |    |--B. m. var. monosperma S02
                                                    |       |    `--B. m. var. lutea S02
                                                    |       |--B. parviflora P03
                                                    |       `--B. superba P03
                                                    `--+--Erythrininae CP13
                                                       `--+--+--Cologania pallida CP13
                                                          |  `--Phaseolinae CP13
                                                          `--+--+--Calopogonium mucunoides CP13, BMM99
                                                             |  `--Pseudovigna argentea CP13
                                                             |--+--Neorautanenia mitis CP13
                                                             |  `--Pachyrhizus erosus CP13
                                                             `--+--Neonotonia wightii CP13
                                                                `--+--+--Amphicarpaea bracteata CP13
                                                                   |  `--+--Teramnus uncinatus CP13
                                                                   |     `--+--Glycine CP13
                                                                   |        `--Psoraleeae CP13
                                                                   `--Pueraria CP13
                                                                        |--P. hirsuta AP80
                                                                        |--P. lobata WL09
                                                                        |--P. montana CP13
                                                                        |    |--P. m. var. montana H06
                                                                        |    `--P. m. var. lobata H06
                                                                        |--P. triloba BMM99
                                                                        `--P. tuberosa SR07

Papilionoideae incertae sedis:
  Eutaxia G04
    |--E. microphylla B88
    |--E. parvifolia G04
    `--E. virgata GK00
  Dillwynia OS04
    |--D. cinerascens R35
    |--D. ericifolia C08
    |    |--D. e. var. ericifolia C08
    |    `--D. e. var. phylicoides C08
    |--D. floribunda H87a
    |--D. juniperina C08
    |--D. peduncularis M65
    `--D. uncinata G04
  Chorizema OS04
    |--C. aciculare OS04
    |--C. ilicifolium GK00
    `--C. nanum GK00
  Jacksonia OS04
  Nemcia obovata OS04
  Brachysema GK00
    |--B. melanopetalum GK00
    `--B. praemorsum GK00
  Callistachys lanceolata GK00
  Oxylobium GK00
    |--O. ellipticum KC83
    |--O. ilicifolium M65
    |--O. lineare GK00
    `--O. trilobatum H87b
  Sphaerolobium GK00
    |--S. drummondii GK00
    |--S. linophyllum GK00
    |--S. macranthum GK00
    |--S. medium GK00
    `--S. vimineum GK00
  Goodia lotifolia GK00
  Viminaria juncea GK00
  Latrobea tenella GK00
  Atylosia scarabaeoides P03
  Maughania bracteata P03
  Pseudathria viscida P03
  Sarothamnus scoparius H59
  Neoharmsia CP13
  Pericopsis CP13
  Sakoanala CP13
  Psoralidium lanceolatum [incl. Psoralea lanceolata ssp. scabra] H93
  Corallodendron Mill. 1754 KC01
  Genistella Ortega 1773 KC01
  Sterbeckia Schreb. 1789 KC01
  Xerocarpus Guill., Perr. & Rich. 1832 KC01

Nomen nudum: Nemcia aspera Crisp in Obbens & Sage 2004 OS04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

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[A96] Antony, L. M. K. 1996. On the efficiency of extracting soil fauna from litter bags. In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 671–676. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[BMM99] Braun, U., J. Mouchacca & E. H. C. McKenzie. 1999. Cercosporoid hyphomycetes from New Caledonia and some other South Pacific islands. New Zealand Journal of Botany 37: 297–327.

[C08] Cambage, R. H. 1908. Notes on the native flora of New South Wales. Part VI. Deepwater to Torrington and Emmaville. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33 (1): 45–65, pls 1–2.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CP13] Cardoso, D., R. T. Pennington, L. P. de Queiroz, J. S. Boatwright, B.-E. Van Wyk, M. F. Wojciechowski & M. Lavin. 2013. Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes. South African Journal of Botany 89: 58–75.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49–62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[H87a] Haviland, E. 1887a. Flowering seasons of Australian plants. No. I—List of plants indigenous in the neighbourhood of Sydney, flowering during July. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1049–1051.

[H87b] Haviland, E. 1887b. Flowering seasons of Australian plants. No. II. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1103–1104.

[H59] Healy, A. J. 1959. Contributions to a knowledge of the adventive flora of New Zealand, no. 7. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 86 (1): 113–118.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201–222.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[KC83] Körner, C., & P. Cochrane. 1983. Influence of plant physiognomy on leaf temperature on clear midsummer days in the Snowy Mountains, south-eastern Australia. Acta Œcologica Œcologiae Plantae 4 (2): 117–124.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

[M65] Michener, C. D. 1965. A classification of the bees of the Australian and South Pacific regions. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 130: 1–362.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 121–142.

[R35] Rayment, T. 1935. A Cluster of Bees: Sixty essays on the life-histories of Australian bees, with specific descriptions of over 100 new species. Endeavour Press: Sydney.

[SR07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 165–172.

[S02] Sharma, S. K. 2002. Occurrence of Butea monosperma var. lutea (Witt.) Maheshwari in Rajasthan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 547.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

[WO95] Walter, D. E., & D. J. O'Dowd. 1995. Life on the forest phylloplane: hairs, little houses, and myriad mites. In: M. D. Lowman, & N. M. Nadkarni (eds) Forest Canopies pp. 325–351. Academic Press, Inc.

[Z94] Zimmerman, E. C. 1994. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 2. Brentidae, Eurhynchidae, Apionidae and a chapter on immature stages by Brenda May. CSIRO Australia.

Last updated: 13 April 2020.

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