Papilionoideae

Hymenolobium mesoamericanum, copyright Rolando Pérez.


Belongs within: Fabales.
Contains: Dipterygeae, Amburaneae, Swartzieae, Exostyleae, Luetzelbergia, Ormosieae, Brongniartieae, Leptolobieae, Genisteae, Crotalarieae, Sophoreae, Amorpheae, Dalbergieae, Baphieae, Mirbelieae, Indigofera, Millettieae, Diocleae, Desmodieae, Erythrininae, Psoraleeae, Phaseolinae, Hologalegina.

The Papilionoideae are the largest of the three major subdivisions generally recognised within the Fabaceae/Leguminosae. Members of this clade are characterised by the presence of 'pea' flowers, with petals differentiated into a standard, wings and keel. The degree of petal differentiation may differ between taxa, and past classifications have differentiated between 'advanced' taxa, with higly differentiated flowers, and 'primitive' taxa with more radial flowers. However, more recent phylogenetic analyses have indicated that the so-called 'primitive' taxa are polyphyletic, and do not form a coherent grouping (Cardoso et al. 2013). The majority of members of the group are herbaceous, though some are shrubs or trees. These woody taxa include the more basally diverging subgroups, outside the so-caled '50-kb inversion clade'. This clade, including all papilionoids except the Angylocalyceae, Dipterygeae, Amburaneae, Swartzieae and a small clade of taxa related to Cladrastis, is characterised by a large inversion in the plastid genome (Cardoso et al. 2013).

Members of a number of genera within the Papilionoideae are significant food crops (such as Glycine, soybean, and Cicer arietinum, chickpea) while others are incorporated into pastures to enrich the soil through their nitrogen-fixing nodules (such as Trifolium, clover, and Lotus).

Characters (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): N-fixing common; isoflavonoids, prenylated flavonoids, pyrrolizidine, indolizidine, and quinolizidine alkaloids present; sieve tubes with spindle-shaped non-dispersive protein bodies; leaves once compound, palmate or pinnate; androecium with unidirectional [abaxial to adaxial] initiation, adaxial-median corolla external; androecium usually connate [e.g. 9 + 1]; pleurogram absent, linea fissura absent, hour-glass cells present, counter palisade present or absent, raphe shorter than the antiraphe, hilum with a hilar groove, tracheid bar [group of tracheids just below surface of hilum] present; embryo curved, with well-developed suspensor, radicle long, cotyledons accumbent, not investing radicle, cotyledon areole present; duplication of CYC gene.

<==Papilionoideae [Faboideae, Papilionaceae, Papilionatae]
    |--+--Angylocalyceae CP13
    |  |    |  i. s.: Uleanthus CP13
    |  |    |--+--Xanthocercis zambesiaca CP13
    |  |    |  `--Angylocalyx talbotii CP13
    |  |    `--+--Castanospermum australe CP13
    |  |       `--Alexa CP13
    |  |            |--A. bauhiniiflora CP13
    |  |            |--A. canaracunensis CP13
    |  |            |--A. grandiflora CP13
    |  |            `--A. wachenheimii CP13
    |  `--+--Dipterygeae CP13
    |     `--Amburaneae CP13
    `--+--Swartzieae CP13
       `--+--+--‘Cladrastis’ platycarpa CP13
          |  `--+--Pickeringia montana CP13
          |     |    |--P. m. var. montana CP13
          |     |    `--P. m. var. tomentosa CP13
          |     `--+--Cladrastis CP13
          |        |    |--C. delavayi CP13
          |        |    |--C. kentukea CP13
          |        |    `--C. lutea CP13
          |        `--Styphnolobium CP13
          |             |--S. affine CP13
          |             |--S. japonicum CP13
          |             `--+--S. conzattii CP13
          |                `--+--S. burseroides CP13
          |                   `--S. monteviridis CP13
          `--+--Amphimas pterocarpoides CP13
             |--Aldina CP13
             |    |--A. insignis CP13
             |    `--+--A. heterophylla CP13
             |       `--A. latifolia CP13
             |--Exostyleae CP13
             |--+--Vataireopsis CP13
             |  |    |--V. araroba CP13
             |  |    |--V. speciosa CP13
             |  |    `--V. surinamensis CP13
             |  |--Sweetia fruticosa CP13
             |  `--+--Vatairea CP13
             |     |    |--+--V. heteroptera CP13
             |     |    |  `--V. macrocarpa CP13
             |     |    `--+--+--V. fusca CP13
             |     |       |  `--V. lundelii CP13
             |     |       `--+--V. erythrocarpa CP13
             |     |          |--V. guianensis CP13
             |     |          |--V. paraensis CP13
             |     |          `--V. sericea CP13
             |     `--Luetzelbergia CP13
             |--+--Andira CP13
             |  |    |  i. s.: A. fraxinifolia CP13
             |  |    |--A. carvalhoi CP13
             |  |    |--A. humilis CP13
             |  |    |--A. legalis CP13
             |  |    |--A. marauensis CP13
             |  |    `--+--A. inermis CP13
             |  |       `--+--A. galeottiana CP13
             |  |          `--A. ormosioides CP13
             |  `--Hymenolobium CP13
             |       |--H. alagoanum CP13
             |       |--H. grazielanum CP13
             |       |--H. heringerianum CP13
             |       |--H. janeirense CP13
             |       |--H. mesoamericanum CP13
             |       |--H. petraeum CP13
             |       `--+--H. heterocarpum CP13
             |          `--H. sericeum CP13
             |--+--Dermatophyllum CP13
             |  |    |--D. arizonicum CP13
             |  |    `--D. secundiflorum CP13
             |  `--+--Ormosieae CP13
             |     `--+--‘Clathrotropis’ macrocarpa CP13
             |        `--+--Brongniartieae CP13
             |           |--Leptolobieae CP13
             |           `--+--Camoensia [Camoensieae] CP13
             |              |    |--C. brevicalyx CP13
             |              |    `--C. scandens CP13
             |              `--+--+--Podalyrieae [Liparieae] CP13
             |                 |  |    |--Cadia purpurea CP13
             |                 |  |    |--Calpurnia aurea CP13
             |                 |  |    |--Amphithalea CP13
             |                 |  |    |--Cyclopia CP13
             |                 |  |    |--Liparia CP13
             |                 |  |    |--Podalyria CP13
             |                 |  |    |--Stirtonanthus CP13
             |                 |  |    |--Virgilia CP13
             |                 |  |    `--Xiphoteca CP13
             |                 |  `--+--Genisteae AB03
             |                 |     `--Crotalarieae CP13
             |                 `--Sophoreae CP13
             |--+--Amorpheae CP13
             |  `--Dalbergieae CP13
             `--+--Baphieae CP13
                `--+--+--Hypocalyptus [Hypocalypteae] CP13
                   |  |    `--H. coluteoides CP13
                   |  `--Mirbelieae CP13
                   `--+--+--Indigofereae CP13
                      |  |    |--Phylloxylon spinosa CP13
                      |  |    `--+--Indigofera CP13
                      |  |       `--+--Microcharis karinensis CP13
                      |  |          `--Cyamopsis senegalensis CP13
                      |  `--+--+--Ostryocarpus riparius CP13
                      |     |  `--+--Aganope thyrsiflora CP13
                      |     |     `--Xeroderris stuhlmannii CP13
                      |     `--+--Barberieae CP13
                      |        |    |--Dalbergiella nyasae CP13
                      |        |    `--+--Clitoria ternatea CP13
                      |        |       `--Centrosema sagittatum CP13
                      |        `--+--Austrosteenisia blackii CP13
                      |           `--+--+--Disynstemon paullenoides CP13
                      |              |  `--+--Abrus [Abreae] CP13
                      |              |     |    |--A. precatorius P88
                      |              |     |    `--A. pulchellus SR07
                      |              |     `--+--Millettieae CP13
                      |              |        `--Diocleae CP13
                      |              `--+--Platycyamus regnellii CP13
                      |                 `--+--Kunstleria ridleyi CP13
                      |                    `--+--Apios CP13
                      |                       |    |--A. americana CP13
                      |                       |    `--A. tuberosa C55
                      |                       `--+--+--Shuteria vestita CP13
                      |                          |  `--Kennediinae CP13
                      |                          |       |--Kennedia GK00
                      |                          |       |    |--K. coccinea GK00
                      |                          |       |    |--K. nigricans CP13
                      |                          |       |    `--K. prostrata GK00
                      |                          |       `--Hardenbergia CP13
                      |                          |            |--H. comptoniana GK00
                      |                          |            |--H. macrophylla G28
                      |                          |            `--H. violacea CP13
                      |                          |--+--+--Craspedolobium schochii CP13
                      |                          |  |  `--Mucuna CP13
                      |                          |  |       |--M. pruriens CP13 [=Dolichos pruriens C55]
                      |                          |  |       `--M. urens C55
                      |                          |  `--Desmodieae CP13
                      |                          `--+--+--Butea CP13
                      |                             |  |    |--B. monosperma J07
                      |                             |  |    |    |--B. m. var. monosperma S02
                      |                             |  |    |    `--B. m. var. lutea S02
                      |                             |  |    |--B. parviflora P03
                      |                             |  |    `--B. superba P03
                      |                             |  `--Cajaninae CP13
                      |                             |       |--Cajanus cajan CP13
                      |                             |       `--+--Eriosema CP13
                      |                             |          |    |--E. diffusum CP13
                      |                             |          |    `--E. harmsiana CV06
                      |                             |          `--Rhynchosia CP13
                      |                             |               |--R. edulis CP13
                      |                             |               |--R. erythrinoides J87
                      |                             |               `--R. minima PP07
                      |                             `--+--Erythrininae CP13
                      |                                `--+--+--+--Calopogonium CP13
                      |                                   |  |  `--Pseudovigna argentea CP13
                      |                                   |  |--+--Neorautanenia mitis CP13
                      |                                   |  |  `--Pachyrhizus erosus CP13
                      |                                   |  `--+--Neonotonia wightii CP13
                      |                                   |     `--+--Pueraria CP13
                      |                                   |        |    |--P. lobata WL09
                      |                                   |        |    |--P. montana H06
                      |                                   |        |    |    |--P. m. var. montana H06
                      |                                   |        |    |    `--P. m. var. lobata H06
                      |                                   |        |    `--P. tuberosa SR07
                      |                                   |        `--+--Amphicarpaea bracteata CP13
                      |                                   |           `--+--Teramnus uncinatus CP13
                      |                                   |              `--+--Glycine CP13
                      |                                   |                 |    |--G. canescens KM08
                      |                                   |                 |    |--G. clandestina B88
                      |                                   |                 |    |--G. javanica B88
                      |                                   |                 |    |--G. max L-BWC03
                      |                                   |                 |    `--G. soja HVG91
                      |                                   |                 `--Psoraleeae CP13
                      |                                   `--+--Cologania pallida CP13
                      |                                      `--Phaseolinae CP13
                      `--Hologalegina CP13

Papilionoideae incertae sedis:
  Eutaxia G04
    |--E. microphylla B88
    |--E. parvifolia G04
    `--E. virgata GK00
  Dillwynia OS04
    |--D. pedunculatis M65
    `--D. uncinata G04
  Chorizema OS04
    |--C. aciculare OS04
    |--C. ilicifolium GK00
    `--C. nanum GK00
  Jacksonia OS04
    |--J. alata OS04
    |--J. floribunda RL05
    |--J. furcellata RL05
    |--J. racemosa OS04
    |--J. restioides RL05
    |--J. scoparia M65
    |--J. spinosa CFH05
    `--J. sternbergiana RL05
  Nemcia obovata OS04
  Brachysema GK00
    |--B. melanopetalum GK00
    `--B. praemorsum GK00
  Callistachys lanceolata GK00
  Oxylobium GK00
    |--O. ellipticum KC83
    |--O. ilicifolium M65
    `--O. lineare GK00
  Sphaerolobium GK00
    |--S. drummondii GK00
    |--S. linophyllum GK00
    |--S. macranthum GK00
    |--S. medium GK00
    `--S. vimineum GK00
  Goodia lotifolia GK00
  Viminaria juncea GK00
  Latrobea tenella GK00
  Atylosia scarabaeoides P03
  Maughania bracteata P03
  Pseudathria viscida P03
  Sarothamnus scoparius H59
  Petalostemum SJ73
  Neoharmsia CP13
  Pericopsis CP13
  Sakoanala CP13

Nomina nuda: Jacksonia sparsa Gibson & Keighery 2000 GK00
             Nemcia aspera Crisp in Obbens & Sage 2004 OS04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AB03] Ainouche, A., R. J. Bayer, P. Cubas & M.-T. Misset. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships within tribe Genisteae (Papilionoideae) with special reference to genus Ulex. In Advances in Legume Systematics vol. 10, Higher Level Systematics (B. B. K. A. Bruneau, ed.) pp. 239-252. Royal Botanic Gardens: Kew.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CP13] Cardoso, D., R. T. Pennington, L. P. de Queiroz, J. S. Boatwright, B.-E. Van Wyk, M. F. Wojciechowski & M. Lavin. 2013. Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes. South African Journal of Botany 89: 58-75.

[CFH05] Cochrane, J. A., J. A. Friend & S. J. E. Hill. 2005. Endozoochory and the Australian bluebell: comsumption of Billardiera fusiformis (Labill.) Payer (Pittosporaceae) seeds by three mammal species at Two Peoples Bay Nature Reserve, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 191-196.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175-189.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49-62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323-402.

[G28] Girault, A. A. 1928. Notice of a curious professor and of native wasps and wood lice. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 229-232).

[H59] Healy, A. J. 1959. Contributions to a knowledge of the adventive flora of New Zealand, no. 7. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 86 (1): 113-118.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201-222.

[HVG91] Hulínská, D., P. Volf & L. Grubhoffer. 1991. Surface carbohydrates of Borrelia burgdorferi. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 73-78. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[J07] Jadhav, D. 2007. Ethno-medicinal plants used by Bhil tribe of Matrunda, district Ratlam, Madhya Pradesh, India. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 203-206.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11-19.

[KC83] Körner, C., & P. Cochrane. 1983. Influence of plant physiognomy on leaf temperature on clear midsummer days in the Snowy Mountains, south-eastern Australia. Acta Œcologica Œcologiae Plantae 4 (2): 117-124.

[L-BWC03] López-Bautista, J. M., D. A. Waters & R. L. Chapman. 2003. Phragmoplastin, green algae and the evolution of cytokinesis. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 1715-1718.

[M65] Michener, C. D. 1965. A classification of the bees of the Australian and South Pacific regions. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 130: 1-362.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19-28.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P. & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 15-78.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1-4): 121-142.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[RL05] Rafferty, C., & B. B. Lamont. 2005. Selective feeding by macropods on vegetation regenerating following fire. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 155-165.

[SR07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 165-172.

[S02] Sharma, S. K. 2002. Occurrence of Butea monosperma var. lutea (Witt.) Maheshwari in Rajasthan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 547.

[SJ73] Slobodchikoff, C. W. & C. D. Johnson. 1973. A phenetic and a phylogenetic approach to the classification of a genus of seed beetles (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Systematic Zoology 22 (3): 280-294.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W. & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology, 3rd ed., pp. 233-420. Texas Tech University Press.

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