Malvales

Achiote Bixa orellana, from here.


Belongs within: Malvidae.
Contains: Thymelaeaceae, Malvaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Cistaceae.

The Malvales are a clade of flowering plants supported by molecular data, as well as by morphological characters of many members of the clade. Among the species of the smaller families in the clade, Bixa orellana (achiote) is the source of red colouring used in food. The Neuradaceae is a small assemblage of small herbaceous or subwoody plants found in warm desert areas of Africa and Asia (Angiosperm Phylogeny Website).

Characters (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Flavones, myricetin present; mucilage cells present; corolla contorted; disc absent; style long; ovules few/carpel; exotegmen much thickened and lignified, palisade.

<==Malvales
    |  i. s.: Hudsonia BL04
    |         Florissantia T00
    |         Petenaea cordata BAN98
    |--Neuradaceae WM09
    |    |--Grielium T00
    |    |--Neurada procumbens BAN98
    |    `--Neuradopsis T00
    `--+--+--Thymelaeaceae WM09
       |  `--Malvaceae WM09
       `--Cistineae T00
            |  i. s.: Diegodendron [Diegodendraceae] T00
            |         Sarcolaenaceae T00
            |         Cochlospermaceae T00
            |           |--Amoreuxia T00
            |           `--Cochlospermum T00
            |                |--C. religiosum P03
            |                `--C. vitifolium MM96
            |         Sphaerosepalaceae [Rhoapalocarpaceae] T00
            |           |--Dialyceras T00
            |           `--Rhopalocarpus T00
            |         Muntingiaceae T00
            |           |--Muntingia calabura BAN98
            |           |--Dicraspidia T00
            |           `--Neotessmannia T00
            |--Bixa [Bixaceae] WM09
            |    `--B. orellana BAN98
            `--+--Dipterocarpaceae WM09
               `--Cistaceae WM09

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BL04] Barkman, T. J., S.-H. Lim, K. M. Salleh & J. Nais. 2004. Mitochondrial DNA sequences reveal the photosynthetic relatives of Rafflesia, the world’s largest flower. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 101 (3): 787-792.

[BAN98] Baum, D. A., W. S. Anderson & R. Nyffeler. 1998. A durian by any other name: taxonomy and nomenclature of the core Malvales. Harvard Papers in Botany 3 (2): 315-330.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1-487.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1-4): 121-142.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

[WM09] Wang, H., M. J. Moore, P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, S. F. Brockington, R. Alexandre, C. C. Davis, M. Latvis, S. R. Manchester & D. E. Soltis. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3853-3858.

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