Achiote Bixa orellana, from here.

Belongs within: Malvidae.
Contains: Thymelaeaceae, Malvaceae, Cistaceae, Dipterocarpaceae.

The Malvales are a clade of flowering plants supported by molecular data as well as by morphological characters of many members of the clade. Among the species of the smaller families in the clade, Bixa orellana (achiote) is the source of red colouring used in food. The Neuradaceae are a small assemblage of small herbaceous or subwoody plants found in warm desert areas of Africa and Asia. The Sarcolaenaceae are a group of trees and shrubs endemic to Madagascar, characterised by flowers subtended by a massive involucre (Angiosperm Phylogeny Website).

Characters (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Flavones, myricetin present; mucilage cells present; corolla contorted; disc absent; style long; ovules few/carpel; exotegmen much thickened and lignified, palisade.

    |  i. s.: Hudsonia tomentosa NDA05
    |         Florissantia physalis T00, CBH93
    |         Cytinaceae APG16
    |           |--Cytinus T00
    |           `--Bdallophyton T00
    |--Neuradaceae WM09
    |    |--Grielium T00
    |    |--Neurada procumbens BAN98
    |    `--Neuradopsis T00
    `--+--+--Thymelaeaceae WM09
       |  `--Malvaceae WM09
       `--Cistineae T00
            |  i. s.: Diegodendron [Diegodendraceae] T00
            |         Cochlospermaceae T00
            |           |--Amoreuxia T00
            |           `--Cochlospermum T00
            |                |--C. fraseri VT13
            |                |--C. gillivraei C16
            |                |--C. religiosum P03
            |                `--C. vitifolium MM96
            |         Sphaerosepalaceae [Rhopalocarpaceae] T00
            |           |--Dialyceras T00
            |           `--Rhopalocarpus T00
            |         Muntingiaceae T00
            |           |--Muntingia calabura BAN98
            |           |--Dicraspidia T00
            |           `--Neotessmannia T00
            |--Bixaceae WM09
            |    |--Bixa orellana BAN98
            |    `--Scolopioidea palaeocenica Langeron 1899 CBH93
            `--+--Cistaceae WM09
               `--+--Dipterocarpaceae WM09
                  `--Sarcolaenaceae APG16
                       |--Sarcolaena APG16
                       `--Leptolaena APG16

*Type species of generic name indicated


[APG16] Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181: 1–20.

[BAN98] Baum, D. A., W. S. Anderson & R. Nyffeler. 1998. A durian by any other name: taxonomy and nomenclature of the core Malvales. Harvard Papers in Botany 3 (2): 315–330.

[C16] Cambage, R. H. 1916. Notes on the native flora of tropical Queensland. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 49 (3): 389–447, pls 57–61.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1–487.

[NDA05] Nickrent, D. L., J. P. Der & F. E. Anderson. 2005. Discovery of the photosynthetic relatives of the "Maltese mushroom" Cynomorium. BMC Evolutionary Biology 5: 38.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 121–142.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[VT13] Vigilante, T., J. Toohey, A. Gorring, V. Blundell, T. Saunders, S. Mangolamara, K. George, J. Oobagooma, M. Waina, K. Morgan & K. Doohan. 2013. Island country: aboriginal connections, values and knowledge of the Western Australian Kimberley islands in the context of an island biological survey. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 145–182.

[WM09] Wang, H., M. J. Moore, P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, S. F. Brockington, R. Alexandre, C. C. Davis, M. Latvis, S. R. Manchester & D. E. Soltis. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3853–3858.

Last updated: 8 August 2021.

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