Fabales

Bay cedar Suriana maritima, photographed by B. Navez.


Belongs within: Rosidae.
Contains: Polygalaceae, Berlinia, Bauhinia, Senna, Papilionoideae, Caesalpinieae, Cassia, Mimosoideae.

The Fabales are a clade of flowering plants supported primarily by molecular data. Within the Fabales, the greater number of species belong to the clade Fabaceae or Leguminosae, the legumes, well-known as the largest clade of plants to possess nodules containing nitrogen-fixing bacteria in their roots. The Fabaceae are traditionally divided into three groups recognised as either families (Caesalpiniaceae, Mimosaceae and Papilionaceae/Fabaceae) or subfamilies (Caesalpinioideae, Mimosoideae and Papilionoideae/Faboideae), though recent phylogenetic analyses have indicated that the caesalpinioids are paraphyletic. The majority of remaining Fabales belong to the Polygalaceae; the Surianaceae and Quillaja are both small assemblages. Quillaja is a small southern South American genus of trees; the soapbark Q. saponaria gets its vernacular name from the presence of saponins in its inner bark.

The Surianaceae are a group of shrub and trees characterised by the absence of nectaries and the presence of a layer of mucilage around the ovules (Angiosperm Phylogeny Website). The bay cedar Suriana maritima is pantropical and coastal in distribution. Its nut-like fruits can remain buoyant in sea water for a number of months, allowing for its wide dispersal. The remaining genera of Surianaceae are more geographically restricted: Stylobasium and Guilhoylia are endemic to Australia, while Recchia is found in Mexico.

Synapomorphies (from Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Ellagic acid absent; vessel elements with simple perforation plates; wood often fluorescing; styloids present; calyx initiation helical; corolla clawed; carpels free; embryo green.

<==Fabales [Fabanae, Fabineae]
    |--Quillaja [Quillajaceae] WM09
    |    `--Q. saponaria WM09
    `--+--Surianaceae WM09
       |    |  i. s.: Recchia T00
       |    |--Suriana maritima CP13
       |    `--+--Stylobasium spathulatum CP13
       |       `--Guilhoylia monostylis CP13
       `--+--Polygalaceae WM09
          `--Leguminosae [Caesalpinioideae, Fabaceae, Leguminales, Leguminoseae, Viciaceae] CP13
               |  i. s.: Acaciophyllites GT02
               |         Spatholobus K03
               |           |--S. bracteolatus FJ99
               |           `--S. gyrocarpus K03
               |         Maniltoa H03
               |         Kingiodendron H03
               |         Serianthes H03
               |         Neptunia YY22
               |           |--N. oleracea GC05 (see below for synonymy)
               |           `--N. triquetra [=Desmanthus triquetrus] C55
               |         Calliandra portoricensis MM96
               |         Gleditsia H06
               |           |--G. japonica [=Gleditschi japonica] LO98
               |           `--G. triacanthos H06
               |         Lysiloma YY22
               |         Pogocybe YY22
               |         Schranckia YY22
               |           |--S. leptocarpa C55
               |           `--S. leptophylla C55
               |         Gymnocladus YY22
               |         Pentaclethra YY22
               |         Stracheya tibetica O88
               |         Ceratonia siliqua PT98, DH98
               |         Hymenocarpus circinnatus PT98
               |         Scorpiurus PT98
               |           |--S. muricatus PT98
               |           `--S. subvillosus C55
               |         Tripodium tetraphyllum PT98
               |         ‘Burtonia’ Brown 1811 non Salisbury 1807 FT93
               |         Teline ES06
               |         Pongamia SDK05
               |           |--P. glabra SK02
               |           `--P. pinnata SDK05
               |         Cynometra ramiflora H09
               |         Elephantorrhiza CV06
               |           |--E. rangei CV06
               |           `--E. schinziana CV06
               |         Haematoxylum dinteri CV06
               |         Paraserianthes lophantha H06
               |         Flemingia strobilifera BB07
               |         Dinzia CP13
               |         Hymenaea courbaril K06
               |         Berlinia MB09
               |         Dicymbe corymbosa AHR03
               |         Tachigali rusbyi AHR03
               |         Koompassia excelsa H03, P88
               |         Intzia palembanica W01
               |         Labichea G04b
               |           |--L. punctata GK00
               |           `--L. stellata G04b
               |         Bauhinia B02
               |         Chamaecrista pumila PP07
               |         Parkinsonia aculeata PP07
               |         Saraca asoca BB07
               |         Tamarindus indicus BB07
               |         Tetraberlinia MB09
               |           |--T. bifoliolata MB09
               |           `--T. korupensis MB09
               |         Microberlinia bisulcata MB09
               |         Englerodendron korupense MB09
               |         Senna G04a
               |         Lophocarpinia Burkart 1957 WL09
               |           `--L. aculeatifolia (Burkart) Burkart 1957 [=Cenostigma aculeatifolium Burkart 1944] WL09
               |--Duparquetia orchidacea CP13
               `--+--+--Cercis PL04 [Cercideae CP13]
                  |  |    |--C. canadensis B14
                  |  |    `--C. siliquastrum Linnaeus 1753 PL04
                  |  `--+--+--Goniorrhachis marginata CP13
                  |     |  `--Barnebydendron riedelii CP13
                  |     `--+--Prioria CP13
                  |        |--Amherstieae CP13
                  |        `--+--Detarieae CP13
                  |           `--+--Brandzeia filicifolia CP13
                  |              `--Daniellia klainei CP13
                  `--+--Dialiinae CP13
                     `--+--Papilionoideae CP13
                        `--+--Umtiza CP13
                           `--+--+--Caesalpinieae CP13
                              |  `--Cassia CP13
                              `--+--+--+--Moldenhawera brasiliensis CP13
                                 |  |  `--Diptychandra aurantiaca CP13
                                 |  `--+--Erythrophleum suaveolens CP13
                                 |     `--Mimosoideae CP13
                                 `--+--Dinizia excelsa CP13
                                    |--+--Dimorphandra conjugata CP13
                                    |  `--Mora gonggrijpii CP13
                                    `--+--Arapatiella psilophylla CP13
                                       `--Peltophorum pterocarpum CP13, P88

Neptunia oleracea GC05 [incl. Desmanthus lacustris C55, D. natans C55, Neptunia stolonifera C55]

*Type species of generic name indicated

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