Bay cedar Suriana maritima, photographed by B. Navez.

Belongs within: Fabidae.
Contains: Polygalaceae, Berlinia, Bauhinia, Senna, Papilionoideae, Cassia, Caesalpinieae, Mimosoideae.

The Fabales are a clade of flowering plants supported primarily by molecular data. Within the Fabales, the greater number of species belong to the clade Fabaceae or Leguminosae, the legumes, well-known as the largest clade of plants to possess nodules containing nitrogen-fixing bacteria in their roots. The Fabaceae are traditionally divided into three groups recognised as either families (Caesalpiniaceae, Mimosaceae and Papilionaceae/Fabaceae) or subfamilies (Caesalpinioideae, Mimosoideae and Papilionoideae/Faboideae), though recent phylogenetic analyses have indicated that the caesalpinioids are paraphyletic. 'Caesalpinioids' are historically distinguished from other legumes by having the sepals generally free at the base. Among economically significant species in the group is Tamarindus indicus, tamarind, whose fruit is used in cooking. The courbaril or West Indian locust Hymenaea courbaril of the Neotropics produces a resin used in incense and varnish, as well as pulpy seed pods whose pulp is widely eaten despite their distinct odour that may be considered unpleasant. Resins are also produced by trees and shrubs of the genus Copaifera, copaiba. Cercis, the redbuds, include deciduous trees or shrubs that produce pinkish-red flowers on the bare stems in the early spring before the leaves emerge; the flowers of some species are used in salads or pickles. The tualang Koompassia excelsa of southeast Asia is one of the tallest-growing trees of tropical rainforest, reaching close to 90 metres in height. Duparquetia orchidacea, a liana found in humid tropical forests of western Africa, is placed by phylogenetic analyses as one of the most basal members of the Fabaceae.

The majority of remaining Fabales belong to the Polygalaceae; the Surianaceae and Quillaja are both small assemblages. Quillaja is a small southern South American genus of trees; the soapbark Q. saponaria gets its vernacular name from the presence of saponins in its inner bark. The Surianaceae are a group of shrub and trees characterised by the absence of nectaries and the presence of a layer of mucilage around the ovules (Angiosperm Phylogeny Website). The bay cedar Suriana maritima is pantropical and coastal in distribution. Its nut-like fruits can remain buoyant in sea water for a number of months, allowing for its wide dispersal. The remaining genera of Surianaceae are more geographically restricted: Stylobasium and Guilhoylia are endemic to Australia, while Recchia is found in Mexico.

Synapomorphies (from Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Ellagic acid absent; vessel elements with simple perforation plates; wood often fluorescing; styloids present; calyx initiation helical; corolla clawed; carpels free; embryo green.

Fabales [Fabanae, Fabineae]
    |--Quillaja [Quillajaceae] WM09
    |    `--Q. saponaria CP13
    `--+--Surianaceae WM09
       |    |  i. s.: Recchia mexicana T00, OB11
       |    |--Suriana maritima CP13
       |    `--+--Stylobasium spathulatum CP13
       |       `--Guilhoylia monostylis CP13
       `--+--Polygalaceae WM09
          `--Leguminosae [Caesalpiniaceae, Caesalpinioideae, Fabaceae, Leguminales, Leguminoseae, Viciaceae] CP13
               |  i. s.: Acaciophyllites GT02
               |         Spatholobus K03
               |           |--S. bracteolatus FJ99
               |           `--S. gyrocarpus K03
               |         Maniltoa H03
               |         Kingiodendron H03
               |         Serianthes H03
               |         Gleditsia H06
               |           |--G. japonica [=Gleditschi japonica] LO98
               |           `--G. triacanthos H06
               |         Lysiloma YY22
               |         Pogocybe YY22
               |         Schranckia YY22
               |           |--S. leptocarpa C55
               |           `--S. leptophylla C55
               |         Gymnocladus YY22
               |         Pentaclethra YY22
               |         Stracheya tibetica O88
               |         Ceratonia siliqua PT98, DH98
               |         Hymenocarpus circinnatus PT98
               |         Scorpiurus PT98
               |           |--S. muricatus PT98
               |           `--S. subvillosus C55
               |         Tripodium tetraphyllum PT98
               |         ‘Burtonia’ Brown 1811 non Salisbury 1807 FT93
               |         Teline ES06
               |         Pongamia SDK05
               |           |--P. glabra SK02
               |           `--P. pinnata SDK05
               |         Cynometra H09
               |           |--C. iripa NDA05
               |           `--C. ramiflora H09
               |         Elephantorrhiza CV06
               |           |--E. rangei CV06
               |           `--E. schinziana CV06
               |         Haematoxylon CV06
               |           |--H. campechianum VKC07
               |           `--H. dinteri CV06
               |         Flemingia LK14
               |           |--F. involucrata LK14
               |           |--F. lineata LK14
               |           |--F. macrophylla BMM99
               |           |--F. parviflora LK14
               |           |--F. pauciflora LK14
               |           |--F. strobilifera BB07
               |           `--F. trifoliastrum LK14
               |         Hymenaea K06
               |           |  i. s.: H. courbaril K06
               |           |         H. intermedia P92
               |           |         H. protera Poinar 1991 P92
               |           `--H. sect. Trachylobium P92
               |                |--H. oblongifolia P92
               |                |    |--H. o. var. oblongifolia P92
               |                |    `--H. o. var. latifolia P92
               |                `--H. verrucosa P92
               |         Berlinia MB09
               |         Dicymbe corymbosa AHR03
               |         Tachigali AHR03
               |           |--T. paniculata RD77
               |           `--T. rusbyi AHR03
               |         Koompassia excelsa H03, P88
               |         Intzia palembanica W01
               |         Labichea G04
               |           |--L. punctata GK00
               |           `--L. stellata G04
               |         Bauhinia B02
               |         Chamaecrista LK14
               |           |--C. absus LK14
               |           |--C. mimosoides LK14
               |           |--C. moorei LK14
               |           |--C. nomame LK14
               |           |--C. pumila PP07
               |           `--C. symonii LK14
               |         Parkinsonia aculeata LK14
               |         Saraca BB07
               |           |--S. asoca BB07
               |           `--S. thaipingensis B00
               |         Tamarindus indica LK14
               |         Tetraberlinia MB09
               |           |--T. bifoliolata MB09
               |           `--T. korupensis MB09
               |         Microberlinia bisulcata MB09
               |         Englerodendron korupense MB09
               |         Senna LK14
               |         Lophocarpinia Burkart 1957 WL09
               |           `--*L. aculeatifolia (Burkart) Burkart 1957 [=Cenostigma aculeatifolium Burkart 1944] WL09
               |         Voandzeia subterranea W10
               |         Plagiocarpus LK14
               |           |--P. conduplicatus LK14
               |           |--P. dispermus LK14
               |           `--P. lanatus LK14
               |         Aphyllodium LK14
               |           |--A. biarticulatum LK14
               |           |--A. glossocarpum LK14
               |           |--A. schindleri LK14
               |           `--A. stylosanthoides LK14
               |         Austrodolichos LK14
               |           |--A. errabundus LK14
               |           `--A. erubescens LK14
               |         Cathormion umbellatum LK14
               |           |--C. u. ssp. umbellatum LK14
               |           `--C. u. ssp. moniliforme LK14
               |         Christia australasica LK14
               |         Delonix regia LK14
               |         Dendrolobium B00
               |           |--D. cheelii LK14
               |           `--D. umbellatum B00
               |         Indigastrum parviflorum LK14
               |         Pycnospora lutescens LK14
               |         Platylobium formosum H87
               |         Schizolobium H11
               |           |--S. amazonicum ZRG01
               |           `--S. parahyba H11
               |         Phylacium bracteosum B00
               |         Vandasina retusa B00
               |         Schotia brachypetala B00
               |         Cercidium H93
               |           |--C. floridum BTA75
               |           `--C. microphyllum RJ11
               |         Hoffmannseggia glauca [incl. H. densiflora] H93
               |         Gleditschiacanthus alsaticus Lakowitz 1895 CBH93
               |         Afzelioxylon furoni Koeniguer 1973 CBH93
               |         Sindorapollis Krutzsch 1969 CBH93
               |         Palaeocassia augustifolia Ettingshausen 1867 CBH93
               |         Copaifera BV09
               |           |--C. coriacea BV09
               |           `--C. reticulata DS86
               |         Cordylia Pers. 1807 KC01
               |         Corniola Adans. 1763 KC01
               |         Corynella DC. 1825 KC01
               |         Diplotheca Hochst. 1846 KC01
               |         Ludovicia Coss. 1856 KC01
               |         Stella Medik. 1787 KC01
               |         ‘Whitfordia’ Elmer 1910 non Murrill 1908 KC01
               |         Leguminosites P92
               |         Crudia P92
               |         Sindora P92
               |--Duparquetia orchidacea CP13
               `--+--+--Cercis B14 [Cercideae CP13]
                  |  |    |--C. canadensis B14
                  |  |    |--C. occidentalis H93
                  |  |    `--C. siliquastrum Linnaeus 1753 PL04
                  |  `--+--+--Goniorrhachis marginata CP13
                  |     |  `--Barnebydendron riedelii CP13
                  |     `--+--Prioria CP13
                  |        |--Amherstieae CP13
                  |        `--+--Detarieae CP13
                  |           `--+--Brandzeia filicifolia CP13
                  |              `--Daniellia klainei CP13
                  `--+--Dialiinae CP13
                     `--+--Papilionoideae CP13
                        `--+--Umtiza CP13
                           `--+--+--Cassia CP13
                              |  `--Caesalpinieae CP13
                              `--+--+--Dinizia excelsa CP13
                                 |  |--+--Dimorphandra conjugata CP13
                                 |  |  `--Mora gonggrijpii CP13
                                 |  `--+--Arapatiella psilophylla CP13
                                 |     `--Peltophorum pterocarpum CP13, P88
                                 `--+--+--Moldenhawera brasiliensis CP13
                                    |  `--Diptychandra aurantiaca CP13
                                    `--+--Mimosoideae CP13
                                       `--Erythrophleum CP13
                                            |--E. chlorostachys LK14
                                            |--E. laboucherii C16
                                            `--E. suaveolens CP13

*Type species of generic name indicated


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