Inflorescence of Paspalum dilatatum, from here.

Belongs within: Poaceae.
Contains: Andropogoneae, Panicum, Brachiaria.

The Panicoideae are a clade of over 3200 species of grasses. It is one of the largest grass groups to possess the C4 photosynthetic pathway that is believed to be associated with adaptation for arid climates, though many species within the Panicoideae have reverted to the more standard C3 pathway. Among the economically significant members of the Panicoideae, Saccharum officinarum, sugarcane, is one of the world's primary sources of sugar, while Zea mays, maize, is one of the most significant grain grasses. Paspalum and Pennisetum include species grown for pasturage.

Characters (from Grass Phylogeny Working Group 2001): Plants annual or perennial (rhizomatous, stoloniferous, caespitose or decumbent), primarily herbaceous, of the tropics and subtropics, but also diverse in the temperate zone. Culms solid or less commonly hollow. Leaves distichous; abaxial ligule usually absent, occasionally present as a line of hairs; adaxial ligule a fringed or unfringed membrane, or a fringe of hairs, or sometimes absent; blades relatively broad to narrow, sometimes pseudopetiolate, venation parallel; sheaths usually nonauriculate. Inflorescences panicles, racemes, or spikes, or complex combinations of these, bracts outside of the spikelets present (Andropogoneae) or absent (Paniceae). Spikelets bisexual or unisexual (if the latter plants dioecious or monoecious), frequently paired in combinations with long and short pedicels, usually with glumes 2, sterile lemma 1, and female-fertile floret 1, dorsally compressed or less commonly not compressed or laterally compressed, disarticulating below the glumes (above the glumes in Arundinelleae) or the inflorescence axes breaking apart; lemma lacking uncinate macrohairs, if awned, the awn single; palea well developed (Paniceae) or reduced to absent (Andropogoneae); lodicules 2 or sometimes absent, cuneate, free, fleshy, usually glabrous; stamens 3; ovary usually glabrous, apical appendage absent, haustorial synergids absent, styles 2, free or fused, close, stigmas 2 (rarely 1 or 3). Caryopsis with the hilum usually short; endosperm hard, without lipid, containing simple or less commonly compound starch grains; embryo usually large, epiblast absent or rarely present, scutellar cleft present, mesocotyl internode elongated, embryonic leaf margins overlapping or rarely meeting. Foliar mesophyll radiate or nonradiate, an adaxial palisade layer absent, fusoid cells absent except in Homolepis and Streptostachys, arm cells usually absent; Kranz anatomy present or absent; midrib simple or rarely complex; adaxial bulliform cells present. Foliar stomata with triangular or dome-shaped subsidiary cells; bicellular microhairs present, panicoid-type, rarely absent; papillae absent or present (mostly in the Andropogoneae).

<==Panicoideae [Andropogonoideae, Rottboellioideae, Saccharoideae]
    |--Danthoniopsis GPWG01
    |    |--D. dinteri GPWG01
    |    `--D. petiolata GPWG01
    `--+--+--+--Andropogoneae GPWG01
       |  |  `--Arundinella [Arundinelleae] GPWG01
       |  |       |--A. ciliata S03
       |  |       |--A. leptochloa S03
       |  |       |--A. purpurea S03
       |  |       |    |--A. p. var. purpurea S03
       |  |       |    `--A. p. var. laxa S03
       |  |       `--A. setosa S03
       |  `--Zea mays Linnaeus 1753 GPWG01, CD07
       |       |--Z. m. ssp. mays GPWG01
       |       `--Z. m. ssp. mexicana GPWG01
       `--Paniceae [Panicoideae] GPWG01
            |--Panicum GPWG01
            |--Brachiaria GPWG01
            |--Digitaria GPWG01
            |    |--D. albudens S03
            |    |--D. bicornis PP07
            |    |--D. ciliaris VB02
            |    |--D. cruciata [=Panicum cruciatum] KYK07
            |    |--D. griffithii S03
            |    |--D. humifusa C55
            |    |--D. longiflora S03
            |    |--D. pennata PP07
            |    |--D. sanguinalis Y98
            |    |--D. setigera VB02
            |    |--D. stricta KYK07
            |    |--D. tomentosum (Koenig) Henrard 1934 (see below for synonymy) SR07
            |    `--D. wallichiana S03
            |--Paspalum GPWG01
            |    |--P. conjugatum K03
            |    |--P. digitaria CA27
            |    |--P. dilatatum Y98
            |    |--P. distichum Y98
            |    |--P. fimbriatum J87
            |    |--P. notatum SF98
            |    `--P. scrobitulatum A27
            `--Pennisetum PL04
                 |--P. alopecuroides GPWG01
                 |--P. clandestinum GR98
                 |--P. flaccidum O88
                 |--P. foermeranum CV06
                 |--P. glaucum GPWG01
                 |--P. hohenackeri S03
                 |--P. orientale Richard 1805 [=P. setaceum ssp. orientale] PL04
                 |--P. purpureum H06
                 |--P. setaceum GPWG01
                 `--P. villosum H06

Panicoideae incertae sedis:
  Dichanthelium oligosanthes GPWG01
  Setaria GPWG01
    |--S. adhaerens DH98
    |--S. corrugata J87
    |--S. finita CV06
    |--S. glauca C55
    |--S. intermedia S03
    |--S. italica C55
    |--S. pallide-fusca S03
    |--S. palmifolia S03
    |--S. pumila Y98
    `--S. verticillata DH98
  Saccharum GPWG01
    |--S. bengalense VB02
    |--S. narenga HU08
    |--S. officinarum K03
    |--S. ravennae GR98
    |--S. robustum C78
    |--S. rufipilus D07
    |--S. sinense C55
    |--S. spontaneum HU08
    `--S. violaceum C55
  Homolepis GPWG01
  Streptostachys GPWG01
  Hubbardieae GPWG01
  Isachne [Isachneae] GPWG01
    |--I. australis A27
    |--I. bourneorum S03
    |--I. deccanensis S03
    |--I. dispar S03
    |--I. elegans S03
    |--I. kunthiana SR07
    |--I. oreades S03
    |--I. rigidifolia J87
    `--I. walkeri S03
  Steyermarkochloa [Steyermarkochloeae] GPWG01

Digitaria tomentosum (Koenig) Henrard 1934 [=Milium tomentosum Koenig ex Willdenow 1803; incl. Panicum subeglume Trin. 1834] SR07

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A27] Andersen, J. C. 1927. Popular names of New Zealand plants. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 905-977.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1-E44.

[C78] Clunie, N. M. U. 1978. The vegetation. In Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 1 (J. S. Womersley, ed.) pp. 1-11. Melbourne University Press: Carlton South (Australia).

[CA27] Cockayne, L., & H. H. Allan. 1927. Notes on New Zealand floristic botany, including descriptions of new species, &c. (No. 5). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 48-72.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175-189.

[DH98] Danin, A., & I. C. Hedge. 1998. Contributions to the flora of Jordan 2. A new species of Satureja (Labiatae) and some new records. Willdenowia 28: 135-142.

[D07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 79-88.

[GPWG01] Grass Phylogeny Working Group. 2001. Phylogeny and subfamilial classification of the grasses (Poaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 88 (3): 373-457.

[GR98] Greuter, W., & T. Raus (eds.) 1998. Med-Checklist Notulae, 17. Willdenowia 28: 163-174.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201-222.

[HU08] Hore, U., & V. P. Uniyal. 2008. Diversity and composition of spider assemblages in five vegetation types of the Terai Conservation Area, India. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 251-258.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum – Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[KYK07] Khan, M. R., P. S. Yadava & A. Kikim. 2007. Additions to the flora of Manipur. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 215-218.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81-98.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: An introductory note. In The Himalayan Plants vol. 1 (H. Ohba & S. B. Malla, eds) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19-46.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P. & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 15-78.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209-223.

[SF98] Saikkonen, K., S. H. Faeth, M. Helander & T. J. Sullivan. 1998. Fungal endophytes: a continuum of interactions with host plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 319-343.

[SR07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 165-172.

[S03] Singh, J. N. 2003. Grasses and their hydro-edaphic characteristics in the grassland habitat of Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve, Tamil Nadu. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1-4): 143-164.

[VB02] Vijay, S. K., & T. N. Bhardwaja. 2002. Vegetation and phenodynamics of wetlands of central Rajasthan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 573-581.

[Y98] Yannitsaros, A. 1998. Additions to the flora of Kithira (Greece) I. Willdenowia 28: 77-94.

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