Combretaceae

Sea almond Terminalia catappa, from here.


Belongs within: Myrtales.

The Combretaceae are a family of about 450 species of trees, shrubs and woody climbers found in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. Within the Combretaceae, Terminalia is a pantropical genus of trees, sometimes coastal, that bear flowers that lack petals (Coode 1978).

Characters (from Coode 1978): Stipules none. Leaves verticillate, opposite, spirally arranged or rarely alternate, often with domatia. Inflorescence a spike (branched or not), raceme or panicle. Flowers bisexual or male, 4-5-merous, regular. Petals 4-5, inserted near mouth of calyx tube. Stamens usually twice as many as calyx lobes, (7-)8-10(-11), inserted inside calyx tuber, usually exserted. Disc intrastaminal, sometimes absent. Ovary inferior, 1-celled with 2-6 pendulous ovules. Style 1, usually free (except in Quisqualis), stigma 1. Fruit drupaceous or winged, sessile or stipitate; pericarp thin and papery, or leathery or fleshy. Seed 1.

<==Combretaceae
    |--Strephonema [Strephonematoideae] T00
    |--Bucida buceras YY22, SWK87
    |--Conocarpus erectus YY22, SWK87
    |--Laguncularia racemosa YY22, SWK87
    |--Pteleopsis myrtifolia YY22, B88
    |--Thiloa YY22
    |--Lumnitzera C78
    |    |--L. littorea (Jack) Voigt 1845 C78 [=Pyrrhanthus littoreus Jack 1822 C78; incl. L. coccinea P88]
    |    `--L. racemosa Willdenow 1803 C78
    |--Quisqualis C78
    |    |--Q. indica Linnaeus 1762 C78
    |    |--Q. malabarica Bedd. 1874 GB02
    |    `--Q. mussaendifolia C78
    |--Combretum [Combretoideae] C78
    |    |--C. acuminatum Roxburgh 1832 C78
    |    |--C. constrictum C78
    |    |--C. decandrum P03
    |    |--C. goldieanum Muell. 1876 C78
    |    |--C. molle B06
    |    |--C. nigrescens K03
    |    |--C. roxburghii P03
    |    |--C. tetralophum Clarke in Hooker 1878 C78
    |    `--C. trifoliatum Vent. 1808 C78
    |--Anogeissus PP07
    |    |--A. latifolia J07
    |    |--A. pendula PP07
    |    `--A. sericea PP07
    |         |--A. s. var. sericea PP07
    |         `--A. s. var. nummularia PP07
    `--Terminalia C78
         |--T. alata HU08
         |--T. archboldiana Exell 1936 C78
         |--T. archipelagi Coode 1969 C78
         |--T. arjuna BB07
         |--T. avicapitis Coode 1973 C78
         |--T. bellirica BB07
         |--T. bialata YZ02
         |--T. brassii Exell 1935 [incl. T. kajewskii Exell 1935] C78
         |--T. calamansanai (Blanco) Rolfe 1884 C78
         |--T. calogemma Coode 1973 C78
         |--T. canaliculata Exell 1953 [incl. T. beccarii Exell 1953] C78
         |--T. capitulata Exell 1953 C78
         |--T. carpentariae S85
         |--T. catappa Linnaeus 1767 C78
         |--T. chebula BB07
         |--T. citrina (Gaertn.) Roxburgh ex Flem. 1810 [=Myrobalanus citrinus Gaertn. 1791] C78
         |--T. clemensae Exell 1953 C78
         |--T. complanata K. Sch. in K. Sch. & Hollr. 1889 C78
         |--T. copelandii Elm. 1913 [incl. T. catappoides White & Francis 1927] C78
         |--T. crassifolia Exell 1939 C78
         |--T. crenulata P03
         |--T. eddowesii Coode 1973 C78
         |--T. impediens Coode 1969 C78
         |--T. insularis C78
         |--T. kaernbachii Warb. 1893 [incl. T. okari White 1922] C78
         |--T. katikii Coode 1973 C78
         |--T. littoralis C78
         |--T. longespicata Sloot. 1919 C78
         |    |--T. l. ssp. longespicata [incl. T. phaeoneura Diels 1922] C78
         |    `--T. l. ssp. sogerensis (Bak. f.) Coode 1973 [=T. sogerensis Bak. f. 1923] C78
         |--T. macadamii Exell 1953 C78
         |--T. megalocarpa Exell 1935 C78
         |--T. microcarpa Decne 1834 C78
         |    |--T. m. ssp. microcarpa (see below for synonymy) C78
         |    `--T. m. ssp. incana Coode 1973 C78
         |--T. morobensis Coode 1973 C78
         |--T. myriocarpa H03
         |--T. oreadum Diels 1922 C78
         |--T. radobojensis S89
         |--T. rerei Coode 1969 C78
         |--T. rubiginosa Sch. in Sch. & Hollr. 1884 C78
         |--T. samoensis Rech. 1907 [incl. T. saffordii Merr. 1914] C78
         |--T. sepicana Diels 1922 C78
         |--T. slooteniana Exell 1953 C78
         |--T. solomonensis Exell 1935 [incl. T. lundquistii Exell 1953, T. papuana Exell 1936] C78
         |--T. steenisiana Exell 1953 C78
         |--T. subacroptera C78
         |--T. supitiana C78
         |--T. tomentosa P03
         `--T. whitmorei Coode 1969 C78

Terminalia microcarpa Decne 1834 ssp. microcarpa [incl. T. foveolata White & Francis ex Lane-Poole 1925, T. hypargyrea Sch. & Laut. 1901] C78

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BB07] Baishya, A. K. & P. J. Bora. 2007. Cross community ethno-medico botany of Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve, Assam. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 121-154.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[B06] Burgoyne, P. M. 2006. Review: Plants of the Simen. A flora of the Simen Mountains and surroundings, northern Ethiopia. Bothalia 36 (2): 253.

[C78] Coode, M. J. E. 1978. Combretaceae. In Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 1 (J. S. Womersley, ed.) pp. 43-110. Melbourne University Press: Carlton South (Australia).

[GB02] Gopalakrishna Bhat, K. 2002. Additions to the flora of Karnataka. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 566-567.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: Vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311-449.

[HU08] Hore, U., & V. P. Uniyal. 2008. Diversity and composition of spider assemblages in five vegetation types of the Terai Conservation Area, India. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 251-258.

[J07] Jadhav, D. 2007. Ethno-medicinal plants used by Bhil tribe of Matrunda, district Ratlam, Madhya Pradesh, India. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 203-206.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81-98.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P. & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 15-78.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1-4): 121-142.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[S85] Sadlier, R. A. 1985. A new Australian scincid lizard, Ctenotus coggeri, from the Alligator Rivers region, Northern Territory. Records of the Australian Museum 36: 153-156.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[S89] Squinabol, S. 1889. Res Ligusticae. VII. – Cenno preliminare sulla flora fossile di Santa Giustina. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 73-76.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

[YZ02] Yahya, H. S. A., & A. A. Zarri. 2002. Status, ecology and behaviour of Narcondam hornbill (Aceros narcondami) in Narcondam Island, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 434-445.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="http://www.fieldofscience.com/">FoS</a> = FoS