Flowers of the minute mycoheterotroph Lacandonia schismatica, photographed by cytediano.

Belongs within: Monocotyledoneae.

The Pandanales are a clade of mostly tropical and subtropical monocotyledons that are united by molecular analyses, but have few identified morphological synapomorphies. The Angiosperm Phylogeny Website lists two shared characters within the clade: the presence of a nucellar cap, and a minute embryo. The type family, Pandanaceae, contains Old World tropical and subtropical trees and shrubs with linear to lanceolate leaves; they may be scandent, and they often bear aerial roots (Moore & Edgar 1970). Leaves of Pandanus species (pandan) are used for weaving, and those of P. amaryllifolius are also used for flavouring and colouring food. The Cyclanthaceae are a Neotropical family of palm-like herbs, shrubs and climbing vines. Leaves of Carludovica palmata are the material used for making Panama hats. The Stemonaceae are a group of often crawling or climbing herbs found in southeast Asia and northern Australia with a single species in North America; their flowers are unusual for monocots in being tetramerous.

Pandanales [Pandananae]
    |--+--Acanthochlamys [Acanthoclamydaceae] DS04
    |  |    `--A. bracteata DS04
    |  `--Velloziaceae [Velloziales] DS04
    |       |--Barbaceniopsis DS04
    |       |--Talbotia elegans [=Barbacenia elegans] DS04
    |       `--Vellozia squamata RJ11
    `--+--Triuridaceae [Triuridales, Triuridanae] DS04
       |    |  i. s.: Seychellaria YY22
       |    |         Andruris YY22
       |    |--Sciaphila [Sciaphileae] DS04
       |    |    `--S. albescens DS04
       |    `--Triurideae DS04
       |         |--Triuris DS04
       |         `--Lacandonia schismatica DS04
       `--+--Stemonaceae DS04
          |    |--Croomia pauciflora DS04
          |    |--Spirellea CBH93
          |    `--Stemona DS04
          |         |--S. australiana LK14
          |         |--S. japonica DS04
          |         |--S. javanica DS04
          |         |--S. tuberosa BB07
          |         `--S. vagula Smith 1917 [incl. Disporum mairei Léveillé 1917, S. mairei (Léveillé) Krause 1928] H88
          `--+--Cyclanthaceae [Cyclanthales] DS04
             |    |  i. s.: Evodianthus YY22
             |    |         Ludovia YY22
             |    |         Saracinanthus YY22
             |    |         Stelestylis YY22
             |    |         Cyclanthodendron [incl. Heliconiates, Musocaulon, Tricoccites] CBH93
             |    |           `--C. sahnii (Rode) Sahni & Surange 1944 CBH93
             |    |--Cyclanthus bipartitus DS04
             |    `--+--Carludovica DS04
             |       |    |--C. atrovirens C38
             |       |    `--C. palmata DS04
             |       `--+--Chorigyne cylindrica DS04
             |          `--Sphaeradenia DS04
             |               |--S. pendula DS04
             |               `--S. stenosperma DS04
             `--Pandanaceae [Pandaneae] DS04
                  |--Sararanga YY22
                  |--Pandanocarpum oolithicum (Carruthers) Zigno 1873 CBH93
                  |--Podocarya bucklandi Goeppert in Bronn 1848 CBH93
                  |--Freycinetia Gaud. 1824 ME70
                  |    |--F. arborea KIW98
                  |    |--F. banksii Cunn. 1837 ME70
                  |    |--F. multiflora DS04
                  |    |--F. scandens DS04
                  |    `--F. takeuchii H03
                  `--Pandanus SS10
                       |--P. amaryllifolius P88
                       |--P. amboinensis H03
                       |--P. aquaticus LK14
                       |--P. christmatensis SB12
                       |--P. copelandii DS04
                       |--P. corneri H03
                       |--P. darwinensis LK14
                       |--P. dubius P88
                       |--P. elatus MBS12
                       |--P. forsteri SS10
                       |--P. helicopus P88
                       |--P. leuconatus K03
                       |--P. odoratissimus P88
                       |--P. pedunculatus H09
                       |--P. rheophilus LK14
                       |--P. semiarmatus LK14
                       |--P. spiralis VT13
                       |--P. tectoria CBH93
                       |    |--P. t. var. tectoria B88
                       |    `--P. t. var. neo-caledonicus B88
                       |--P. upoluensis B88
                       `--P. veitchii DS04

Nomen nudum: Pandanus feruliferus St. John in St. John & Philipson 1960 SJP60

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BB07] Baishya, A. K., & P. J. Bora. 2007. Cross community ethno-medico botany of Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve, Assam. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 121–154.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[C38] Crawford, J. C. 1938. A new genus and species of Thysanoptera from greenhouses. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 40 (4): 109–111.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467–510.

[H88] Hara, H. 1988. A revision of the Asiatic species of the genus Disporum (Liliaceae). In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 163–209.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[KIW98] Kearns, C. A., D. W. Inouye & N. M. Waser. 1998. Endangered mutualisms: the conservation of plant-pollinator interactions. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 83–112.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81–98.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[MBS12] Maple, D. J., R. Barr & M. J. Smith. 2012. A new record of the Christmas Island blind snake, Ramphotyphlops exocoeti (Reptilia: Squamata: Typhlopidae). Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (2): 156–160.

[ME70] Moore, L. B., & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[RJ11] Rising, J. D., A. Jaramillo, J. L. Copete, P. G. Ryan & S. C. Madge. 2011. Family Emberizidae (buntings and New World sparrows). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 428–683. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[SJP60] St. John, H. & W. R. Philipson. 1960. List of the flora of Oeno Atoll, Tuamotu Archipelago, south-central Pacific Ocean. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 401–403.

[SB12] Smith, M. J., C. R. J. Boland, D. Maple & B. Tiernan. 2012. The Christmas Island blue-tailed skink (Cryptoblepharus egeriae): a survey protocol and an assessment of factors that relate to occupancy and detection. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (1): 40–44.

[SS10] Stanisic, J., M. Shea, D. Potter & O. Griffiths. 2010. Australian Land Snails vol. 1. A. field guide to eastern Australian species. Bioculture Press: Mauritius.

[VT13] Vigilante, T., J. Toohey, A. Gorring, V. Blundell, T. Saunders, S. Mangolamara, K. George, J. Oobagooma, M. Waina, K. Morgan & K. Doohan. 2013. Island country: aboriginal connections, values and knowledge of the Western Australian Kimberley islands in the context of an island biological survey. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 145–182.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

Last updated: 31 January 2020.

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