'Cones' of Casuarina equisetifolia, photographed by Atamari.

Belongs within: Rosidae.

The Casuarinaceae, sheoaks, are a family of just under 100 species of small trees that bear a superficial resemblance to conifers, with scale-like leaves and cone-like inflorescences. Species of Casuarinaceae are found in south-east Asia and Australasia; the genus Allocasuarina is restricted to Australia but Casuarina is more widespread.

Characters (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Roots with N-fixing Frankia, rootlets clustered, of limited growth ; flavonols and biflavonoids present, flavones and myricetin absent; nodes 1:1; stomata usually tetracytic, transversely oriented; leaves 4-16-whorled, scale-like, margins entire, stipules absent; plant monoecious or dioecious, inflorescence capitate-spicate, one flower/bract, bracts and bracteoles more or less well-developed; staminate flowers with perianth ["inner bracteoles"] 2, median, androecium 1, filaments incurved in bud, anthers more or less longer than connective; pollen granular layer absent; pistillode absent; carpellate flowers with bracteoles large; perianth absent; gynoecium naked, only abaxial fertile; ovules bitegmic, outer integument 3-4 cells across, inner integument 2-3 cells across, micropyle endostomal, nucellar tracheids present, vascular bundle branched in chalaza; archesporium multicellular, embryo sac with micropylar and chalazal caecum/haustoria; fruit a samara, freed as the much accrescent bracteoles separate; seed coat adnate to pericarp; endosperm anbsent; n = 8-14.

<==Casuarinaceae [Casuarinales, Casuarinanae]
    |--Allocasuarina SM06
    |    |--A. acutivalvis G04b
    |    |--A. campestris OS04
    |    |--A. corniculata G04a
    |    |--A. decussata M06
    |    |--A. eriochlamys G04a
    |    |--A. fraseriana SM06
    |    |--A. helmsii G04a
    |    |--A. huegeliana SB04
    |    |--A. humilis OS04
    |    |--A. lehmanniana GK00
    |    |--A. littoralis CW03
    |    |--A. microstachya OS04
    |    |--A. thuyoides G04b
    |    `--A. verticillata CW03
    `--Casuarina B88
         |--C. cristata M04
         |--C. cunninghamiana M04
         |--C. decaisneana B05
         |--C. equisetifolia B88
         |--C. fraserana W95
         |--C. glauca C74
         |--C. humilis SM06
         |--C. luehmanni B88
         |--C. nobilis P88
         |--C. obesa OS04
         |--C. papuana C78
         |--C. pauper M04
         |--C. quadrivalvis B88
         |--C. stricta B88
         |--C. suberosa B88
         `--C. sumatrana K03

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B05] Beard, J. S. 2005. Drainage evolution in the Lake Disappointment Catchment, Western Australia – a discussion. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (2): 57-64.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[C78] Clunie, N. M. U. 1978. The vegetation. In Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 1 (J. S. Womersley, ed.) pp. 1-11. Melbourne University Press: Carlton South (Australia).

[CW03] Cooper, C. E., P. C. Withers, P. R. Mawson, R. Johnstone, T. Kirkby, J. Prince, S. D. Bradshaw & H. Robertson. 2003. Characteristics of marri (Corymbia calophylla) fruits in relation to the foraging behaviour of the forest red-tailed black cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus banksii naso). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 86 (4): 139-142.

[C74] Crowder, J. P. 1974. Exotic Plant Pests of South Florida. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife (USA).

[G04a] Gibson, N. 2004a. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35-47.

[G04b] Gibson, N. 2004b. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49-62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323-402.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81-98.

[M06] McCaw, W. L. 2006. Asplenium aethiopicum recolonises karri forest following timber harvesting and burning. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (3): 119-122.

[M04] Mound, L. A. 2004. Australian Thysanoptera - biological diversity and a diversity of studies. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 248-257.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19-28.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[SB04] Sage, L. W., P. A. Blankendaal, A. Moylett & K. Agar. 2004. The occurrence and impact of Phytophthora cinnamomi in the central-western Avon Wheatbelt bioregion of Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 15-18.

[SM06] Semeniuk, C. A., L. A. Milne, P. Ladd & V. Semeniuk. 2006. Pollen in the surface sediments of wetlands in the Becher Point area, southwestern Australia: a baseline for use in interpreting Holocene sequences. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (1): 27-43.

[W95] Wang, Q. 1995. A taxonomic revision of the Australian genus Phoracantha Newman (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Invertebrate Taxonomy 9: 865-958.

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