Anacardiaceae

Cashew Anacardium occidentale, with the bean-shaped fruit containing the nut suspended below a swollen petiole (the cashew apple). From here.


Belongs within: Sapindales.
Contains: Rhus, Mangifera.

The Anacardiaceae are distinguished by their resinous exudate, which turns black upon contact with the air. In many species, this resin may cause serious irritation to humans who come into contact with it. Despite this, several species of Anacardiaceae are used for food, such as Anacardium occidentale (cashew), Mangifera indica (mango) and Pistacia vera (pistachio). Both the fruit and young leaves of Spondias mombin, makok, are eaten in south-east Asia. The fruit of the Peruvian pepper tree Schinus molle are used for cooking as 'pink peppercorns' though this species is perhaps better known as an invasive weed in many parts of the world outside its native South America.

A number of members of Anacardiaceae are wind-pollinated, and some forms with reduced flowers have been treated in the past as separate families. However, wind-pollinated taxa are not monophyletic within the family (Angiosperm Phylogeny Website).

Characters (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Trees or shrubs (occasionally climbers); resinous exudate black or becoming blackish; pith loose, shining; wood often fluorescing; nodes usually 3:3; petiole with annular wing bundles; leaflets not articulated, margins toothed or not, base of petiole often swollen; breeding system various; flowers (3-)5(-7)-merous; styles separate (occasionally single), terminal to gynobasic, connate apically, stigma capitate (sometimes lobed), dry; ovule 1/carpel, usually apotropous, more or less anatropous, uni- or bitegmic, micropyle zig-zag (sometimes endostomal), funicle often long, ponticulus present; seed often more or less pachychalazal, endotegmen usually more or less thickened, lignified; endosperm oily, embryo often curved.

<==Anacardiaceae
    |--Anacardium YH02 [Anacardioideae T00]
    |    |--A. excelsum R96
    |    `--A. occidentale YH02
    |--Dobineoideae T00
    |    |--Dobinea T00
    |    `--Campylopetalum T00
    `--Spondioideae [Julianiaceae] T00
         |--Juliania YY22
         |--Orthopterygium YY22
         |--Spondias K06
         |    |--S. lutea I-BH-O10
         |    |--S. mombin SWK87
         |    |--S. pinnata BB07
         |    `--S. purpurea K06
         `--Pistacia T00
              |--P. atlantica HF03
              |--P. chinensis H93
              |--P. lentiscus Linnaeus 1753 PL04
              |--P. mutica CK05
              |--P. terebinthus Linnaeus 1753 PL04
              `--P. vera HF03

Anacardiaceae incertae sedis:
  Bouea macrophylla [incl. Mangifera gandaria] YH02
  Swintonia schwenkii H03
  Buchanania P03
    |--B. arborescens P88
    |--B. lanzan P03
    |--B. macrocarpa H03
    |--B. oblongifolia VT13
    `--B. obovata VT13
  Semecarpus K03
    |--S. cuneiformis K03
    |--S. kraemeri HSS13
    `--S. longifolius H03
  Rhus BBO01
  Mangifera YH02
  Blephocarya involucrigera B00
  Antrocaryon YY22
  Cotinus coggygria Scopoli 1772 PL04
  Cyrtocarpa YY22
  Drimycarpus YY22
  Fegimanra YY22
  Loxopterygium YY22
  Melanochyla YY22
  Metopium F11
    |--M. brownie F11
    `--M. toxiferum SWK87
  Nothopegia YY22
  Schenopis YY22
  Sclerocarya birrea YY22, B14
  Thyrosodium YY22
  Catutajeron YY22
  Faguetia YY22
  Haematostaphis YY22
  Haplorhus YY22
  Harpephyllum YY22
  Lannaea S02
    |--L. coromandelica S02
    `--L. discolor B14
  Loxostylis YY22
  Mosquitoxylum YY22
  Parishia insignis YY22, YZ02
  Pegia YY22
  Pleiogynium timorense YY22, BA12
  Poupartia YY22
  Pseudosmodingium YY22
  Pseudospondias YY22
  Spondiopsis YY22
  Tapirira YY22
  Sorindeia YY22
  Astronium YY22
  Campnosperma brevipetiolata YY22, C78
  Heeria YY22
  Lithraea caustic YY22, B14
  Rhodosphaera rhodanthema YY22, H42
  Schinus WM09
    |--S. molle H74
    `--S. terebinthifolius WM09
  Smodingium YY22
  Trichoscypha YY22
  Allospondias YY22
  Comocladia pinnatifolia J87
  Nothospondias YY22
  Euroschinus YY22
  Mauria YY22
  Protorhus YY22
  Gluta velutina P88
  Plectomirtha Olver 1948 A61
    `--P. baylisiana Oliver 1948 A61
  Malosma laurina [=Rhus laurina] H93
  Toxicodendron H93
    |--T. diversilobum [=Rhus diversilobum] H93
    |--T. radicans BC01
    `--T. succedaneum [=Rhus succedanea] H06

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

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Last updated: 2 December 2018.

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