Anacardiaceae

Cashew Anacardium occidentale, with the bean-shaped fruit containing the nut suspended below a swollen petiole (the cashew apple). From here.


Belongs within: Sapindales.
Contains: Rhus, Mangifera.

The Anacardiaceae are distinguished by their resinous exudate, which turns black upon contact with the air. In many species, this resin may cause serious irritation to humans who come into contact with it. Despite this, several species of Anacardiaceae are used for food, such as Anacardium occidentale (cashew), Mangifera indica (mango) and Pistacia vera (pistachio). Both the fruit and young leaves of Spondias mombin, makok, are eaten in south-east Asia.

A number of members of Anacardiaceae are wind-pollinated, and some forms with reduced flowers have been treated in the past as separate families. However, wind-pollinated taxa are not monophyletic within the family (Angiosperm Phylogeny Website).

Characters (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Trees or shrubs (occasionally climbers); resinous exudate black or becoming blackish; pith loose, shining; wood often fluorescing; nodes usually 3:3; petiole with annular wing bundles; leaflets not articulated, margins toothed or not, base of petiole often swollen; breeding system various; flowers (3-)5(-7)-merous; styles separate (occasionally single), terminal to gynobasic, connate apically, stigma capitate (sometimes lobed), dry; ovule 1/carpel, usually apotropous, more or less anatropous, uni- or bitegmic, micropyle zig-zag (sometimes endostomal), funicle often long, ponticulus present; seed often more or less pachychalazal, endotegmen usually more or less thickened, lignified; endosperm oily, embryo often curved.

Anacardiaceae
    |--Anacardium YH02 [Anacardioideae T00]
    |    |--A. excelsum R96
    |    `--A. occidentale YH02
    |--Dobineoideae T00
    |    |--Dobinea T00
    |    `--Campylopetalum T00
    `--Spondioideae T00
         |--Julianiaceae T00
         |    |--Juliania YY22
         |    `--Orthopterygium YY22
         |--Spondias K06
         |    |--S. mombin SWK87
         |    |--S. pinnata BB07
         |    `--S. purpurea K06
         `--Pistacia T00
              |--P. atlantica HF03
              |--P. lentiscus Linnaeus 1753 PL04
              |--P. mutica CK05
              |--P. terebinthus Linnaeus 1753 PL04
              `--P. vera Y98

Anacardiaceae incertae sedis:
  Bouea macrophylla [incl. Mangifera gandaria] YH02
  Swintonia schwenkii H03
  Buchanania H03
    |--B. arborescens P88
    |--B. lanzan P03
    `--B. macrocarpa H03
  Semecarpus K03
    |--S. cuneiformis K03
    |--S. kraemeri HSS13
    `--S. longifolius H03
  Rhus BBO01
  Mangifera YH02
  Bletharocarya involucrigera T00, RN72
  Antrocaryon YY22
  Cotinus coggygria Scopoli 1772 PL04
  Cyrtocarpa YY22
  Drimycarpus YY22
  Fegimanra YY22
  Loxopterygium YY22
  Melanochyla YY22
  Metopium toxiferum YY22, SWK87
  Nothopegia YY22
  Schenopis YY22
  Sclerocarya YY22
  Thyrosodium YY22
  Catutajeron YY22
  Faguetia YY22
  Haematostaphis YY22
  Haplorhus YY22
  Harpephyllum YY22
  Lannea coromandelica S02
  Loxostylis YY22
  Mosquitoxylum YY22
  Parishia insignis YY22, YZ02
  Pegia YY22
  Pleiogynium YY22
  Poupartia YY22
  Pseudosmodingium YY22
  Pseudospondias YY22
  Spondiopsis YY22
  Tapirira YY22
  Sorindeia YY22
  Astronium YY22
  Campnosperma brevipetiolata YY22, C78
  Heeria YY22
  Lithraea YY22
  Rhodosphaera rhodanthema YY22, H42
  Schinus WM09
    |--S. molle H74
    `--S. terebinthifolius WM09
  Smodingium YY22
  Trichoscypha YY22
  Allospondias YY22
  Comocladia pinnatifolia J87
  Nothospondias YY22
  Euroschinus YY22
  Mauria YY22
  Protorhus YY22
  Gluta velutina P88

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BB07] Baishya, A. K. & P. J. Bora. 2007. Cross community ethno-medico botany of Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve, Assam. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1-4): 121-154.

[BBO01] Begerow, D., R. Bauer & F. Oberwinkler. 2001. Muribasidiospora: Microstromatales or Exobasidiales? Mycological Research 105 (7): 798-810.

[CK05] Chemeris, A. N., & N. M. Kovblyuk. 2005. A contribution to the knowledge of the harvestman fauna of the Crimea (Arachnida: Opiliones). Arthropoda Selecta 14 (4): 305-328.

[C78] Clunie, N. M. U. 1978. The vegetation. In Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 1 (J. S. Womersley, ed.) pp. 1-11. Melbourne University Press: Carlton South (Australia).

[HF03] Halperin, J. & J. Fremuth. 2003. Contribution to the knowledge of Curculionoidea (Coleoptera) and their host plants in Israel. Zoology in the Middle East 29: 93-100.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: Vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311-449.

[H74] Helson, G. A. H. 1974. Insect Pests: Identification, life history, and control of pests of farms, horticulture, gardens, and public health. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[H42] Hill, G. F. 1942. Termites (Isoptera) from the Australian Region (including Australia, New Guinea and islands south of the Equator between 140°E. longitude and 170°W. longitude). Commonwealth of Australia Council for Scientific and Industrial Research: Melbourne.

[HSS13] Hirschfeld, E., A. Swash & R. Still. 2013. The World's Rarest Birds. Princeton University Press: Princeton (New Jersey).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1-136.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81-98.

[K06] Kwiecinski, G. G. 2006. Phyllostomus discolor. Mammalian Species 801: 1-11.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1-4): 121-142.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209-223.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[R96] Righi, G. 1996. Colombian earthworms. Studies on Tropical Andean Ecosystems 4: 485-607.

[RN72] Rutgers, A., & K. A. Norris (eds.) 1972. Encyclopaedia of Aviculture vol. 2. Blandford Press: London.

[S02] Santharam, V. 2002. Fruit and nectar resources in a moist deciduous forest and their use by birds – a preliminary report. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 537-543.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: Dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441-647.

[WM09] Wang, H., M. J. Moore, P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, S. F. Brockington, R. Alexandre, C. C. Davis, M. Latvis, S. R. Manchester & D. E. Soltis. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3853-3858.

[YZ02] Yahya, H. S. A., & A. A. Zarri. 2002. Status, ecology and behaviour of Narcondam hornbill (Aceros narcondami) in Narcondam Island, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 434-445.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62.

[Y98] Yannitsaros, A. 1998. Additions to the flora of Kithira (Greece) I. Willdenowia 28: 77-94.

[YH02] Yonemori, K., C. Honsho, S. Kanzaki, W. Eiadthong & A. Sugiura. 2002. Phylogenetic relationships of Mangifera species revealed by ITS sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA and a possibility of their hybrid origin. Plant Systematics and Evolution 231: 59-75.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="http://www.fieldofscience.com/">FoS</a> = FoS