Poaceae

Pharus latifolius, from here.


Belongs within: Poales.
Contains: Elymus, Deschampsia, Trisetum, Agropyron, Deyeuxia, Austrostipa, Triodia, Pooideae, Bambusoideae, Ehrhartoideae, Centothecoideae, Panicoideae, Aristidoideae, Danthonioideae, Arundinoideae, Chloridoideae.

The Poaceae are the grasses, a distinctive group of monocotyledons that are one of the most significant plant groups alive today. It is estimated that grass-dominated landscapes make up about one-fifth of the terrestrial surface of the planet. Grasses also contribute to a significant portion of the human diet, either directly (being grown for grain) or indirectly (as fodder for livestock). Members of the Poaceae share a unique fruit form, the caryopsis, in which the outer integument is developmentally fused to the inner wall of the ovary (Grass Phylogeny Working Group 2001). Members of the basal clades Anomochlooideae and Pharoideae are relatively broad-leaved herbs found growing on shaded tropical forest floors.

Characters (from Grass Phylogeny Working Group 2001): Inflorescence highly bracteate. Perianth reduced or lacking. Pollen with single opening, lacking scrobiculi, but with intraexinous channels. Seed coat fused to inner ovary wall at maturity, forming a caryopsis. Embryo lateral in position, highly differentiated with obvious leaves, shoot and root meristems.

Poaceae [Gramineae, Poineae]
    |--Anomochlooideae [Streptochaetoideae] GPWG01
    |    |--Anomochloa [Anomochloeae] GPWG01
    |    |    `--A. marantoidea GPWG01
    |    `--Streptochaeta [Streptochaeteae] GPWG01
    |         |--S. angustifolia GPWG01
    |         |--S. sodiroana GPWG01
    |         `--S. spicata GPWG01
    `--+--Pharoideae [Leptaspidoideae, Phareae] GPWG01
       |    |--Scrotochloa GPWG01
       |    |--Leptaspis GPWG01
       |    `--Pharus GPWG01
       |         |--P. lappulaceus GPWG01
       |         |--P. latifolius GPWG01
       |         `--P. mezii GPWG01
       `--+--Puelioideae GPWG01
          |    |--Guaduella [Guaduelleae] GPWG01
          |    |    `--G. marantifolia GPWG01
          |    `--Puelia [Puelieae] GPWG01
          |         |--P. ciliata GPWG01
          |         `--P. schumanniana GPWG01
          `--+--+--Pooideae GPWG01
             |  `--+--Bambusoideae GPWG01
             |     `--+--Ehrhartoideae GPWG01
             |        `--Streptogyna [Streptogyneae] GPWG01
             |             `--S. americana GPWG01
             `--+--Micraira [Macraireae, Macrairoideae] GPWG01
                |    |--M. lazaridis GPWG01
                |    `--M. subulifolia GPWG01
                `--+--+--Centothecoideae GPWG01
                   |  `--+--Panicoideae GPWG01
                   |     `--Gynerium Willdenow ex Beauvois 1812 GPWG01
                   |          `--G. sagittatum GPWG01
                   `--+--+--+--Aristidoideae GPWG01
                      |  |  `--Danthonioideae GPWG01
                      |  `--+--Arundinoideae GPWG01
                      |     `--Chloridoideae GPWG01
                      `--Eriachneae GPWG01
                           |--Pheidochloa GPWG01
                           `--Eriachne GPWG01
                                |--E. mucronata EF04
                                |--E. triodioides GPWG01
                                `--E. triseta GPWG01

Poaceae incertae sedis:
  Bouteloua BRW02
    |--B. gracilis BRW02
    `--B. ramose SZ03
  Buchloe dactyloides BRW02
  Imperata K03
    |--I. arundinacea CA27
    |    |--I. a. var. arundinacea CA27
    |    `--I. a. var. koenigii CA27
    `--I. cylindrica K03
  Sorghastrum nutans BB01
  Dactylis glomerata Linnaeus 1753 PL04
    |--D. g. ssp. glomerata PL04
    `--D. g. ssp. hispanica (Roth) Nyman 1882 PL04
  Ammophila arenaria [incl. A. arundinacea] SE03
  Arrhenatherum elatius BBM02
  Elymus BH02
  Holcus BH02
    |--H. lanatus BH02
    `--H. setiger GK00
  Calamagrostis BBM02
    |--C. billaridieri An27
    |--C. effusa R96
    |--C. epigejos BBM02
    |--C. pseudophragmites O88
    |--C. recta R96
    |--C. setifolia An27
    `--C. stricta D03
  Avenula pubescens BBM02
  Themeda HU08
    |--T. arundinacea HU08
    |--T. australis C78
    |--T. cymbaria S03
    |--T. quadrivalvis S03
    |--T. tremula S03
    `--T. triandra EF04
  Cymbopogon KM08
    |--C. ambiguus KM08
    |--C. citratus K03
    |--C. commutatus PP07
    |--C. flexuosus [=Andropogon flexuosus] KYK07
    |--C. globosus C78
    |--C. jwarancusa PP07
    |--C. martinii PP07 [=Andropogon martini KYK07]
    `--C. polyneuros S03
  Dichanthium PP07
    |--D. annulatum PP07
    |--D. foveolatum PP07
    |--D. ischaemum [=Botriochloa ischaemum] H91
    |--D. oliganthum S03
    `--D. sericeum GCC02
  Ischaemum BB01
    |--I. australe B12
    |--I. barbatum C78
    |--I. commutatum S03
    |--I. indicum BB01
    |--I. muticum C78
    |--I. nilagiricum S03
    `--I. semisagittatum BB01
  Echinochloa PP07
    |--E. colona PP07
    |--E. crus-galli Y98 [=Panicum crus-galli C55]
    `--E. stagnina GC05
  Thinopyrum junceiforme [incl. Elytrigia juncea] E-SM02
  Leymus racemosus [incl. Elymus giganteus] E-SM02
  Phleum LNB03
    |--P. alpinum O88
    |--P. arenarium G88
    |--P. graecum PT98
    |    |--P. g. ssp. graecum PT98
    |    `--P. g. ssp. aegaeum PT98
    |--P. paniculatum H91
    `--P. pratense LNB03
  Eleusine GR98
    |--E. coracana S03
    |--E. indica GR98
    `--E. tristachya GR98
  Monostachya H03
  Tetrarrhena laevis RL05
  Oplismenus H03
    |--O. burmanni C55
    |--O. compositus S03
    |--O. hirtellus H03
    |    |--O. h. ssp. hirtellus H03
    |    `--O. h. ssp. imbecilis H03
    `--O. undulatifolius An27
  Chionachne YY22
  Coix MH98
    |--C. gigantea C78
    `--C. lacryma-jobi MH98
  Diandrolyra YY22
  Germainia YY22
  Hydrochloa YY22
  Luxiola YY22
  Mniochloa YY22
  Polytoca YY22
  Sclerachne YY22
  Thuarea involuta C78
  Tripsacum YY22
  Aegopogon YY22
  Apluda mutica S03
  Apocopis YY22
  Arthropogon YY22
  Arthraxon quartinianus S03
  Cenchrus KM08
    |--C. biflorus PP07
    |--C. ciliaris KM08
    |--C. echinatus SF98
    |--C. longispinus KM08
    |--C. pennisetiformis PP07
    `--C. setigerus KM08
  Chaetium YY22
  Chamaeraphis YY22
  Cutandra YY22
  Cyphochlaena YY22
  Dignathia YY22
  Dissochondrus YY22
  Ectrosia YY22
  Elionurus YY22
  Fingerbuthia YY22
  Gymnopogon YY22
  Harpechloa YY22
  Hierochloe O88
    |--H. brunonis W27
    |--H. fraseri An27
    |    |--H. f. var. fraseri Al27
    |    `--H. f. var. recurvata Al27
    |--H. laxa O88
    |--H. novae-zelandiae W91
    `--H. redolens W27
  Hilaria YY22
  Homopogon YY22
  Ichnanthus pallens J87
  Ixophorus YY22
  Kerinozoma YY22
  Latipes YY22
  Leptothrium senegalense PP07
  Lophopogon YY22
  Lopholepis YY22
  Lycurus YY22
  Manisuris YY22
  Melanocenchris jacquemontii PP07
  Microcalamus YY22
  Monelytrum YY22
  Neurachne alopecuroidea RL05
  Pentarraphis YY22
  Periedema YY22
  Perotis KM08
    |--P. indica VB02
    `--P. rara KM08
  Plagiosetum YY22
  Rhytachne YY22
  Schaffnera YY22
  Stenotaphrum GK00
    |--S. americanum [incl. Rottboellia dimidiata, S. glabrum] C55
    |--S. micranthum C78
    `--S. secundatum GK00
  Tetrachaete YY22
  Thelepogon YY22
  Tragus PP07
    |--T. racemosus H91
    `--T. roxburghii PP07
  Trichloris YY22
  Tricholaena YY22
  Tripogon PP07
    |--T. bromoides S03
    |--T. jacquemontii S03
    |--T. minimus HK98
    `--T. purpurascens PP07
  Urelytrum YY22
  Vossia YY22
  Xerochloa YY22
  Coelachne perpusilla S03
  Atractocarpa YY22
  Aciachne YY22
  Fourniera YY22
  Jouvea YY22
  Monanthochloe YY22
  Spinifex K72
    |--S. hirsutus K72
    |--S. littorale P88
    `--S. longifolius KM08
  Cinnagrostis YY22
  Opizia YY22
  Trichopteryx YY22
  Tristachya YY22
  Amphibromus GK00
    |--A. nervosus GK00
    `--A. vickeryae GK00
  Corynephorus canescens YY22, BBM02
  Deschampsia O88
  Gaudinia YY22
  Trisetum CA27
  Ventenata YY22
  Arthrostylidium SWK87
    |--A. haitiense J87
    |--A. multispicatum J87
    `--A. sarmentosum SWK87
  Agropyron H91
  Aegilops PT98
    |--A. aucheri D37
    |--A. biuncialis PT98
    |--A. cylindrica D37
    |--A. geniculata PT98
    |--A. markgrafii PT98
    |--A. speltoides D37
    |--A. squarrosa D51
    |--A. umbellulata GM96
    `--A. ventricosa D37
  Colpodium wallichii O88
  Deyeuxia GK00
  Duthiea nepalensis O88
  Helictotrichon O88
    |--H. asperum O88
    `--H. virescens O88
  Koeleria PL04
    |--K. albescens BBM02
    |--K. cristata O88
    |--K. kurtzii An27
    `--K. splendens Presl 1820 PL04
  Leucopoa albida O88
  Littledalea tibetica O88
  Lasiacis RS99
    |--L. divaricata J87
    `--L. ligulata RS99
  Alopecurus TG88
    |--A. alpinus D03
    |--A. geniculatus CA27
    |--A. myosuroides TG88
    `--A. pratensis C55
  Crypsis aculeata Y98
  Polypogon PL04
    |--P. fugax GR98
    |--P. maritimus Willdenow 1801 PL04
    |--P. monspeliensis VB02
    |--P. subspathaceus PT98
    |--P. tenellus GK00
    `--P. viridis AGF98
  Aira PL04
    |--A. antarctica C55
    |--A. caryophyllea GK00
    |--A. cupaniana OS04
    |--A. elegantissima Schur 1853 PL04
    |--A. flexuosa C55
    |--A. montevidensis D03
    |    |--A. m. var. montevidensis D03
    |    `--A. m. var. submutica D03
    `--A. praecox PAE98
  Avellinia michelii PT98
  Briza PL04
    |--B. humilis Bieberstein 1808 PL04
    |--B. maxima OS04
    |--B. media C55
    `--B. minor OS04
  Catapodium PT98
    |--C. marinum PT98
    `--C. rigidum PT98
  Gastridium PL04
    |--G. phleoides GR98
    `--G. ventricosum (Gouan) Schinz & Thellung 1913 PL04
  Hyparrhenia hirta (Linnaeus) Stapf 1919 PL04
  Lagurus ovatus Linnaeus 1753 PL04
  Parapholis incurva GK00
  Psilurus incurvus (Gouan) Schinz & Thellung 1913 PL04
  Vulpia PL04
    |--V. bromoides GK00
    |--V. ciliata PT98
    |--V. fasciculata PT98
    `--V. myuros (Linnaeus) Gmelin 1805 PL04
  Desmostachya bipinnata AGF98
  Dactyloctenium SR07
    |--D. aegyptium SR07
    |--D. mucronatum C55
    `--D. scindicum PP07
  Elytrigia GR98
    |--E. intermedia GR98
    `--E. obtusiflora (see below for synonymy) GR98
         |--E. o. ssp. obtusiflora
         `--E. o. ssp. graeca (Melderis) Scholz in Greuter & Raus 1998 (see below for synonymy) GR98
  Leptochloa GR98
    |--L. filiformis GR98
    |--L. fusca GR98
    `--L. obtusiflora S03
  Paniculum agrostides SF98
  Austrostipa KM08
  Monachather paradoxus GPWG01, G04
  Triodia KM08
  Paraneurachne muelleri EF04
  Paspalidium EF04
    |--P. clementii EF04
    |--P. flavidum S03
    `--P. geminatum VB02
  Chrysopogon EF04
    |--C. aciculatus S03
    |--C. fallax EF04
    |--C. orientalis S03
    `--C. zeylanicus S03
  Eulalia KM08
    |--E. aurea KM08
    |--E. fastigiata KYK07
    |--E. phaeothrix S03
    `--E. trispicata S03
  Desmazeria rigida (Linnaeus) Tutin 1952 PL04
  Lophochloa cristata (Linnaeus) Hyl. 1953 PL04
  Sasa kurilensis T03
  Arundinaria WW04
    |--A. gigantea WW04
    `--A. wightiana S03
  Bothriochloa DD06
    |--B. foulkesii S03
    |--B. glabra S03
    |--B. laguroides DD06
    `--B. pertusa S03
  Puccinellia AB-E04
    |--P. distans K09
    `--P. nuttalliana AB-E04
  Dinochloa maclelandii GPWG01
  Steymarkochloa GPWG01
  Monoporites GPWG01
  Enneapogon PP07
    |--E. cenchroides PP07
    |--E. desvauxii PP07
    |--E. persicus PP07
    `--E. schimperanus PP07
  Asperella gracilis An27
  Neyraudia reynaudiana C02
  Heteropogon contortus RG02
  Cynopogon martinii RG02
  Bhidea fischeri Sreekumar & Shetty 1987 SY02
  Hemarthria uncinata GK00
  Dichelachne GK00
    |--D. crinita GK00
    |--D. sciurea CA27
    `--D. stipoides An27
  Sclerostachya fusca HU08
  Alexfloydia repens NS04
  Hymenachne pseudointerrupta KG05, C78
  Pseudoraphis spinescens C78
  Ophiuros tongcalingii C78
  Kaokochloa nigrirostris CV06
  Pogonarthria leiarthra CV06
  Melinis minutiflora J87
  Paractaenum novae-hollandiae KM08
  Triraphis mollis KM08
  Sitanion hystrix CL86
  Elyonurus royleanus PP07
  Ochthochloa compressa PP07
  Oropetium thomaeum PP07
  Sehima nervosum SR07
  Tetrapogon tenellus PP07
  Cyrtococcum SR07
    |--C. accrescens [=Panicum accrescens] KYK07
    |--C. deccanense S03
    |--C. longipes S03
    |--C. oxyphyllum S03
    |--C. patens S03
    `--C. trigonum SR07
  Axonopus compressus KYK07
  Lophatherum gracile KYK07
  Chimonobambusa quadrangularis (Franceschi) Makino 1914 (see below for synonymy) KS07
  Cyathopus sikkimensis Stapf in Hooker 1895 KG05
  Garnotia KG05
    |--G. arundinacea S03
    |--G. elata S03
    `--G. stricta S03
  Sclerochloa dura H91
  Cleistogenes serotina H91
  Acrachne racemosa S03
  Alloteropsis cimicina S03
  Capillipedium huegelii S03
  Dimeria ornithopoda S03
  Hackelochloa granularis S03
  Jansenella griffithiana S03
  Pogonatherum paniceum S03
  Sacciolepis S03
    |--S. indica S03
    |--S. interrupta S03
    |--S. myosuroides BM76
    `--S. striata M83
  Trachys muricata S03
  Eriochloa procera S03
  Eriochrysis rangacharii S03
  Erianthus KU02
  Gadua paniculata HSS13
  Mnesithea rottboellioides B12
  Coelorrachis glandulosa BM76

Chimonobambusa quadrangularis (Franceschi) Makino 1914 [=Bambusa quadrangularis Franceschi 1880, Arundinaria quadrangularis (Franceschi) Makino 1895, Tetragonocalamus quadrangularis (Franceschi) Nakai 1933] KS07

Elytrigia obtusiflora [=Triticum obtusiflorum; incl. Elymus elongatus ssp. ponticus, Elytrigia pontica] GR98

Elytrigia obtusiflora ssp. graeca (Melderis) Scholz in Greuter & Raus 1998 [=Elymus hispidus ssp. graecus Melderis 1978] GR98

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AGF98] Abd El-Ghani, M. M., & A. G. Fahmy. 1998. Composition of and changes in the spontaneous flora of Feiran Oasis, S Sinai, Egypt, in the last 60 years. Willdenowia 28: 123-134.

[AB-E04] Agapow, P.-M., O. R. P. Bininda-Emonds, K. A. Crandall, J. L. Gittleman, G. M. Mace, J. C. Marshall & A. Purvis. 2004. The impact of species concept on biodiversity studies. Quarterly Review of Biology 79 (2): 161-179.

[Al27] Allan, H. H. 1927. The vegetation of Mount Peel, Canterbury, New Zealand. Part 2. – The grassland and other herbaceous communities. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 73-89.

[An27] Andersen, J. C. 1927. Popular names of New Zealand plants. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 905-977.

[BB01] Bauer, R., D. Begerow, A. Nagler & F. Oberwinkler. 2001. The Georgefischeriales: A phylogenetic hypothesis. Mycological Research 105 (4): 416-424.

[BH02] Bell, J. R., A. J. Haughton, N. D. Boatman & A. Wilcox. 2002. Do incremental increases of the herbicide glyphosate have indirect consequences for spider communities? Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 288-297.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M. & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[BBM02] Bonte, D., L. Baert & J.-P. Maelfait. 2002. Spider assemblage structure and stability in a heterogeneous coastal dune system (Belgium). Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 331-343.

[BRW02] Bowman, R. A., J. D. Reeder & B. J. Wienhold. 2002. Quantifying laboratory and field variability to assess potential for carbon sequestration. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 33 (9-10): 1629-1642.

[B12] Braby, M. F. 2012. The butterflies of El Questro Wilderness Park, with remarks on the taxonomy of the Kimberley fauna, Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (2): 161-175.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C02] Choudhury, A. 2002. Occurrence of the wild water buffalo Bubalus arnee in Mizoram and Manipur. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 512-516.

[C78] Clunie, N. M. U. 1978. The vegetation. In Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 1 (J. S. Womersley, ed.) pp. 1-11. Melbourne University Press: Carlton South (Australia).

[CA27] Cockayne, L., & H. H. Allan. 1927. Notes on New Zealand floristic botany, including descriptions of new species, &c. (No. 5). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 48-72.

[CL86] Collins, E. I. & R. W. Lichvar. 1986. Vegetation inventory of current and historic black-footed ferret habitat in Wyoming. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs 8: 85-93.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175-189.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[D51] Dobzhansky, T. 1951. Genetics and the Origin of Species, 3rd ed. Columbia University Press: New York.

[DD06] Doty, J. B., & R. C. Dowler. 2006. Denning ecology in sympatric populations of skunks (Spilogale gracilis and Mephitis mephitis) in west-central Texas. Journal of Mammalogy 87 (1): 131-138.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896-1899, vol. 8—Botany (W. B. Scott, ed.) pp. 1-34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[E-SM02] Ellneskog-Staam, P., & A. Merker. 2002. Screening for resistance to powdery mildew and brown rust in wheat-Leymus racemosus and wheat-Thinopyrum junceiforme alloploids. Acta Agricultura Scandinavica Section B – Soil and Plant Science 52: 158-161.

[EF04] Etten, E. J. B. van, & J. E. D. Fox. 2004. Vegetation classification and ordination of the central Hamersley Ranges, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 63-79.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35-47.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323-402.

[GC05] Granjon, L., J.-F. Cosson, E. Quesseveur & B. Sicard. 2005. Population dynamics of the multimammate rat Mastomys huberti in an annually flooded agricultural region of central Mali. Journal of Mammalogy 86 (5): 997-1008.

[GCC02] Grant, C. D., C. J. Campbell & N. R. Charnock. 2002. Selection of species suitable for derelict mine site rehabilitation in New South Wales, Australia. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 139: 215-235.

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