Pharus latifolius, from here.

Belongs within: Poales.
Contains: Leymus, Aegilops, Vulpia, Austrostipa, Bothriochloa, Urochloa, Pooideae, Bambusoideae, Ehrhartoideae, Centothecoideae, Panicoideae, Eriachneae, Aristidoideae, Danthonioideae, Arundinoideae, Chloridoideae.

The Poaceae are the grasses, a distinctive group of monocotyledons that are one of the most significant plant groups alive today. It is estimated that grass-dominated landscapes make up about one-fifth of the terrestrial surface of the planet. Grasses also contribute to a significant portion of the human diet, either directly (being grown for grain) or indirectly (as fodder for livestock). Members of the Poaceae share a unique fruit form, the caryopsis, in which the outer integument is developmentally fused to the inner wall of the ovary (Grass Phylogeny Working Group 2001).

Members of the basal clades Anomochlooideae, Pharoideae and Puelioideae are relatively broad-leaved herbs found growing on shaded tropical forest floors. These three clades together account for only about thirty species; the great majority of grass species belong to a clade united by having at most two lodicules (small scales below the ovary) in the flower, as well as by molecular data. The Neotropical Anomochlooideae bear flowers whose component parts are of uncertain homology with those of the true grass spikelet, which therefore appears to represent a synapomorphy of a clade of all grasses excluding Anomochlooideae. The pantropical Pharoideae bear resupinate leaves with oblique lateral veins running straight from the mid-nerve to the margins (Grass Phylogeny Working Group 2001).

Characters (from Grass Phylogeny Working Group 2001): Inflorescence highly bracteate. Perianth reduced or lacking. Pollen with single opening, lacking scrobiculi, but with intraexinous channels. Seed coat fused to inner ovary wall at maturity, forming a caryopsis. Embryo lateral in position, highly differentiated with obvious leaves, shoot and root meristems.

<==Poaceae (see below for synonymy)
    |--Anomochlooideae [Streptochaetoideae] GPWG01
    |    |--Anomochloa [Anomochloeae] GPWG01
    |    |    `--A. marantoidea GPWG01
    |    `--Streptochaeta [Streptochaeteae] GPWG01
    |         |--S. angustifolia GPWG01
    |         |--S. sodiroana GPWG01
    |         `--S. spicata GPWG01
    `--+--Pharoideae [Leptaspidoideae, Phareae] GPWG01
       |    |--Scrotochloa GPWG01
       |    |--Leptaspis banksii GPWG01, B00a [=Pharus banksii B78]
       |    `--Pharus Browne 1756 GPWG01, KC01
       |         |--P. glaber S06
       |         |--P. lappulaceus GPWG01
       |         |--P. latifolius GPWG01
       |         `--P. mezii GPWG01
       `--+--Puelioideae GPWG01
          |    |--Guaduella [Guaduelleae] GPWG01
          |    |    `--G. marantifolia GPWG01
          |    `--Puelia [Puelieae] GPWG01
          |         |--P. ciliata GPWG01
          |         `--P. schumanniana GPWG01
          `--+--+--Pooideae GPWG01
             |  `--+--Bambusoideae GPWG01
             |     `--+--Ehrhartoideae GPWG01
             |        `--Streptogyna [Streptogyneae] GPWG01
             |             `--S. americana GPWG01
             `--+--Micraira [Macraireae, Macrairoideae] GPWG01
                |    |--M. brevis LK14
                |    |--M. dunlopii LK14
                |    |--M. lazaridis GPWG01
                |    |--M. spiciforma LK14
                |    `--M. subulifolia GPWG01
                `--+--+--Centothecoideae GPWG01
                   |  `--+--Panicoideae GPWG01
                   |     `--Gynerium Willdenow ex Beauvois 1812 GPWG01
                   |          `--G. sagittatum GPWG01
                   `--+--Eriachneae GPWG01
                      `--+--+--Aristidoideae GPWG01
                         |  `--Danthonioideae GPWG01
                         `--+--Arundinoideae GPWG01
                            `--Chloridoideae GPWG01

Poaceae incertae sedis:
  Buchloe dactyloides BRW02
  Avenula pubescens BBM02
  Themeda S03
    |--T. arguens LK14
    |--T. arundinacea HU08
    |--T. australis C78
    |--T. cymbaria S03
    |--T. forskalii C08
    |--T. quadrivalvis S03
    |--T. tremula S03
    `--T. triandra S03
  Thinopyrum junceiforme E-SM02 [incl. Agropyron junceum H93, Elytrigia juncea E-SM02]
    |--T. j. ssp. junceiforme C74
    |--‘Elytrigia juncea’ ssp. boreali-atlantica H93
    `--‘Agropyron junceum’ ssp. littoreum C74
  Leymus E-SM02
  Monostachya H03
  Coix MH98
    |--C. gigantea C78
    `--C. lacryma-jobi MH98
  Diandrolyra YY22
  Germainia truncatiglumis LK14
  Hydrochloa YY22
  Luxiola YY22
  Mniochloa YY22
  Polytoca YY22
  Tripsacum [Tripsaceae] YY22
    `--T. dactyloides V72
  Apocopis YY22
  Arthropogon YY22
  Chaetium YY22
  Cutandra YY22
  Cyphochlaena YY22
  Dignathia YY22
  Dissochondrus YY22
  Ectrosia LK14
    |--E. agrostoides LK14
    |--E. danesii LK14
    |--E. gulliveri B78
    |--E. lasioclada LK14
    |--E. leporina [incl. E. spadicea] B78
    |    |--E. l. var. leporina LK14
    |    `--E. l. var. micrantha LK14
    |--E. scabrida LK14
    `--E. schultzii LK14
  Fingerbuthia YY22
  Harpechloa YY22
  Homopogon YY22
  Kerinozoma YY22
  Leptothrium senegalense PP07
  Lophopogon YY22
  Lopholepis YY22
  Melanocenchris jacquemontii PP07
  Microcalamus YY22
  Monelytrum YY22
  Pentarraphis YY22
  Periedema YY22
  Rhytachne YY22
  Schaffnera YY22
  Tetrachaete YY22
  Thelepogon YY22
  Urelytrum YY22
  Vossia Wall. & Griff. 1836 KC01
    `--V. procera PB27
  Coelachne S03
    |--C. brachiata [incl. Panicum brachyglume, Isachne simpliciuscula, P. simpliciusculum] B78
    |--C. perpusilla S03
    `--C. pulchella B78
  Atractocarpa YY22
  Aciachne YY22
  Fourniera YY22
  Jouvea YY22
  Monanthochloe littoralis H93
  Cinnagrostis YY22
  Opizia YY22
  Tristachya YY22
  Corynephorus canescens YY22, BBM02
  Gaudinia YY22
  Ventenata dubia H93
  Arthrostylidium SWK87
    |--A. haitiense J87
    |--A. multispicatum J87
    `--A. sarmentosum SWK87
  Aegilops PT98
  Colpodium wallichii O88
  Duthiea nepalensis O88
  Helictotrichon S03
    |--H. asperum S03
    `--H. virescens O88
  Littledalea tibetica O88
  Lasiacis RS99
    |--L. divaricata J87
    `--L. ligulata RS99
  Crypsis H93
    |--C. aculeata Y98
    |--C. alopecuroides H93
    |--C. schoenoides [=Heleochloa schoenoides] H93
    `--C. vaginiflora [incl. C. niliaca] H93
  Aira PL04
    |--A. caryophyllea GK00
    |--A. cupaniana OS04
    |--A. elegantissima Schur 1853 PL04 [incl. A. elegans (nom. illeg.) H93]
    |--A. flexuosa C55
    |--A. montevidensis D03
    |    |--A. m. var. montevidensis D03
    |    `--A. m. var. submutica D03
    `--A. praecox PAE98
  Avellinia michelii PT98
  Catapodium PT98
    |--C. marinum PT98
    `--C. rigidum PT98
  Gastridium PL04
    |--G. australe [incl. G. lendigerum] C06
    |--G. phleoides GR98
    `--G. ventricosum (Gouan) Schinz & Thellung 1913 PL04
  Hyparrhenia hirta (Linnaeus) Stapf 1919 PL04
  Lagurus ovatus Linnaeus 1753 PL04
  Psilurus incurvus (Gouan) Schinz & Thellung 1913 PL04
  Vulpia PL04
  Desmostachya bipinnata AGF98
  Elytrigia GR98
    |--E. elongata [=Agropyron elongatum] H93
    |--E. intermedia [=Agropyron intermedium; incl. E. intermediua ssp. barbulata, A. trichophorum] H93
    `--E. obtusiflora (see below for synonymy) GR98
         |--E. o. ssp. obtusiflora GR98
         `--E. o. ssp. graeca (Melderis) Scholz in Greuter & Raus 1998 (see below for synonymy) GR98
  Paniculum agrostides SF98
  Austrostipa KM08
  Paraneurachne muelleri EF04
  Paspalidium S03
    |--P. clementii EF04
    |--P. distans LK14
    |--P. flavidum S03
    |--P. geminatum VB02
    `--P. rarum LK14
  Desmazeria rigida (Linnaeus) Tutin 1952 PL04 [=Festuc rigida C06, Scleropoa rigida H93]
  Lophochloa cristata (Linnaeus) Hyl. 1953 PL04
  Sasa T03
    |--S. kurilensis T03
    `--S. paniculata RJ11
  Arundinaria S03
    |--A. alpina PB27
    |--A. gigantea WW04
    |--A. tecta S96
    `--A. wightiana S03
  Bothriochloa S03
  Dinochloa maclelandii GPWG01
  Steymarkochloa GPWG01
  Monoporites annulatus Pares Regali et al. 1974 CBH93
  Neyraudia C02
    |--N. madagascariensis SS72
    `--N. reynaudiana C02
  Bhidea fischeri Sreekumar & Shetty 1987 SY02
  Sclerostachya fusca HU08
  Alexfloydia repens NS04
  Hymenachne pseudointerrupta KG05, C78
  Pseudoraphis spinescens LK14
  Kaokochloa nigrirostris CV06
  Pogonarthria leiarthra CV06
  Melinis LK14
    |--M. minutiflora J87
    `--M. repens LK14
  Elyonurus royleanus PP07
  Ochthochloa compressa PP07
  Oropetium thomaeum PP07
  Sehima nervosum LK14
  Tetrapogon tenellus PP07
  Cyrtococcum S03
    |--C. accrescens [=Panicum accrescens] KYK07
    |--C. deccanense S03
    |--C. longipes S03
    |--C. oxyphyllum S03
    |--C. patens S03
    `--C. trigonum SR07
  Axonopus S03
    |--A. affinis H93
    |--A. compressus S03
    |--A. fissifolius LK14
    `--A. marginatus S00
  Lophatherum gracile KYK07
  Chimonobambusa quadrangularis (Franceschi) Makino 1914 (see below for synonymy) KS07
  Cyathopus sikkimensis Stapf in Hooker 1895 KG05
  Garnotia KG05
    |--G. arundinacea S03
    |--G. elata S03
    `--G. stricta S03
  Sclerochloa dura H91
  Cleistogenes serotina H91
  Acrachne racemosa S03
  Alloteropsis S03
    |--A. cimicina S03
    `--A. semialata LK14
  Capillipedium S03
    |--C. assimile M72
    |--C. huegelii S03
    `--C. parviflorum LK14
  Hackelochloa granularis S03
  Jansenella griffithiana S03
  Pogonatherum paniceum S03
  Sacciolepis S03
    |--S. indica S03
    |--S. interrupta S03
    |--S. myosuroides BM76
    `--S. striata M83
  Trachys muricata S03
  Eriochrysis rangacharii S03
  Gadua paniculata HSS13
  Mnesithea B12
    |--M. annua LK14
    |--M. formosa LK14
    |--M. granularis LK14
    `--M. rottboellioides B12
  Coelorrachis glandulosa BM76
  Monodia stipoides LK14
  Brachyachne LK14
    |--B. convergens LK14
    `--B. tenella LK14
  Enteropogon B00a
    |--E. acicularis B00a
    |--E. dolichostachyus LK14
    `--E. ramosus B00a
  Heterachne LK14
    |--H. brownii B78 [incl. H. abortiva LK14, Poa abortiva B78]
    `--H. gulliveri LK14
         |--H. g. var. gulliveri LK14
         `--H. g. var. major LK14
  Hygrochloa aquatica LK14
  Iseilema LK14
    |--I. eremaeum LK14
    |--I. fragile LK14
    |--I. holmesii LK14
    `--I. vaginiflorum LK14
  Megathyrsus maximus LK14
  Pseudopogonatherum LK14
    |--P. contortum LK14
    `--P. irritans LK14
  Thaumastochloa LK14
    |--T. brassii LK14
    |--T. major LK14
    `--T. pubescens LK14
  Thedachloa annua LK14
  Urochloa LK14
  Whiteochloa LK14
    |--W. biciliata LK14
    |--W. capillipes LK14
    `--W. cymbiformis LK14
  Yakirra LK14
    |--Y. australiensis LK14
    |--Y. majuscula LK14
    `--Y. pauciflora LK14
  Ottochloa gracillima B00a
  Entolasia marginata B00a
  Filifolium sibiricum RJ11
  Spodiopogon sibiricus RJ11
  Merostachys neesii RJ11
  Bleparidachne kingii H93
  Dissanthelium californicum H93
  Erioneuron H93
    |--E. pilosum [=Tridens pilosus] H93
    `--E. pulchellum [=Tridens pulchellus] H93
  Hainardia cylindrica [=Monerma cylindrica] H93
  Hesperostipa comata [=Stipa comata] H93
    |--H. c. ssp. comata H93
    `--H. c. ssp. intermedia H93
  Neostapfia colusana H93
  Pascopyrum smithii [=Agropyron smithii] H93
  Pleuropogon H93
    |--P. californicus [incl. P. davyi] H93
    |--P. hooverianus H93
    `--P. refractus H93
  Pseudoroegneria spicata [=Agropyron spicatum] H93
  Ptilagrostis kingii [=Oryzopsis kingii] H93
  Rhynchelytrum repens [incl. Tricholaena rosea] H93
  Scleropogon brevifolius H93
  Scribneria bolanderi H93
  Swallenia alexandrae [=Ectosperma alexandrae] H93
  Taeniatherum caput-medusae [=Elymus caput-medusae] H93
  Torreyochloa H93
    |--T. erecta [=Puccinellia erecta] H93
    `--T. pallida H93 [=Glyceria pallida V72, Puccinellia pallida V72]
         |--T. p. var. pallida H93
         `--T. p. var. pauciflora [=Puccinella pauciflora; incl. P. californica] H93
  Tuctoria H93
    |--T. greenei [=Orcuttia greenei] H93
    `--T. mucronata [=Orcuttia mucronata] H93
  Phyllostachys S00
    |--P. bambusoides E24
    |--P. pubescens S00
    `--P. quinoi B54
  Sasamorpha borealis GKO96
  Yorkia gramineoides Ward 1900 CBH93
  Graminidites Harris 1965 CBH93
  Sitanion hystrix HW96
  Trichachne californica HW96
  Dasyochloa pulchella HW96
  Sinocalamus latiflorus A90
  Desmazieria Dumort. 1822 KC01
  Haynaldia Schur 1866 KC01
  Krombholzia Rupr. ex Fourn. 1876 KC01
  Penicillaria Willd. 1809 KC01
  Puccinella Parl. 1848 (nom. cons.) KC01
  Heterochloe alpina H44
  Pappostipa malalhuensis A19
  Plectrachne C46
    |--P. bynoei C46
    |--P. rigidissima G04
    `--P. schinzii SM90
  Graminophyllum P92
  Erianthus B78
    |--E. aureus [incl. E. cumingii, Pollinia cumingii] B78
    `--E. munja P73
  Streptachne B78
    |--‘Orthoraphium’ roylei B78
    `--S. stipoides B78
  Schedonorus [=Schenodorus (l. c.)] B78
    |--S. hookerianus [=Festuca hookeriana, Poa hookeriana] B78
    `--S. scirpoideus [=Brizopyrum scirpoideum, Festuca scirpoidea] B78
  Vetiveria M72
    |--V. elongata WF01
    `--V. zizanioides M72

Chimonobambusa quadrangularis (Franceschi) Makino 1914 [=Bambusa quadrangularis Franceschi 1880, Arundinaria quadrangularis (Franceschi) Makino 1895, Tetragonocalamus quadrangularis (Franceschi) Nakai 1933] KS07

Elytrigia obtusiflora [=Triticum obtusiflorum; incl. Elymus elongatus ssp. ponticus, Elytrigia pontica] GR98

Elytrigia obtusiflora ssp. graeca (Melderis) Scholz in Greuter & Raus 1998 [=Elymus hispidus ssp. graecus Melderis 1978] GR98

Poaceae [Astreptae, Avenaceae, Festucaceae, Gramineae, Hordeaceae, Milieae, Panicaceae, Poineae, Stipaceae, Streptatherae, Tristegineae]

*Type species of generic name indicated


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