Poaceae

Pharus latifolius, from here.


Belongs within: Poales.
Contains: Cymbopogon, Ischaemum, Leymus, Aegilops, Vulpia, Austrostipa, Bothriochloa, Urochloa, Pooideae, Bambusoideae, Ehrhartoideae, Centothecoideae, Panicoideae, Eriachneae, Aristidoideae, Danthonioideae, Arundinoideae, Chloridoideae.

The Poaceae are the grasses, a distinctive group of monocotyledons that are one of the most significant plant groups alive today. It is estimated that grass-dominated landscapes make up about one-fifth of the terrestrial surface of the planet. Grasses also contribute to a significant portion of the human diet, either directly (being grown for grain) or indirectly (as fodder for livestock). Members of the Poaceae share a unique fruit form, the caryopsis, in which the outer integument is developmentally fused to the inner wall of the ovary (Grass Phylogeny Working Group 2001). Members of the basal clades Anomochlooideae, Pharoideae and Puelioideae are relatively broad-leaved herbs found growing on shaded tropical forest floors. These three clades together account for only about thirty species; the great majority of grass species belong to a clade united by having at most two lodicules (small scales below the ovary) in the flower, as well as by molecular data. The Neotropical Anomochlooideae bear flowers whose component parts are of uncertain homology with those of the true grass spikelet, which therefore appears to represent a synapomorphy of a clade of all grasses excluding Anomochlooideae (Grass Phylogeny Working Group 2001).

Characters (from Grass Phylogeny Working Group 2001): Inflorescence highly bracteate. Perianth reduced or lacking. Pollen with single opening, lacking scrobiculi, but with intraexinous channels. Seed coat fused to inner ovary wall at maturity, forming a caryopsis. Embryo lateral in position, highly differentiated with obvious leaves, shoot and root meristems.

<==Poaceae [Gramineae, Panicacae, Poineae]
    |--Anomochlooideae [Streptochaetoideae] GPWG01
    |    |--Anomochloa [Anomochloeae] GPWG01
    |    |    `--A. marantoidea GPWG01
    |    `--Streptochaeta [Streptochaeteae] GPWG01
    |         |--S. angustifolia GPWG01
    |         |--S. sodiroana GPWG01
    |         `--S. spicata GPWG01
    `--+--Pharoideae [Leptaspidoideae, Phareae] GPWG01
       |    |--Scrotochloa GPWG01
       |    |--Leptaspis banksii GPWG01, B00a
       |    `--Pharus Browne 1756 GPWG01, KC01
       |         |--P. glaber S06
       |         |--P. lappulaceus GPWG01
       |         |--P. latifolius GPWG01
       |         `--P. mezii GPWG01
       `--+--Puelioideae GPWG01
          |    |--Guaduella [Guaduelleae] GPWG01
          |    |    `--G. marantifolia GPWG01
          |    `--Puelia [Puelieae] GPWG01
          |         |--P. ciliata GPWG01
          |         `--P. schumanniana GPWG01
          `--+--+--Pooideae GPWG01
             |  `--+--Bambusoideae GPWG01
             |     `--+--Ehrhartoideae GPWG01
             |        `--Streptogyna [Streptogyneae] GPWG01
             |             `--S. americana GPWG01
             `--+--Micraira [Macraireae, Macrairoideae] GPWG01
                |    |--M. brevis LK14
                |    |--M. dunlopii LK14
                |    |--M. lazaridis GPWG01
                |    |--M. spiciforma LK14
                |    `--M. subulifolia GPWG01
                `--+--+--Centothecoideae GPWG01
                   |  `--+--Panicoideae GPWG01
                   |     `--Gynerium Willdenow ex Beauvois 1812 GPWG01
                   |          `--G. sagittatum GPWG01
                   `--+--Eriachneae GPWG01
                      `--+--+--Aristidoideae GPWG01
                         |  `--Danthonioideae GPWG01
                         `--+--Arundinoideae GPWG01
                            `--Chloridoideae GPWG01

Poaceae incertae sedis:
  Buchloe dactyloides BRW02
  Avenula pubescens BBM02
  Themeda S03
    |--T. arguens LK14
    |--T. arundinacea HU08
    |--T. australis C78
    |--T. cymbaria S03
    |--T. forskalii [incl. Anthistiria ciliata] C08
    |--T. quadrivalvis S03
    |--T. tremula S03
    `--T. triandra S03
  Cymbopogon S03
  Ischaemum S03
  Thinopyrum junceiforme E-SM02 [incl. Agropyron junceum H93, Elytrigia juncea E-SM02]
    |--T. j. ssp. junceiforme C74
    |--‘Elytrigia juncea’ ssp. boreali-atlantica H93
    `--‘Agropyron junceum’ ssp. littoreum C74
  Leymus E-SM02
  Monostachya H03
  Tetrarrhena B00a
    |--T. juncea B00a
    `--T. laevis RL05
  Chionachne hubbardiana LK14
  Coix MH98
    |--C. gigantea C78
    `--C. lacryma-jobi MH98
  Diandrolyra YY22
  Germainia truncatiglumis LK14
  Hydrochloa YY22
  Luxiola YY22
  Mniochloa YY22
  Polytoca YY22
  Sclerachne YY22
  Thuarea involuta C78
  Tripsacum [Tripsaceae] YY22
    `--T. dactyloides V72
  Apluda mutica S03
  Apocopis YY22
  Arthropogon YY22
  Arthraxon quartinianus S03
  Chaetium YY22
  Cutandra YY22
  Cyphochlaena YY22
  Dignathia YY22
  Dissochondrus YY22
  Ectrosia YY22
    |--E. agrostoides LK14
    |--E. danesii LK14
    |--E. lasioclada LK14
    |--E. leporina LK14
    |    |--E. l. var. leporina LK14
    |    `--E. l. var. micrantha LK14
    |--E. scabrida LK14
    `--E. schultzii LK14
  Fingerbuthia YY22
  Harpechloa YY22
  Homopogon YY22
  Kerinozoma YY22
  Latipes YY22
  Leptothrium senegalense PP07
  Lophopogon YY22
  Lopholepis YY22
  Manisuris YY22
  Melanocenchris jacquemontii PP07
  Microcalamus YY22
  Monelytrum YY22
  Neurachne alopecuroidea RL05
  Pentarraphis YY22
  Periedema YY22
  Perotis KM08
    |--P. indica VB02
    `--P. rara KM08
  Plagiosetum YY22
  Rhytachne YY22
  Schaffnera YY22
  Stenotaphrum GK00
    |--S. glabrum C06 [incl. S. americanum C06, Rottboellia dimidiata C55]
    |--S. micranthum C78
    `--S. secundatum GK00
  Tetrachaete YY22
  Thelepogon YY22
  Urelytrum YY22
  Vossia Wall. & Griff. 1836 KC01
    `--V. procera PB27
  Xerochloa LK14
    |--X. barbata LK14
    `--X. imberbis LK14
  Coelachne perpusilla S03
  Atractocarpa YY22
  Aciachne YY22
  Fourniera YY22
  Jouvea YY22
  Monanthochloe littoralis H93
  Cinnagrostis YY22
  Opizia YY22
  Tristachya YY22
  Corynephorus canescens YY22, BBM02
  Gaudinia YY22
  Ventenata dubia H93
  Arthrostylidium SWK87
    |--A. haitiense J87
    |--A. multispicatum J87
    `--A. sarmentosum SWK87
  Aegilops PT98
  Colpodium wallichii O88
  Duthiea nepalensis O88
  Helictotrichon S03
    |--H. asperum S03
    `--H. virescens O88
  Littledalea tibetica O88
  Lasiacis RS99
    |--L. divaricata J87
    `--L. ligulata RS99
  Crypsis H93
    |--C. aculeata Y98
    |--C. alopecuroides H93
    |--C. schoenoides [=Heleochloa schoenoides] H93
    `--C. vaginiflora [incl. C. niliaca] H93
  Aira PL04
    |--A. caryophyllea GK00
    |--A. cupaniana OS04
    |--A. elegantissima Schur 1853 PL04 [incl. A. elegans (nom. illeg.) H93]
    |--A. flexuosa C55
    |--A. montevidensis D03
    |    |--A. m. var. montevidensis D03
    |    `--A. m. var. submutica D03
    `--A. praecox PAE98
  Avellinia michelii PT98
  Catapodium PT98
    |--C. marinum PT98
    `--C. rigidum PT98
  Gastridium PL04
    |--G. australe [incl. G. lendigerum] C06
    |--G. phleoides GR98
    `--G. ventricosum (Gouan) Schinz & Thellung 1913 PL04
  Hyparrhenia hirta (Linnaeus) Stapf 1919 PL04
  Lagurus ovatus Linnaeus 1753 PL04
  Psilurus incurvus (Gouan) Schinz & Thellung 1913 PL04
  Vulpia PL04
  Desmostachya bipinnata AGF98
  Elytrigia GR98
    |--E. elongata [=Agropyron elongatum] H93
    |--E. intermedia [=Agropyron intermedium; incl. E. intermediua ssp. barbulata, A. trichophorum] H93
    `--E. obtusiflora (see below for synonymy) GR98
         |--E. o. ssp. obtusiflora
         `--E. o. ssp. graeca (Melderis) Scholz in Greuter & Raus 1998 (see below for synonymy) GR98
  Paniculum agrostides SF98
  Austrostipa KM08
  Monachather paradoxus GPWG01, G04
  Paraneurachne muelleri EF04
  Paspalidium S03
    |--P. clementii EF04
    |--P. distans LK14
    |--P. flavidum S03
    |--P. geminatum VB02
    `--P. rarum LK14
  Chrysopogon S03
    |--C. aciculatus S03
    |--C. fallax EF04
    |--C. latifolius LK14
    |--C. oliganthus LK14
    |--C. orientalis S03
    |--C. pallidus LK14
    |--C. setifolius LK14
    `--C. zeylanicus S03
  Desmazeria rigida (Linnaeus) Tutin 1952 PL04 [=Festuc rigida C06, Scleropoa rigida H93]
  Lophochloa cristata (Linnaeus) Hyl. 1953 PL04
  Sasa T03
    |--S. kurilensis T03
    `--S. paniculata RJ11
  Arundinaria S03
    |--A. alpina PB27
    |--A. gigantea WW04
    |--A. tecta S96
    `--A. wightiana S03
  Bothriochloa S03
  Dinochloa maclelandii GPWG01
  Steymarkochloa GPWG01
  Monoporites annulatus Pares Regali et al. 1974 CBH93
  Neyraudia reynaudiana C02
  Heteropogon S03
    |--H. contortus S03
    `--H. triticeus B00b
  Bhidea fischeri Sreekumar & Shetty 1987 SY02
  Hemarthria uncinata GK00
  Sclerostachya fusca HU08
  Alexfloydia repens NS04
  Hymenachne pseudointerrupta KG05, C78
  Pseudoraphis spinescens C78
  Ophiuros LK14
    |--O. exaltatus LK14
    `--O. tongcalingii C78
  Kaokochloa nigrirostris CV06
  Pogonarthria leiarthra CV06
  Melinis LK14
    |--M. minutiflora J87
    `--M. repens LK14
  Paractaenum novae-hollandiae KM08
  Triraphis mollis KM08
  Elyonurus royleanus PP07
  Ochthochloa compressa PP07
  Oropetium thomaeum PP07
  Sehima nervosum SR07
  Tetrapogon tenellus PP07
  Cyrtococcum S03
    |--C. accrescens [=Panicum accrescens] KYK07
    |--C. deccanense S03
    |--C. longipes S03
    |--C. oxyphyllum S03
    |--C. patens S03
    `--C. trigonum SR07
  Axonopus S03
    |--A. affinis H93
    |--A. compressus S03
    |--A. fissifolius LK14
    `--A. marginatus S00
  Lophatherum gracile KYK07
  Chimonobambusa quadrangularis (Franceschi) Makino 1914 (see below for synonymy) KS07
  Cyathopus sikkimensis Stapf in Hooker 1895 KG05
  Garnotia KG05
    |--G. arundinacea S03
    |--G. elata S03
    `--G. stricta S03
  Sclerochloa dura H91
  Cleistogenes serotina H91
  Acrachne racemosa S03
  Alloteropsis S03
    |--A. cimicina S03
    `--A. semialata LK14
  Capillipedium S03
    |--C. huegelii S03
    `--C. parviflorum LK14
  Dimeria ornithopoda S03
  Hackelochloa granularis S03
  Jansenella griffithiana S03
  Pogonatherum paniceum S03
  Sacciolepis S03
    |--S. indica S03
    |--S. interrupta S03
    |--S. myosuroides BM76
    `--S. striata M83
  Trachys muricata S03
  Eriochrysis rangacharii S03
  Gadua paniculata HSS13
  Mnesithea LK14
    |--M. annua LK14
    |--M. formosa LK14
    |--M. granularis LK14
    `--M. rottboellioides B12
  Coelorrachis glandulosa BM76
  Monodia stipoides LK14
  Astrebla LK14
    |--A. lappacea MLP09
    `--A. pectinata LK14
         |--A. p. var. pectinata C16
         `--A. p. var. curvifolia C16
  Brachyachne LK14
    |--B. convergens LK14
    `--B. tenella LK14
  Enteropogon B00a
    |--E. acicularis B00a
    |--E. dolichostachyus LK14
    `--E. ramosus B00a
  Heterachne LK14
    |--H. abortiva LK14
    `--H. gulliveri LK14
         |--H. g. var. gulliveri LK14
         `--H. g. var. major LK14
  Hygrochloa aquatica LK14
  Iseilema LK14
    |--I. eremaeum LK14
    |--I. fragile LK14
    |--I. holmesii LK14
    `--I. vaginiflorum LK14
  Megathyrsus maximus LK14
  Pseudopogonatherum LK14
    |--P. contortum LK14
    `--P. irritans LK14
  Schizachyrium LK14
    |--S. cirratum H93
    |--S. crinizonatum LK14
    |--S. fragile LK14
    |--S. mitchelliana LK14
    |--S. pachyarthron LK14
    |--S. perplexum B00a
    `--S. pseudeulalia LK14
  Thaumastochloa LK14
    |--T. brassii LK14
    |--T. major LK14
    `--T. pubescens LK14
  Thedachloa annua LK14
  Urochloa LK14
  Whiteochloa LK14
    |--W. biciliata LK14
    |--W. capillipes LK14
    `--W. cymbiformis LK14
  Yakirra LK14
    |--Y. australiensis LK14
    |--Y. majuscula LK14
    `--Y. pauciflora LK14
  Ottochloa gracillima B00a
  Entolasia marginata B00a
  Anthistiria C06
    |--A. imberbis C06
    `--A. membranacea C16
  Filifolium sibiricum RJ11
  Spodiopogon sibiricus RJ11
  Merostachys neesii RJ11
  Bleparidachne kingii H93
  Dissanthelium californicum H93
  Erioneuron H93
    |--E. pilosum [=Tridens pilosus] H93
    `--E. pulchellum [=Tridens pulchellus] H93
  Hainardia cylindrica [=Monerma cylindrica] H93
  Hesperostipa comata [=Stipa comata] H93
    |--H. c. ssp. comata H93
    `--H. c. ssp. intermedia H93
  Neostapfia colusana H93
  Pascopyrum smithii [=Agropyron smithii] H93
  Pleuropogon H93
    |--P. californicus [incl. P. davyi] H93
    |--P. hooverianus H93
    `--P. refractus H93
  Pseudoroegneria spicata [=Agropyron spicatum] H93
  Ptilagrostis kingii [=Oryzopsis kingii] H93
  Rhynchelytrum repens [incl. Tricholaena rosea] H93
  Scleropogon brevifolius H93
  Scribneria bolanderi H93
  Swallenia alexandrae [=Ectosperma alexandrae] H93
  Taeniatherum caput-medusae [=Elymus caput-medusae] H93
  Torreyochloa H93
    |--T. erecta [=Puccinellia erecta] H93
    `--T. pallida H93 [=Glyceria pallida V72, Puccinellia pallida V72]
         |--T. p. var. pallida H93
         `--T. p. var. pauciflora [=Puccinella pauciflora; incl. P. californica] H93
  Tuctoria H93
    |--T. greenei [=Orcuttia greenei] H93
    `--T. mucronata [=Orcuttia mucronata] H93
  Phyllostachys S00
    |--P. bambusoides E24
    |--P. pubescens S00
    `--P. quinoi B54
  Sasamorpha borealis GKO96
  Yorkia gramineoides Ward 1900 CBH93
  Graminidites Harris 1965 CBH93
  Sitanion hystrix HW96
  Trichachne californica HW96
  Dasyochloa pulchella HW96
  Sinocalamus latiflorus A90
  Desmazieria Dumort. 1822 KC01
  Haynaldia Schur 1866 KC01
  Krombholzia Rupr. ex Fourn. 1876 KC01
  Penicillaria Willd. 1809 KC01
  Puccinella Parl. 1848 (nom. cons.) KC01
  Heterochloe alpina H44
  Pappostipa malalhuensis A19

Chimonobambusa quadrangularis (Franceschi) Makino 1914 [=Bambusa quadrangularis Franceschi 1880, Arundinaria quadrangularis (Franceschi) Makino 1895, Tetragonocalamus quadrangularis (Franceschi) Nakai 1933] KS07

Elytrigia obtusiflora [=Triticum obtusiflorum; incl. Elymus elongatus ssp. ponticus, Elytrigia pontica] GR98

Elytrigia obtusiflora ssp. graeca (Melderis) Scholz in Greuter & Raus 1998 [=Elymus hispidus ssp. graecus Melderis 1978] GR98

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

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[A19] Acosta, L. E. 2019. A relictual troglomorphic harvestman discovered in a volcanic cave of western Argentina: Otilioleptes marcelae, new genus, new species, and Otilioleptidae, new family (Arachnida, Opiliones, Gonyleptoidea). PLoS One 14 (10): e0223828.

[A90] Aoki, J. 1990. New oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) from Taiwan. I. Proceedings of the Japanese Society of Systematic Zoology 41: 15–18.

[B54] Beer, R. E. 1954. A revision of the Tarsonemidae of the Western Hemisphere (order, Acarina). University of Kansas Science Bulletin 36 (2): 1091–1387.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[BBM02] Bonte, D., L. Baert & J.-P. Maelfait. 2002. Spider assemblage structure and stability in a heterogeneous coastal dune system (Belgium). Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 331–343.

[BRW02] Bowman, R. A., J. D. Reeder & B. J. Wienhold. 2002. Quantifying laboratory and field variability to assess potential for carbon sequestration. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 33 (9–10): 1629–1642.

[B00a] Braby, M. F. 2000a. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 1. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[B00b] Braby, M. F. 2000b. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[B12] Braby, M. F. 2012. The butterflies of El Questro Wilderness Park, with remarks on the taxonomy of the Kimberley fauna, Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (2): 161–175.

[C08] Cambage, R. H. 1908. Notes on the native flora of New South Wales. Part VI. Deepwater to Torrington and Emmaville. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33 (1): 45–65, pls 1–2.

[C16] Cambage, R. H. 1916. Notes on the native flora of tropical Queensland. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 49 (3): 389–447, pls 57–61.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[C02] Choudhury, A. 2002. Occurrence of the wild water buffalo Bubalus arnee in Mizoram and Manipur. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 512–516.

[C78] Clunie, N. M. U. 1978. The vegetation. In: Womersley, J. S. (ed.) Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 1 pp. 1–11. Melbourne University Press: Carlton South (Australia).

[C74] Coineau, Y. 1974. Éléments pour une monographie morphologique, écologique et biologique des Caeculidae (Acariens). Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, nouvelle série, Série A, Zoologie 81: 1–299, 24 pls.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[E-SM02] Ellneskog-Staam, P., & A. Merker. 2002. Screening for resistance to powdery mildew and brown rust in wheat-Leymus racemosus and wheat-Thinopyrum junceiforme alloploids. Acta Agricultura Scandinavica Section B—Soil and Plant Science 52: 158–161.

[EF04] Etten, E. J. B. van, & J. E. D. Fox. 2004. Vegetation classification and ordination of the central Hamersley Ranges, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 63–79.

[E24] Ewing, H. E. 1924. New tarsonemid mites (order Acarina, family Tarsonemidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 26 (3): 66–69.

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