Stand of Dipterocarpus alatus, photographed by Tony Rodd.

Belongs within: Malvales.

The Dipterocarpaceae are a pantropical family of forest trees, many of which are dominant in lowland rain forests. They may be divided between the subfamilies Dipterocarpoideae, found in southern Asia and Australasia, and Monotoideae, found in Africa and South America. Some species in Asia are economically significant hardwood sources.

Characters (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Triterpenoid dipterocarpol and sesquiterpene oleoresins present; cork also outer cortical; cambium storied; tyloses present; cortical bundles present; secretory cavities in pith; nodes also 5:5; petiole geniculate; hairs tufted, peltate, etc.; leaves spiral and two-ranked; inflorescence axillary, often branched; androecium initiation centrifugal, anthers more or less versatile, with prolonged connective, median carpel abaxial, ovules apical, stigma slightly lobed or not; calyx thinnish, enlarging somewhat in fruit; seed usually 1, testa vascularized; cotyledons often folded.

    |--Monotoideae T00
    |    |--Monotes T00
    |    |--Marquesia T00
    |    `--Pseudomonotes T00
    `--Dipterocarpus PA-W02 [Dipterocarpoideae T00]
         |--D. alatus PA-W02
         |--D. costatus BAN98
         |--D. grandiflorus P88
         |--D. kerrii Z02
         `--D. oblongifolius P88

Dipterocarpaceae incertae sedis:
  Shorea PL12
    |--S. albida H03
    |--S. assamica Z94
    |--S. curtisii W01
    |--S. laevifolia N77
    |--S. lepidota PL12
    |--S. macroptera W01
    |--S. parvistipulata K03
    |--S. paucifolia W01
    `--S. robusta LJ03
  Hopea VP93
    |--H. mollissima VP93
    `--H. papuana C78
  Anisoptera WM09
    |--A. marginata WM09
    `--A. thurifera C78
  Woburnia porosa Stopes 1912 CBH93
  Parashorea malaanonan CBH93, K03
  Dipterocarpoxylon CBH93

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BAN98] Baum, D. A., W. S. Anderson & R. Nyffeler. 1998. A durian by any other name: taxonomy and nomenclature of the core Malvales. Harvard Papers in Botany 3 (2): 315–330.

[C78] Clunie, N. M. U. 1978. The vegetation. In: Womersley, J. S. (ed.) Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 1 pp. 1–11. Melbourne University Press: Carlton South (Australia).

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81–98.

[LJ03] Lim, Y. W., & H. S. Jung. 2003. Irpex hydnoides, sp. nov. is new to science, based on morphological, cultural and molecular characters. Mycologia 95 (4): 694–699.

[N77] Nooteboom, H. P. 1977. Symplocaceae. Flora Malesiana, Series I—Spermatophyta, Flowering Plants 8 (2): 205–274.

[PA-W02] Pang, K.-L., M. A. Abdel-Wahab, S. Sivichai, H. M. El-Sharouney & E. B. G. Jones. 2002. Jahnulales (Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota): a new order of lignicolous freshwater ascomycetes. Mycological Research 106 (9): 1031–1042.

[PL12] Peñalver, E., C. C. Labandeira, E. Barrón, X. Delclòs, P. Nel, A. Nel, P. Tafforeau & C. Soriano. 2012. Thrips pollination of Mesozoic gymnosperms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (22): 8623–8628.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[VP93] Vu V. D., Pham M. G., Nguyen N. C., D. Tuoc, P. Arctander & J. MacKinnon. 1993. A new species of living bovid from Vietnam. Nature 363: 443–445.

[WM09] Wang, H., M. J. Moore, P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, S. F. Brockington, R. Alexandre, C. C. Davis, M. Latvis, S. R. Manchester & D. E. Soltis. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3853–3858.

[W01] Watling, R. 2001. The relationships and possible distributional patterns of boletes in south-east Asia. Mycological Research 105 (12): 1440–1448.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Pattern of insect burial and conservation. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 17–63. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[Z94] Zimmerman, E. C. 1994. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 2. Brentidae, Eurhynchidae, Apionidae and a chapter on immature stages by Brenda May. CSIRO Australia.

Last updated: 20 July 2021.

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