Andropogoneae

Cogongrass Imperata cylindrica, copyright Keisotyo.


Belongs within: Panicoideae.
Contains: Sorghum, Dichanthium, Saccharum, Ischaemum, Pollinia, Andropogon, Chrysopogon, Cymbopogon.

The Andropogoneae are a tribe of C4 grasses characterised by the possession of paired spikelets with bracts present outside the spikelets (Grass Phylogeny Working Group 2001). This tribe includes a number of economically significant crops such as maize Zea mays and sugarcane Saccharum officinarum. Miscanthus species are grown as ornamentals and for biofuel. Cogongrass Imperata cylindrica is a dominant plant species in disturbed habitats in many warmer regions of the Old World and has also become an invasive species outside its native range.

Members of the subgroup Mayadeae bear unisexual spikelets with male spikelets usually paniculate and female spikelets spicate at the base of the males or borne in a separate inflorescence. The Rottboellieae bear spikelets that lack awns and are usually present in pairs, with one member of a pair being sessile and fertile and the other pedicellate and barren. Awns are present in the Euandropogoneae in which spikelets are usually borne in pairs or groups of three (Bentham 1878).

<==Andropogoneae [Andropogineae]
    |--Sorghinae M99
    |    |--Sorghum MR01
    |    `--Dichanthium M99
    |--Mayadeae B78
    |    |--Chionachne B78
    |    |    |--C. barbata [=Coix barbata; incl. Coix arundinacea (preoc.), Coix koenigii] B78
    |    |    |--C. cyathopoda [=Sclerachne cyathopoda] B78
    |    |    `--C. hubbardiana LK14
    |    `--Zea B78
    |         |--Z. diploperennis W92
    |         `--Z. mays Linnaeus 1753 CD07
    |              |--Z. m. ssp. mays GPWG01
    |              |--Z. m. ssp. mexicana GPWG01
    |              `--Z. m. ssp. parviglumis KSM06
    |--Saccharinae M99
    |    |--Eulalia M99
    |    |    |--E. annua LK14
    |    |    |--E. aurea M99
    |    |    |--E. fastigiata KYK07
    |    |    |--E. mackinlayi LK14
    |    |    |--E. phaeothrix S03
    |    |    `--E. trispicata S03
    |    `--Saccharum GPWG01
    |--Rottboellieae B78
    |    |--Manisuris granularis B78
    |    |--Hemarthria B78
    |    |    |--H. compressa [incl. H. uncinata] B78
    |    |    `--H. fasciculata B78
    |    |--Elionurus B78
    |    |    |--E. candidus S06
    |    |    |--E. citreus [=Andropogon citreus] B78
    |    |    |--E. muticus RJ11
    |    |    `--E. viridulus Hackel in Stuckert 1906 S06
    |    |--Ophiurus B78
    |    |    |--O. corymbosus [=Rottboellia corymbosa] B78
    |    |    |    |--O. c. var. corymbosus B78
    |    |    |    `--O. c. var. pubescens B78
    |    |    |--O. exaltatus LK14
    |    |    `--O. tongcalingii C78
    |    `--Rottboellia S06
    |         |--R. cochinchinensis B00a
    |         |--R. compressa S06
    |         |    |--R. c. var. compressa S06
    |         |    `--R. c. var. fasciculata S06
    |         |--R. exaltata B78
    |         |--R. formosa T08
    |         |--R. muricata [=Coelorhachis muricata; incl. R. glandulosa] B78
    |         `--R. ophiuroides [incl. Andropogon rottboellioides, Ischaemum rottboellioides] B78
    `--Euandropogoneae B78
         |--Ischaemum B78
         |--Pollinia B78
         |--Andropogon B78
         |--Chrysopogon B78
         |--Apluda mutica B78, S03
         |--Cymbopogon B78
         |--Heteropogon B78
         |    |--H. insignis B78
         |    `--H. triticeus B00b [=Andropogon triticeus B78]
         |--Dimeria B78
         |    |--D. acinaciformis B78
         |    |--D. ornithopoda S03
         |    `--D. tenera [incl. D. psilobasis] B78
         |--Arthraxon [incl. Batratherum] B78
         |    |--A. ciliare [incl. Andropogon echinatus, Batratherum echinatum, A. submuticus, B. submuticum ms] B78
         |    |    |--A. c. var. ciliare B78
         |    |    `--A. c. var. tenellus B78
         |    `--A. quartinianus S03
         |--Schizachyrium B78
         |    |--S. cirratum H93
         |    |--S. crinizonatum LK14
         |    |--S. fragile LK14 [=Andropogon fragilis B78]
         |    |--S. mitchelliana LK14
         |    |--S. pachyarthron LK14
         |    |--S. perplexum B00a
         |    `--S. pseudeulalia LK14
         |--Imperata B78
         |    |--I. arundinacea S06
         |    |    |--I. a. var. arundinacea CA26
         |    |    |--I. a. var. condensata S06
         |    |    `--I. a. var. koenigii CA26
         |    |--I. brasiliensis RJ11
         |    |--I. brevifolia H93
         |    |--I. cheesemanii Hack. 1903 C06
         |    |--I. cylindrica S03 [=Lagurus cylindricus S06]
         |    `--I. exaltata C06
         `--Anthistiria B78
              |--A. avenacea [incl. A. basisericea] B78
              |--A. ciliata [incl. A. australis, A. caespitosa, A. cuspidata] B78
              |--A. flosculosa B78
              |--A. frondosa B78
              |--A. gigantea [=*Androscepia gigantea] B78
              |--A. imberbis C06
              `--A. membranacea [incl. Iseilema mitchellii] B78
                   |--A. m. var. membranacea B78
                   `--A. m. var. trichopus B78

Andropogoneae incertae sedis:
  Miscanthus GPWG01
    |--M. floridulus C78
    |--M. japonicus GPWG01
    |--M. nepalensis S03
    |--M. purpureus S00
    |--M. sinensis GPWG01
    |    |--M. s. var. sinensis GPWG01
    |    `--M. s. var. gracillimus GPWG01
    `--M. transmorrisonensis WL10
  Trachypogon montufari (see below for synonymy) S06
  Sorghastrum V72
    |--S. nutans BB01
    `--S. setosum RJ11
  Euchlaena V72
    |--E. mexicana V72
    `--E. perennis D81

Nomen nudum: Chionachne wightii ms B78

Trachypogon montufari [=Andropogon montufari; incl. T. plumosus (Nees) O. K. 1898, A. secundus, T. polymorphus var. montufari subvar. secundus] S06

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BB01] Bauer, R., D. Begerow, A. Nagler & F. Oberwinkler. 2001. The Georgefischeriales: a phylogenetic hypothesis. Mycological Research 105 (4): 416–424.

[B78] Bentham, G. 1878. Flora Australiensis: A description of the plants of the Australian Territory vol. 7. Roxburghiaceae to Filices. L. Reeve & Co.: London.

[B00a] Braby, M. F. 2000a. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 1. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[B00b] Braby, M. F. 2000b. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1–E44.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[C78] Clunie, N. M. U. 1978. The vegetation. In: Womersley, J. S. (ed.) Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 1 pp. 1–11. Melbourne University Press: Carlton South (Australia).

[CA26] Cockayne, L., & H. H. Allan. 1926. Notes on New Zealand floristic botany, including descriptions of new species, &c. (No. 5). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 48–72.

[D81] Day, D. 1981. The Doomsday Book of Animals: A unique natural history of three hundred vanished species. Ebury Press: London.

[GPWG01] Grass Phylogeny Working Group. 2001. Phylogeny and subfamilial classification of the grasses (Poaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 88 (3): 373–457.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[KYK07] Khan, M. R., P. S. Yadava & A. Kikim. 2007. Additions to the flora of Manipur. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 215–218.

[KSM06] King, R. C., W. D. Stansfield & P. K. Mulligan. 2006. A Dictionary of Genetics 7th ed. Oxford University Press.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

[MR01] Morton, J. B., & D. Redecker. 2001. Two new families of Glomales, Archaeosporaceae and Paraglomaceae, with two new genera Archaeospora and Paraglomus, based on concordant molecular and morphological characters. Mycologia 93 (1): 181–195.

[RJ11] Rising, J. D., A. Jaramillo, J. L. Copete, P. G. Ryan & S. C. Madge. 2011. Family Emberizidae (buntings and New World sparrows). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 428–683. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[S00] Siddiqi, M. R. 2000. Tylenchida: Parasites of plants and insects 2nd ed. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[S03] Singh, J. N. 2003. Grasses and their hydro-edaphic characteristics in the grassland habitat of Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve, Tamil Nadu. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 143–164.

[S06] Stuckert, T. 1906. Segunda contribuci├│n al conocimiento de las gramin├íceas Argentinas. Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires, serie 3, 6: 409–555.

[T08] Turner, F. 1908. Notes and exhibits. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 344.

[V72] Voss, E. G. 1972. Michigan Flora. Part I. Gymnosperms and Monocots. Cranbrook Institute of Science and University of Michigan Herbarium.

[WL10] Wang, C.-L., F.-C. Lin, Y.-C. Chiu & H.-T. Shih. 2010. Species of Frankliniella Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) from the Asian-Pacific area. Zoological Studies 49 (6): 824–838.

[W92] Wilson, E. O. 1992. The Diversity of Life. Harvard University Press: Belknap (USA).

Last updated: 4 January 2022.

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