Green-lipped mussels Perna canaliculus, from here.

Belongs within: Pteriomorphia.
Contains: Brachidontes, Mytilus, Modiolus, Lithophaga.

The Mytilidae are the mussels, a family of originally epifaunal, byssally-attached bivalves. Members of the subfamily Lithophaginae have become borers into their rock substrate. Free-living species are commonly nestling, forming distinct colonies. The beak of the shell is at the anterior end in Mytilinae but slightly behind the anterior in Modiolinae.

Characters (from Cox et al. 1969): Equivalve, inequilateral, beaks prosogyre, near anterior end, outer layer of shell consisting of fine radially oriented needles, inner layer commonly pearly; ligament opisthodetic, elongate, deep-set, supported by nymphae and connected with valves by calcified resilial ridge which continues to dorsal margin; anterior margin growing over posterior margin below beaks, or radially sculptured lunule is bent inward; hinge margins smooth or with dysodont teeth before, or before and behind ligament; surface usually divided into anterior, median and posterior areas with varying sculpture or color. Anterior adductor small, absent in some, posterior adductor confluent with posterior retractors. Prodissoconch with provinculum, persisting in some species, some with short internal resilium; pallial line simple or with shallow posterior concavity; periostracum usually strong, commonly hirsute; byssiferous.

    |--Mytilinae G88
    |    |--Mytilus PV06
    |    `--Limnoperna G88
    |--Crenella Brown 1827 [Crenellinae] S98
    |    |--*C. decussata (Montagu 1808) [=Mytilus decussatus] S98
    |    |--C. cedrensis Stanton 1920 S98
    |    |--C. elegantula Meek & Hayden 1861 S98
    |    |--C. radians (Suter 1908) S98
    |    `--C. stantoni Finlay 1927 [=C. elongata Stanton 1920 non Hutton 1873] F27b
    |--Modiolinae H00
    |    |--Modiolus PV06
    |    `--Perna Adams & Adams 1858 H00
    |         |--P. perna [=Mya perna; incl. *P. magellanica] P61
    |         |--P. attenuata Reeve 1858 H09
    |         |--P. canaliculus (Gmelin 1791) P61 [=Mytilus (Chloromya) canaliculus F27a]
    |         |--P. lentiginosa Reeve 1858 H09
    |         `--P. viridis YIT03
    `--Lithophaginae CS04
         |--Adula H00
         |--Lithophaga TTP89
         |--Amygdalum F27a
         |    |--A. beddomei Iredale 1924 MG-H11
         |    `--A. watsoni Smith 1895 MG-H11
         |--Zelithophaga Finlay 1927 F27a
         |    |--*Z. truncata (Gray 1843) P61 [=Lithodomus truncatus P61, Lithophaga truncata F27a]
         |    `--Z. nelsoniana [=Lithophaga nelsoniana] F27a
         `--Inoperna Conrad in Kerr 1875 [incl. Pharomytilus Rollier 1914-1915] H00
              |--*I. carolinensis Conrad in Kerr 1875 [=Modiolus (Inoperna) carolinensis] H00
              |--I. lilliputensis Hodges 2000 H00
              `--I. plicata Sowerby 1819 [=Mytilus plicatus, *Pharomytilus plicatus] H00

Mytilidae incertae sedis:
  Geukensia demissa GW02
    |--G. d. demissa DK89
    `--G. d. granosissima Sowerby 1914 DK89
  Brachidontes F27a
  Aulacomya F27a
    |--*A. magellanica (Lamarck 1819) P61, F27a [=Mytilus magellanicus P61]
    |--A. ater (Molina 1782) GO78
    `--A. maoriana (Iredale 1915) P61 [=Mytilus (Aulacomya) maorianus F27a, Brachyodontes maorianus F27a]
  Trichomya Ihering 1924 F27a
    |--T. hirsuta (Lamarck 1819) F27a, H09 [=Mytilus hirsutus F27a, Brachyodontes hirsutus H09]
    |--T. huttoni [=Mytilus huttoni] F27a
    |--T. rostrata [=Mytilus rostratus] F27a
    `--T. torquata (Marshall 1918) [=Mytilus torquatus] F27a
  Musculus M54
    |--M. costulatus BBB-S95
    |--M. cumingianus M54
    |--M. elongatus (Hutton 1873) [=Crenella elongata] F27b
    |--M. impactus W27
    `--M. marmoratus [=Modiolaria marmorata] BK77
  Crenomytilus grayanus PV06
  Solamen Iredale 1924 DK08
    `--S. (Exosiperna Iredale 1929) DK08
         `--S. globularis (Tate 1886) [=Crenella globularis] DK08
  Musculista senhousia (Benson in Cantor 1842) HJ08
  Botula BW09
    |--B. fusca (Gmelin 1791) BW09
    `--B. silicula (Lamarck 1819) BW09
  Septifer Recluz 1848 P61
    `--*S. bilocularis (Linnaeus 1758) [=Mytilus bilocularis] P61
  Manticula Waterhouse 1960 [=Maoria Wilckens 1927 non Castelnau 1867] W60
    `--‘Mytilus’ trechmanni Waterhouse 1960 (see below for synonymy) W60
  Stavelia Gray 1858 W60
    `--S. horrida Récluz 1852 WMJ09 [=Mytilus horridus H09]
  Falcimytilus Cox 1937 W60
  Dreissensia caspia Eichw. 1855 S01
  Ryenella Fleming 1959 P61
    `--*R. impacta (Hermann 1782) [=Mytilus impactus] P61
  Gregariella Monterosato 1884 P61 [incl. Trichomusculus Iredale 1924 P61, F27a]
    |--*G. sulcata [=Modiolus sulcatus] P61
    |--G. barbata (Reeve 1858) P61 (see below for synonymy)
    `--G. petagnae BBB-S95
  Dacrydium (Quendreda Iredale 1936) P61
    |--D. (*Q.) fabale P61
    `--D. (Q.) pelseneeri Hedley 1906 P61
  Sinomytilus G88
  Xenostrobus G88
    |--X. pulex HS01
    `--X. securis HS01

Gregariella barbata (Reeve 1858) P61 [=Lithodomus barbatus H09, Modiolaria barbata F27a, *Trichomusculus barbatus F27a]

‘Mytilus’ trechmanni Waterhouse 1960 [incl. Myt. mirabilis Trechmann 1918 non Gervillea mirabilis Lepsius 1878, Myt. problematicus Zittel 1864 non Schlotheim 1820, *Manticula problematica, Myalina (*Maoria) problematica] W60

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1–159.

[BBB-S95] Boubezari, K., G. Bitar & D. Bellan-Santini. 1995. Structure et organisation de trois moulières (Mytilus galloprovincialis et Perna perna) de la région d’Alger. Mésogée 54: 63–72.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[CS04] Carter, J. G., & G. D. Stanley Jr. 2004. Late Triassic gastrochaenid and lithophaginid borings (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from Nevada (USA) and Austria. Journal of Paleontology 78 (1): 230–234.

Cox, L. R., N. D. Newell et al. 1969. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt N. Bivalvia vol. 1. The Geological Society of America, Inc. and The University of Kansas.

[DK08] Darragh, T. A., & G. W. Kendrick. 2008. Silicified Eocene molluscs from the Lower Murchison district, Southern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (3): 217–246.

[DK89] Deaton, L. E., & K. D. Kempler. 1989. Occurrence of the ribbed mussel, Geukensia demissa, on the book gills of a horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. Nautilus 103 (1): 42.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[GO78] Gallardo S., C., & C. Osorio R. 1978. Hiatella solida (Sowerby, 1834) (Mollusca: Hiatellidae) on Concholepas concholepas (Bruguière, 1789) and other substrates. Veliger 20 (3): 274–278.

[GW02] Giribet, G., & W. Wheeler. 2002. On bivalve phylogeny: a high-level analysis of the Bivalvia (Mollusca) based on combined morphology and DNA sequence data. Invertebrate Biology 121 (4): 271–324.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[H00] Hodges, P. 2000. The Early Jurassic Bivalvia from the Hettangian and Lower Sinemurian of south-west Britain. Part. 1. Monograph of the Paleontographical Society 614: 1–64.

[HJ08] Huisman, J. M., D. S. Jones, F. E. Wells & T. Burton. 2008. Introduced marine biota in Western Australian waters. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 1–44.

[M54] Macpherson, J. H. 1954. Molluscs (sea shells and snails). In: Willis, J. M. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 55–63. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[PV06] Pimenova, E. A., & A. A. Varaksin. 2006. Putative nitroxidergic cells in the digestive system of some mytilids (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Mytilidae) revealed by NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry. Malacologia 49 (1): 61–77.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[S98] Stilwell, J. D. 1998. Late Cretaceous Mollusca from the Chatham Islands, New Zealand. Alcheringa 22 (1): 29–85.

[S01] Sturany, R. 1901. Csigák és kagylók [Mollusken]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 69–74. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[TTP89] Tan Tiu, A., & R. S. Prezant. 1989. Shell tubules in Corbicula fluminea (Bivalvia: Heterodonta): functional morphology and microstructure. Nautilus 103 (1): 36–39.

[W27] Waghorn, R. J. 1927. The geology of the Ruakokopatuna Valley, southern Wairarapa. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 226–234.

[W60] Waterhouse, J. B. 1960. Some Carnian pelecypods from New Zealand. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 425–442.

[WMJ09] Wells, F. E., M. Mulligan & D. S. Jones. 2009. Prevention of introduction of species brought into Geraldton Harbour, Western Australia, by the dredge Leonardo da Vinci. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (2): 153–158.

[YIT03] Yap, C. K., A. Ismail & S. G. Tan. 2003. Effects of total soft tissue and shell thickness on the accumulation of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis. Russian Journal of Marine Biology 29 (5): 323–327.

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