Inoperna plicata, from here.

Belongs within: Pteriomorphia.
Contains: Brachidontes, Crenella, Modiolaria, Mytilus, Modiolus, Perna, Lithophaga.

The Mytilidae are the mussels, a family of originally epifaunal, byssally-attached bivalves. Identifiable examples of this family are known in the fossil record from the Devonian (Skelton & Benton 1993). Free-living species are commonly nestling, forming distinct colonies. The beak of the shell is at the anterior end in Mytilinae but slightly behind the anterior in Modiolinae. Members of the subfamily Lithophaginae have become borers into their rock substrate. The Pacific genus Adula is characterised by an elongate, cylindrical shell with the beak behind the anterior margin and a thickened anterodorsal margin.

    |--+--Mytilaster PC11
    |  |    |--M. lineatus CS77
    |  |    `--M. monterosatoi P75
    |  `--+--Musculista senhousia (Benson in Cantor 1842) PC11, HJ08
    |     `--Mytilinae G88
    |          |--Mytilus PC11
    |          `--Limnoperna fortunei G88, M96
    `--+--Modiolinae H00
       |    |--Modiolus PC11
       |    |--Modiolula phaseolina PC11
       |    `--Perna H00
       `--Lithophaginae CS04
            |--Lithophaga PC11
            |--Amygdalum F26
            |    |--A. beddomei Iredale 1924 MG-H11
            |    `--A. watsoni Smith 1895 MG-H11
            |--Zelithophaga Finlay 1927 F26
            |    |--*Z. truncata (Gray 1843) P61 [=Lithodomus truncatus P61, Lithophaga truncata F26]
            |    `--Z. nelsoniana [=Lithophaga nelsoniana] F26
            |--Adula H00
            |    |--A. cinnamomea [=Lithodomus cinnamomeus, L. cinnamominus] C64
            |    |--A. falcata [incl. A. gruneri] C64
            |    `--A. stylina Carpenter 1864 C64
            `--Inoperna Conrad in Kerr 1875 [incl. Pharomytilus Rollier 1914-1915] H00
                 |--*I. carolinensis Conrad in Kerr 1875 [=Modiolus (Inoperna) carolinensis] H00
                 |--I. lilliputensis Hodges 2000 H00
                 `--I. plicata Sowerby 1819 [=Mytilus plicatus, *Pharomytilus plicatus] H00

Mytilidae incertae sedis:
  Geukensia demissa GW02
    |--G. d. demissa DK89
    `--G. d. granosissima Sowerby 1914 DK89
  Brachidontes F26
  Aulacomya Moerch 1853 P61
    |--*A. magellanica (Lamarck 1819) P61, F26 [=Mytilus magellanicus P61]
    |--A. ater (Molina 1782) GO78
    `--A. maoriana (Iredale 1915) P61 [=Mytilus (Aulacomya) maorianus F26, Brachyodontes maorianus F26]
  Trichomya Ihering 1924 F26
    |--T. hirsuta (Lamarck 1819) F26, H09 [=Mytilus hirsutus F26, Brachyodontes hirsutus H09]
    |--T. huttoni [=Mytilus huttoni] F26
    |--T. rostrata [=Mytilus rostratus] F26
    `--T. torquata (Marshall 1918) [=Mytilus torquatus] F26
  Musculus M54
    |--M. costulatus BBB-S95
    |--M. cumingianus M54
    |--M. cupreus (Gould 1861) XZ10
    |--M. elongatus (Hutton 1873) [=Crenella elongata] F27
    |--M. impactus W26
    |--M. lateralis M63
    |--M. marmoratus [=Modiolaria marmorata] BK77
    |--M. nigra (Gray 1824) XZ10
    `--M. senhousia (Benson 1842) XZ10
  Crenomytilus grayanus (Dunker 1853) VKK10
  Solamen Iredale 1924 DK08
    |  i. s.: S. spectabilis (Adams 1862) XZ10
    `--S. (Exosiperna Iredale 1929) DK08
         `--S. globularis (Tate 1886) [=Crenella globularis] DK08
  Botula BW09
    |--B. fusca (Gmelin 1791) BW09
    `--B. silicula (Lamarck 1819) BW09
  Septifer Recluz 1848 P61
    |--*S. bilocularis (Linnaeus 1758) [=Mytilus bilocularis] P61
    |--S. bifurcatus [=Mytilus bifurcatus] C64
    |--S. cumingianus [=Mytilus cumingianus] C64
    |--S. curvirostris G31
    `--‘Mytilus’ mutabilis Gould 1861 C64
  Stavelia Gray 1858 W60
    `--S. horrida Récluz 1852 WMJ09 [=Mytilus horridus H09]
  Falcimytilus Cox 1937 W60
  Ryenella Fleming 1959 P61
    `--*R. impacta (Hermann 1782) [=Mytilus impactus] P61
  Gregariella Monterosato 1884 P61 [incl. Trichomusculus Iredale 1924 P61, F26]
    |--*G. sulcata [=Modiolus sulcatus] P61
    |--G. barbata (Reeve 1858) P61 (see below for synonymy)
    `--G. petagnae BBB-S95
  Dacrydium P61
    |  i. s.: D. vitreum HG98
    `--D. (Quendreda Iredale 1936) P61
         |--D. (*Q.) fabale P61
         `--D. (Q.) pelseneeri Hedley 1906 P61
  Sinomytilus G88
  Xenostrobus G88
    |--X. atrata (Lischke 1871) XZ10
    |--X. pulex HS01
    `--X. securis HS01
  Arcuatula C96
  Choromytilus JB12
  Phthonia JB12
  Pletomytilus JB12
  Promytilus JB12
  Mytilops precedens (Hall 1870) SB93
  Crenella S98
  Modiolaria C64

Gregariella barbata (Reeve 1858) P61 [=Lithodomus barbatus H09, Modiolaria barbata F26, *Trichomusculus barbatus F26]

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[CS04] Carter, J. G., & G. D. Stanley Jr. 2004. Late Triassic gastrochaenid and lithophaginid borings (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from Nevada (USA) and Austria. Journal of Paleontology 78 (1): 230–234.

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[DK08] Darragh, T. A., & G. W. Kendrick. 2008. Silicified Eocene molluscs from the Lower Murchison district, Southern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (3): 217–246.

[DK89] Deaton, L. E., & K. D. Kempler. 1989. Occurrence of the ribbed mussel, Geukensia demissa, on the book gills of a horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. Nautilus 103 (1): 42.

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[GO78] Gallardo S., C., & C. Osorio R. 1978. Hiatella solida (Sowerby, 1834) (Mollusca: Hiatellidae) on Concholepas concholepas (Bruguière, 1789) and other substrates. Veliger 20 (3): 274–278.

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[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[H00] Hodges, P. 2000. The Early Jurassic Bivalvia from the Hettangian and Lower Sinemurian of south-west Britain. Part. 1. Monograph of the Paleontographical Society 614: 1–64.

[HG98] Holte, B., & B. Gulliksen. 1998. Common macrofaunal dominant species in the sediments of some north Norwegian and Svalbard glacial fjords. Polar Biology 19: 375–382.

[HJ08] Huisman, J. M., D. S. Jones, F. E. Wells & T. Burton. 2008. Introduced marine biota in Western Australian waters. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 1–44.

[JB12] Johnson, M. E., & B. G. Baarli. 2012. Development of intertidal biotas through Phanerozoic time. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 63–128. Springer.

[M54] Macpherson, J. H. 1954. Molluscs (sea shells and snails). In: Willis, J. M. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 55–63. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

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[M63] Merrill, A. S. 1963. Mollusks from a buoy off Georgia. Nautilus 77 (2): 68–70.

[M96] Morton, B. 1996. The evolutionary history of the Bivalvia. In: Taylor, J. D. (ed.) Origin and Evolutionary Radiation of the Mollusca pp. 337–359. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[PC11] Plazzi, F., A. Ceregato, M. Taviani & M. Passamonti. 2011. A molecular phylogeny of bivalve mollusks: ancient radiations and divergences as revealed by mitochondrial genes. PLoS One 6 (11): e27147.

[P75] Por, F. D. 1975. Pleistocene pulsation and preadaptation of biotas in Mediterranean seas: consequences for Lessepsian migration. Systematic Zoology 24 (1): 72–78.

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[SB93] Skelton, P. W., & M. J. Benton. 1993. Mollusca: Rostroconchia, Scaphopoda and Bivalvia. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 237–263. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S98] Stilwell, J. D. 1998. Late Cretaceous Mollusca from the Chatham Islands, New Zealand. Alcheringa 22 (1): 29–85.

[VKK10] Vekhova, E. E., M. I. Kusaykin & K. V. Kiselev. 2010. The phytoplankton contribution to the diet of some mussel species (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from different parts of the Sea of Japan. In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of "Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean", 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 104–108. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

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[W60] Waterhouse, J. B. 1960. Some Carnian pelecypods from New Zealand. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (3): 425–442.

[WMJ09] Wells, F. E., M. Mulligan & D. S. Jones. 2009. Prevention of introduction of species brought into Geraldton Harbour, Western Australia, by the dredge Leonardo da Vinci. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (2): 153–158.

Last updated: 6 March 2022.

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